Gene Symbol: Scx
Description: scleraxis
Alias: BB114693, Bhlha41, Scl, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor scleraxis
Species: mouse
Products:     Scx

Top Publications

  1. Blitz E, Viukov S, Sharir A, Shwartz Y, Galloway J, Pryce B, et al. Bone ridge patterning during musculoskeletal assembly is mediated through SCX regulation of Bmp4 at the tendon-skeleton junction. Dev Cell. 2009;17:861-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We then show that the transcription factor scleraxis (SCX) regulates Bmp4 in tendon cells at their insertion site...
  2. Pryce B, Brent A, Murchison N, Tabin C, Schweitzer R. Generation of transgenic tendon reporters, ScxGFP and ScxAP, using regulatory elements of the scleraxis gene. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1677-82 pubmed fluorescent protein (GFP), each expressed using regulatory elements derived from the endogenous Scleraxis (Scx) locus...
  3. Brent A, Schweitzer R, Tabin C. A somitic compartment of tendon progenitors. Cell. 2003;113:235-48 pubmed
    ..Scleraxis (Scx), a bHLH transcription factor, marks this somitic tendon progenitor population at its inception, and is ..
  4. Bonnin M, Laclef C, Blaise R, Eloy Trinquet S, Relaix F, Maire P, et al. Six1 is not involved in limb tendon development, but is expressed in limb connective tissue under Shh regulation. Mech Dev. 2005;122:573-85 pubmed
    ..Finally, we found that the posterior domain of Six1 in connective tissue is adjacent to that of the secreted factor Sonic hedgehog and that Sonic hedgehog is necessary and sufficient for Six1 expression in posterior limb regions. ..
  5. Berthet E, Chen C, Butcher K, Schneider R, Alliston T, Amirtharajah M. Smad3 binds Scleraxis and Mohawk and regulates tendon matrix organization. J Orthop Res. 2013;31:1475-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results indicate a central role for Smad3 in normal tendon formation and in the maintenance of mature tendon. ..
  6. Lejard V, Brideau G, Blais F, Salingcarnboriboon R, Wagner G, Roehrl M, et al. Scleraxis and NFATc regulate the expression of the pro-alpha1(I) collagen gene in tendon fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:17665-75 pubmed
    ..Gel shift experiments showed that scleraxis (SCX), