Gene Symbol: Sftpa1
Description: surfactant associated protein A1
Alias: SP-A, Sftp-1, Sftp1, pulmonary surfactant-associated protein A, PSAP, PSP-A, surfactant pulmonary associated protein A1
Species: mouse
Products:     Sftpa1

Top Publications

  1. Motwani M, White R, Guo N, Dowler L, Tauber A, Sastry K. Mouse surfactant protein-D. cDNA cloning, characterization, and gene localization to chromosome 14. J Immunol. 1995;155:5671-7 pubmed
    ..The mouse SP-D gene (Sftp4) has been localized to chromosome 14 (to a region syntenic to human chromosome 10), closely linked to the genes for other collagenous lectins, mannose-binding protein-A (MbI1), and SP-A (Sftp1).
  2. Tenner A. Membrane receptors for soluble defense collagens. Curr Opin Immunol. 1999;11:34-41 pubmed
  3. Chabot S, Salez L, McCormack F, Touqui L, Chignard M. Surfactant protein A inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced in vivo production of interleukin-10 by mononuclear phagocytes during lung inflammation. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2003;28:347-53 pubmed
    ..In summary, this study demonstrates for the first time an in vivo inhibitory role of SP-A on the anti-inflammatory activity of MP, through inhibition of IL-10 production. ..
  4. Atochina E, Beck J, Preston A, Haczku A, Tomer Y, Scanlon S, et al. Enhanced lung injury and delayed clearance of Pneumocystis carinii in surfactant protein A-deficient mice: attenuation of cytokine responses and reactive oxygen-nitrogen species. Infect Immun. 2004;72:6002-11 pubmed
    ..These data support the concept that SP-A is a local effector molecule in the lung host defense against P. carinii in vivo...
  5. LeVine A, Hartshorn K, Elliott J, Whitsett J, Korfhagen T. Absence of SP-A modulates innate and adaptive defense responses to pulmonary influenza infection. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002;282:L563-72 pubmed
    ..Because the airway is the usual portal of entry for IAV and other respiratory pathogens, SP-A is likely to play a role in innate defense and adaptive immune responses to IAV. ..
  6. Cole T, Blendy J, Monaghan A, Krieglstein K, Schmid W, Aguzzi A, et al. Targeted disruption of the glucocorticoid receptor gene blocks adrenergic chromaffin cell development and severely retards lung maturation. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1608-21 pubmed
  7. Bird A, Flecknoe S, Tan K, Olsson P, Antony N, Mantamadiotis T, et al. cAMP response element binding protein is required for differentiation of respiratory epithelium during murine development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17843 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate a crucial role for Creb1 activity for the development and differentiation of the conducting and distal lung epithelium. ..
  8. Sender V, Moulakakis C, Stamme C. Pulmonary surfactant protein A enhances endolysosomal trafficking in alveolar macrophages through regulation of Rab7. J Immunol. 2011;186:2397-411 pubmed publisher
    ..The data demonstrate a novel role for SP-A in modulating endolysosomal trafficking via Rab7 in primary AM and define biochemical pathways involved. ..
  9. Ledford J, Lo B, Kislan M, Thomas J, Evans K, Cain D, et al. Surfactant protein-A inhibits mycoplasma-induced dendritic cell maturation through regulation of HMGB-1 cytokine activity. J Immunol. 2010;185:3884-94 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae-induced DC maturation by regulating HMGB-1 cytokine activity. ..

More Information


  1. Ramadas R, Wu L, LeVine A. Surfactant protein A enhances production of secretory leukoprotease inhibitor and protects it from cleavage by matrix metalloproteinases. J Immunol. 2009;182:1560-7 pubmed
    ..The collagen-like region of SP-A conferred protection of SLPI against MMP mediated cleavage. SP-A plays an important role in the lung during bacterial infection regulating protease and antiprotease activity. ..
  2. Zhang S, McCormack F, Levesque R, O Toole G, Lau G. The flagellum of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is required for resistance to clearance by surfactant protein A. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e564 pubmed
    ..Thus, the flagellum of P. aeruginosa plays an indirect but important role resisting SP-A-mediated clearance and membrane permeabilization. ..
  3. Okubo T, Knoepfler P, Eisenman R, Hogan B. Nmyc plays an essential role during lung development as a dosage-sensitive regulator of progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. Development. 2005;132:1363-74 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which Nmyc is essential in the developing lung for maintaining a distal population of undifferentiated, proliferating progenitor cells. ..
  4. Prince L, Okoh V, Moninger T, Matalon S. Lipopolysaccharide increases alveolar type II cell number in fetal mouse lungs through Toll-like receptor 4 and NF-kappaB. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004;287:L999-1006 pubmed
    ..These data implicate an important signaling mechanism in chorioamnionitis and suggest the TLR4/NF-kappaB pathway can influence lung development. ..
  5. Alcorn J, Wright J. Surfactant protein A inhibits alveolar macrophage cytokine production by CD14-independent pathway. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004;286:L129-36 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that SP-A inhibits inflammatory cytokine production in a CD14-independent manner and also by mechanisms independent of the LPS signaling pathway. ..
  6. Tebar M, Destree O, de Vree W, Ten Have Opbroek A. Expression of Tcf/Lef and sFrp and localization of beta-catenin in the developing mouse lung. Mech Dev. 2001;109:437-40 pubmed
    ..5 onward), and adjacent mesenchyme. Tcf1, Lef1, Tcf3, Tcf4, sFrp1, sFrp2 and sFrp4 were also expressed in the PE, AE, and adjacent mesenchyme in specific spatio-temporal patterns. ..
  7. Linke M, Harris C, Korfhagen T, McCormack F, Ashbaugh A, Steele P, et al. Immunosuppressed surfactant protein A-deficient mice have increased susceptibility to Pneumocystis carinii infection. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:943-52 pubmed
    ..carinii to the macrophages. Thus, SP-A plays a role in host defense against P. carinii in vivo, perhaps by functioning as a nonimmune opsonin. ..
  8. Borron P, McIntosh J, Korfhagen T, Whitsett J, Taylor J, Wright J. Surfactant-associated protein A inhibits LPS-induced cytokine and nitric oxide production in vivo. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2000;278:L840-7 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that endogenous or exogenous SP-A inhibits pulmonary LPS-induced cytokine and nitric oxide production in vivo...
  9. Clark J, Wert S, Bachurski C, Stahlman M, Stripp B, Weaver T, et al. Targeted disruption of the surfactant protein B gene disrupts surfactant homeostasis, causing respiratory failure in newborn mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:7794-8 pubmed
    ..Ablation of the SP-B gene disrupts the routing, storage, and function of surfactant phospholipids and proteins, causing respiratory failure at birth. ..
  10. Awasthi S, Magee D, Coalson J. Coccidioides posadasii infection alters the expression of pulmonary surfactant proteins (SP)-A and SP-D. Respir Res. 2004;5:28 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the C. posadasii infection perturbs the pulmonary SP-A, SP-D, and phospholipids, potentially enabling the disease progression and promoting fungal dissemination. ..
  11. Levine A, Bruno M, Huelsman K, Ross G, Whitsett J, Korfhagen T. Surfactant protein A-deficient mice are susceptible to group B streptococcal infection. J Immunol. 1997;158:4336-40 pubmed
    ..SP-A plays an important role in vivo, enhancing clearance of GBS from the lung and inhibiting systemic dissemination of the organism. ..
  12. Wong C, Akiyama J, Allen L, Hawgood S. Localization and developmental expression of surfactant proteins D and A in the respiratory tract of the mouse. Pediatr Res. 1996;39:930-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, these studies provide the first documentation that, unlike SP-A, SP-D is synthesized not only in the lung but also in submucosal glands of the trachea. ..
  13. Mason R, Greene K, Voelker D. Surfactant protein A and surfactant protein D in health and disease. Am J Physiol. 1998;275:L1-13 pubmed
    ..The current challenges are characterization of the three-dimensional crystal structure of SP-A and SP-D, molecular cloning of their receptors, and determination of their precise physiological functions in vivo. ..
  14. Haque R, Umstead T, Ponnuru P, Guo X, Hawgood S, Phelps D, et al. Role of surfactant protein-A (SP-A) in lung injury in response to acute ozone exposure of SP-A deficient mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007;220:72-82 pubmed
    ..In summary, several aspects of the inflammatory response differ between WT and KO mice. These in vivo findings appear to implicate SP-A in regulating inflammation and limiting epithelial damage in response to ozone exposure. ..
  15. Korfhagen T, Bruno M, Ross G, Huelsman K, Ikegami M, Jobe A, et al. Altered surfactant function and structure in SP-A gene targeted mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:9594-9 pubmed
    ..A null mutation of the murine SP-A gene interferes with the formation of tubular myelin without detectably altering postnatal survival or pulmonary function. ..
  16. George C, Goss K, Meyerholz D, Lamb F, Snyder J. Surfactant-associated protein A provides critical immunoprotection in neonatal mice. Infect Immun. 2008;76:380-90 pubmed
  17. Mucenski M, Wert S, Nation J, Loudy D, Huelsken J, Birchmeier W, et al. beta-Catenin is required for specification of proximal/distal cell fate during lung morphogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:40231-8 pubmed
    ..These observations establish, for the first time, both the sites and timing of specification of the proximal and peripheral airways in the developing lung, and that beta-catenin is one of the essential components of this specification. ..
  18. O Brien K, Alberich Jorda M, Yadav N, Kocher O, Diruscio A, Ebralidze A, et al. CARM1 is required for proper control of proliferation and differentiation of pulmonary epithelial cells. Development. 2010;137:2147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate for the first time that CARM1 inhibits pulmonary cell proliferation and is required for proper differentiation of alveolar cells. ..
  19. Pastva A, Mukherjee S, Giamberardino C, Hsia B, Lo B, Sempowski G, et al. Lung effector memory and activated CD4+ T cells display enhanced proliferation in surfactant protein A-deficient mice during allergen-mediated inflammation. J Immunol. 2011;186:2842-9 pubmed publisher
  20. Linke M, Ashbaugh A, Koch J, Tanaka R, Walzer P. Surfactant protein A limits Pneumocystis murina infection in immunosuppressed C3H/HeN mice and modulates host response during infection. Microbes Infect. 2005;7:748-59 pubmed
    ..These data support a protective role for SP-A in host defense against Pneumocystis and suggest that the effects of SP-A on the host response vary based on the intensity of the infection. ..
  21. Wan H, Xu Y, Ikegami M, Stahlman M, Kaestner K, Ang S, et al. Foxa2 is required for transition to air breathing at birth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14449-54 pubmed
    ..Foxa2 regulates a complex pulmonary program of epithelial cell maturation required for transition to air breathing at birth. ..
  22. Hickman Davis J, Gibbs Erwin J, Lindsey J, Matalon S. Role of surfactant protein-A in nitric oxide production and mycoplasma killing in congenic C57BL/6 mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;30:319-25 pubmed
    ..e., suppression of NO in the absence of bacteria and increased NO in the presence of bacteria. These data indicate that the contribution of SP-A to mycoplasma killing may be limited to lower doses of pathogens...
  23. McCormack F, Gibbons R, Ward S, Kuzmenko A, Wu H, Deepe G. Macrophage-independent fungicidal action of the pulmonary collectins. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:36250-6 pubmed
  24. Sever Chroneos Z, Krupa A, Davis J, Hasan M, Yang C, Szeliga J, et al. Surfactant protein A (SP-A)-mediated clearance of Staphylococcus aureus involves binding of SP-A to the staphylococcal adhesin eap and the macrophage receptors SP-A receptor 210 and scavenger receptor class A. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:4854-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, alveolar macrophage SP-R210(L) mediates recognition and killing of SP-A-opsonized S. aureus in vivo, coordinating inflammatory responses and resolution of S. aureus pneumonia through interaction with SR-A. ..
  25. Gil M, McCormack F, LeVine A. Surfactant protein A modulates cell surface expression of CR3 on alveolar macrophages and enhances CR3-mediated phagocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:7495-504 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that SP-A modulates the cell surface expression of CR3 on alveolar macrophages, binds to CR3, and enhances CR3-mediated phagocytosis. ..
  26. Korfhagen T, Levine A, Whitsett J. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) gene targeted mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1408:296-302 pubmed
    ..These studies of SP-A (-/-) mice demonstrate that SP-A has an important role in the innate immune system of the lung in vivo. ..
  27. DeFelice M, Silberschmidt D, DiLauro R, Xu Y, Wert S, Weaver T, et al. TTF-1 phosphorylation is required for peripheral lung morphogenesis, perinatal survival, and tissue-specific gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35574-83 pubmed
    ..Direct and indirect transcriptional targets of TTF-1 were identified that are likely to play important roles in lung formation and function. ..
  28. Zhang M, Liu X, Zhang Y, Zhao J. Loss of betaarrestin1 and betaarrestin2 contributes to pulmonary hypoplasia and neonatal lethality in mice. Dev Biol. 2010;339:407-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our study demonstrates that betaarrestin1 and betaarrestin2 collaborate in embryonic development processes for epithelial pneumocyte differentiation and lung maturation. ..
  29. Grad I, McKee T, Ludwig S, Hoyle G, Ruiz P, Wurst W, et al. The Hsp90 cochaperone p23 is essential for perinatal survival. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:8976-83 pubmed
    ..Thus, p23 contributes a nonredundant, temporally restricted, and tissue-specific function during mouse development. ..
  30. Bellusci S, Furuta Y, Rush M, Henderson R, Winnier G, Hogan B. Involvement of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in mouse embryonic lung growth and morphogenesis. Development. 1997;124:53-63 pubmed
    ..By contrast, Ptc is clearly upregulated in the transgenic lung. These results thus establish a role for SHH in lung morphogenesis, and suggest that SHH normally regulates lung mesenchymal cell proliferation in vivo. ..
  31. Levine A, Kurak K, Wright J, Watford W, Bruno M, Ross G, et al. Surfactant protein-A binds group B streptococcus enhancing phagocytosis and clearance from lungs of surfactant protein-A-deficient mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 1999;20:279-86 pubmed
    ..SP-A plays an important role in GBS clearance in vivo, mediated in part by binding to and enhancing GBS phagocytosis and by increasing SO production by alveolar macrophages. ..
  32. Ledford J, Goto H, Potts E, Degan S, Chu H, Voelker D, et al. SP-A preserves airway homeostasis during Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in mice. J Immunol. 2009;182:7818-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that SP-A is vital to preserving lung homeostasis and host defense to this clinically relevant strain of Mp by curtailing inflammatory cell recruitment and limiting an overzealous TNF-alpha response...
  33. Okubo T, Hogan B. Hyperactive Wnt signaling changes the developmental potential of embryonic lung endoderm. J Biol. 2004;3:11 pubmed
    ..We discuss the relevance of our findings to the poorly understood pathological condition of intestinal metaplasia in humans. ..
  34. Li G, Siddiqui J, Hendry M, Akiyama J, Edmondson J, Brown C, et al. Surfactant protein-A--deficient mice display an exaggerated early inflammatory response to a beta-resistant strain of influenza A virus. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2002;26:277-82 pubmed
    ..Because the recovery of virus from lung homogenates on Days 2 and 6 after inoculation was comparable in -/- and +/+ mice, we speculate SP-A reduces IAV virulence independently of direct viral neutralization. ..
  35. Lu M, Yang H, Zhang L, Shu W, Blair D, Morrisey E. The bone morphogenic protein antagonist gremlin regulates proximal-distal patterning of the lung. Dev Dyn. 2001;222:667-80 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that gremlin plays an important role in lung morphogenesis by regulating the proximal-distal patterning of the lung during development. ..
  36. Li M, Sarkisian M, Mehal W, Rakic P, Flavell R. Phosphatidylserine receptor is required for clearance of apoptotic cells. Science. 2003;302:1560-3 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate a critical role for PSR in early stages of mammalian organogenesis and suggest that this receptor may be involved in respiratory distress syndromes and congenital brain malformations. ..
  37. Gram K, Yang S, Steiner M, Somani A, Hawgood S, Blazar B, et al. Simultaneous absence of surfactant proteins A and D increases lung inflammation and injury after allogeneic HSCT in mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;296:L167-75 pubmed publisher
    ..After HSCT, both SP-A and SP-D exhibited anti-inflammatory lung-protective functions that were not completely redundant in vivo. ..
  38. Gao L, Rabbitt E, Condon J, Renthal N, Johnston J, Mitsche M, et al. Steroid receptor coactivators 1 and 2 mediate fetal-to-maternal signaling that initiates parturition. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:2808-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal that fetal lungs produce signals to initiate labor when mature and that SRC-1/-2-dependent production of SP-A and PAF is crucial for this process. ..
  39. Gupta N, Manevich Y, Kazi A, Tao J, Fisher A, Bates S. Identification and characterization of p63 (CKAP4/ERGIC-63/CLIMP-63), a surfactant protein A binding protein, on type II pneumocytes. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006;291:L436-46 pubmed
    ..p63 colocalized with SP-A in early endosomes. Thus p63 closely interacts with SP-A and may play a role in the trafficking or the biological function of the surfactant protein. ..
  40. Li Q, Wang H, Chepelev I, Zhu Q, Wei G, Zhao K, et al. Stage-dependent and locus-specific role of histone demethylase Jumonji D3 (JMJD3) in the embryonic stages of lung development. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004524 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides molecular insights into the mechanisms by which Jmjd3 regulates target gene expression in the embryonic stages of lung development. ..
  41. Sutherland K, Combs T, Edwards P, Van Winkle L. Site-specific differences in gene expression of secreted proteins in the mouse lung: comparison of methods to show differences by location. J Histochem Cytochem. 2010;58:1107-19 pubmed publisher
  42. Tissir F, Bar I, Jossin Y, De Backer O, Goffinet A. Protocadherin Celsr3 is crucial in axonal tract development. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:451-7 pubmed
    ..Celsr3 and Fzd3 are expressed together during brain development and may act in synergy. Thus, a genetic pathway analogous to the one that controls PCP is key in the development of the axonal blueprint. ..
  43. Benlhabib H, Mendelson C. Epigenetic regulation of surfactant protein A gene (SP-A) expression in fetal lung reveals a critical role for Suv39h methyltransferases during development and hypoxia. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:1949-58 pubmed publisher
  44. Yadav A, Chaudhari H, Shah P, Madan T. Expression and localization of collectins in feto-maternal tissues of human first trimester spontaneous abortion and abortion prone mouse model. Immunobiology. 2016;221:260-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Human and murine data together indicate that SP-A, SP-D and MBL are synthesised in early gestational tissues, and may contribute to regulation of immune response at the feto-maternal interface during pregnancy. ..
  45. Tanahashi H, Tian Q, Hara Y, Sakagami H, Endo S, Suzuki T. Polyhydramnios in Lrp4 knockout mice with bilateral kidney agenesis: Defects in the pathways of amniotic fluid clearance. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20241 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that amniotic fluid removal plays an essential role in regulating the amniotic fluid volume. ..
  46. Salez L, Balloy V, van Rooijen N, Lebastard M, Touqui L, McCormack F, et al. Surfactant protein A suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-10 production by murine macrophages. J Immunol. 2001;166:6376-82 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this study highlights for the first time the inhibitory role of surfactant protein A in the anti-inflammatory activity of macrophages through inhibition of IL-10 production. ..
  47. Gowdy K, Cardona D, Nugent J, Giamberardino C, Thomas J, Mukherjee S, et al. Novel role for surfactant protein A in gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease. J Immunol. 2012;188:4897-905 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of these studies demonstrate that SP-A protects against the development of GI GVHD and establishes a role for SP-A in regulating the immune response in the GI tract. ..
  48. Lekkala M, LeVine A, Linke M, Crouch E, Linders B, Brummer E, et al. Effect of lung surfactant collectins on bronchoalveolar macrophage interaction with Blastomyces dermatitidis: inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha production by surfactant protein D. Infect Immun. 2006;74:4549-56 pubmed
    ..dermatitidis may utilize BALF constituents, such as SP-D, to blunt the host defensive reaction; this effect could reduce inflammation and tissue destruction but could also promote disease...
  49. Haddad I, Milla C, Yang S, Panoskaltsis Mortari A, Hawgood S, Lacey D, et al. Surfactant protein A is a required mediator of keratinocyte growth factor after experimental marrow transplantation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003;285:L602-10 pubmed
    ..We conclude that endogenous baseline SP-A levels and optimal upregulation of SP-A are required for the anti-inflammatory protective effects of KGF after allogeneic transplantation. ..
  50. Kevill K, Bhandari V, Kettunen M, Leng L, Fan J, Mizue Y, et al. A role for macrophage migration inhibitory factor in the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. J Immunol. 2008;180:601-8 pubmed
    ..03). This study demonstrates for the first time a role for MIF in lung maturation, and supports a protective role for MIF in newborn lung disease. ..
  51. Hawgood S, Ochs M, Jung A, Akiyama J, Allen L, Brown C, et al. Sequential targeted deficiency of SP-A and -D leads to progressive alveolar lipoproteinosis and emphysema. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002;283:L1002-10 pubmed
    ..These changes qualitatively resemble the lung pathology seen in SP-D-deficient mice. These doubly deficient mice will be useful in dissecting the potential overlap in function between SP-A and SP-D in host defense. ..
  52. Wuenschell C, Sunday M, Singh G, Minoo P, Slavkin H, Warburton D. Embryonic mouse lung epithelial progenitor cells co-express immunohistochemical markers of diverse mature cell lineages. J Histochem Cytochem. 1996;44:113-23 pubmed
    ..This transient expression in progenitor cells of gene products characteristic of diverse differentiated cell types may reflect an underlying mechanism of gene regulation. ..
  53. Ridsdale R, Post M. Surfactant lipid synthesis and lamellar body formation in glycogen-laden type II cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2004;287:L743-51 pubmed
  54. Ketko A, Lin C, Moore B, LeVine A. Surfactant protein A binds flagellin enhancing phagocytosis and IL-1? production. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e82680 pubmed publisher
    ..SP-A plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PA infection in the lung by binding flagellin, enhancing its phagocytosis and modifying the macrophage inflammatory response. ..
  55. Shibata Y, Abe S, Inoue S, Takabatake N, Igarashi A, Takeishi Y, et al. Altered expression of antimicrobial molecules in cigarette smoke-exposed emphysematous mice lungs. Respirology. 2008;13:1061-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Altered expression of antimicrobial molecules in this mouse model does not explain the impaired host defence against respiratory microbes seen in patients with COPD. ..
  56. Mimura N, Hamada H, Kashio M, Jin H, Toyama Y, Kimura K, et al. Aberrant quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum impairs the biosynthesis of pulmonary surfactant in mice expressing mutant BiP. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:1475-85 pubmed
    ..Moreover, failure of this adaptive mechanism may increase pulmonary susceptibility to environmental insults, such as hypoxia and ischemia, ultimately leading to neonatal respiratory failure. ..
  57. Bhatti F, Ball G, Hobbs R, Linens A, Munzar S, Akram R, et al. Pulmonary surfactant protein a is expressed in mouse retina by Müller cells and impacts neovascularization in oxygen-induced retinopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;56:232-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Retinal and Müller cell SP-A is up-regulated via the NFκB pathway and up-regulated during the hypoxia phase of OIR. Absence of SP-A attenuates NV in the OIR model. Thus SP-A may be a marker of retinal inflammation during NV. ..
  58. Hickman Davis J, Wang Z, Fierro Perez G, Chess P, Page G, Matalon S, et al. Surfactant dysfunction in SP-A-/- and iNOS-/- mice with mycoplasma infection. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007;36:103-13 pubmed
    ..In addition, SP-A deficiency modifies surfactant aggregate content and lowers the inhibition resistance of LA surfactant in vitro compared with congenic normal mice. ..
  59. Yu H, Wessels A, Chen J, Phelps A, Oatis J, Tint G, et al. Late gestational lung hypoplasia in a mouse model of the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. BMC Dev Biol. 2004;4:1 pubmed
    ..The molecular mechanism of impaired lung development associated with sterol deficiency by Dhcr7 loss is still unknown, but these results do not support the involvement of dysregulated Shh-Patched-Gli pathway in causing this defect. ..
  60. Minoo P, Su G, Drum H, Bringas P, Kimura S. Defects in tracheoesophageal and lung morphogenesis in Nkx2.1(-/-) mouse embryos. Dev Biol. 1999;209:60-71 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a critical role for Nkx2.1 in morphogenesis of the anterior foregut and the lung as well as in differentiation of pulmonary epithelial cells. ..
  61. Lawson P, Reid K. The roles of surfactant proteins A and D in innate immunity. Immunol Rev. 2000;173:66-78 pubmed
    ..Linkage and polymorphism analysis is explaining the role these genes may play in lung diseases and infection. ..
  62. Gidvani M, Theisen E, Leduc R, George C. Maternal surfactant protein A influences the immunoprotective properties of milk in a murine model. Pediatr Res. 2014;76:135-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the SP-A null genotype decreased pup survival during a nonhygienic environmental exposure. Maternal SP-A impacts milk sIgA and cytokine content, and is associated with improved newborn health. ..
  63. Woik N, Dietz C, Schäker K, Kroll J. Kelch-like ECT2-interacting protein KLEIP regulates late-stage pulmonary maturation via Hif-2? in mice. Dis Model Mech. 2014;7:683-92 pubmed publisher
  64. Yu W, Li X, Eliason S, Romero Bustillos M, Ries R, Cao H, et al. Irx1 regulates dental outer enamel epithelial and lung alveolar type II epithelial differentiation. Dev Biol. 2017;429:44-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, Irx1 regulates Foxj1 and Sox9 to control cell differentiation during development. ..
  65. Li A, Hardy R, Stoner S, Tuckermann J, Seibel M, Zhou H. Deletion of mesenchymal glucocorticoid receptor attenuates embryonic lung development and abdominal wall closure. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63578 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, altered glucocorticoid signaling in the mesenchyme attenuates normal lung epithelial differentiation...
  66. Mukherjee S, Giamberardino C, Thomas J, Evans K, Goto H, Ledford J, et al. Surfactant protein A integrates activation signal strength to differentially modulate T cell proliferation. J Immunol. 2012;188:957-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects are intrinsic to the global T cell population and are manifested in vivo in naive as well as memory phenotype T cells. Thus, SP-A appears to integrate signal thresholds to control T cell proliferation. ..
  67. Xu B, Chen C, Chen H, Zheng S, Bringas P, Xu M, et al. Smad1 and its target gene Wif1 coordinate BMP and Wnt signaling activities to regulate fetal lung development. Development. 2011;138:925-35 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a novel regulatory loop of Bmp4-Smad1-Wif1-Wnt/?-catenin in coordinating BMP and Wnt pathways to control fetal lung development. ..
  68. Silva D, Venihaki M, Guo W, Lopez M. Igf2 deficiency results in delayed lung development at the end of gestation. Endocrinology. 2006;147:5584-91 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that Igf2 plays an important role in the development of the fetal lung and may affect fetal lung maturation by regulating maternal factors, such as corticosterone levels, during pregnancy. ..
  69. Giannoni E, Sawa T, Allen L, Wiener Kronish J, Hawgood S. Surfactant proteins A and D enhance pulmonary clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006;34:704-10 pubmed
    ..aeruginosa by stimulating phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages and by modulating the inflammatory response in the lungs. These findings also show that the functions of SP-A and SP-D are not completely redundant in vivo. ..
  70. Fernandez M, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Jenkins N, Morgan R. The genetic origin of mouse annexin VIII. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:8-14 pubmed
    ..Despite their synteny, the combined proximity and segregation of these three annexins diminished the likelihood that they were mutual gene duplication products. ..
  71. Jain D, Dodia C, Bates S, Hawgood S, Poulain F, Fisher A. SP-A is necessary for increased clearance of alveolar DPPC with hyperventilation or secretagogues. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003;284:L759-65 pubmed
    ..Thus SP-A is necessary for lungs to respond to hyperventilation or secretagogues with increased DPPC uptake and also modulates the PLA(2)-mediated degradation of internalized DPPC. ..
  72. Conkright J, Na C, Weaver T. Overexpression of surfactant protein-C mature peptide causes neonatal lethality in transgenic mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2002;26:85-90 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that elevated expression of SP-C(24-57)HA in type II cells resulted in aggregation of SP-C in the early secretory pathway, leading to cytotoxicity and, ultimately, altered lung development. ..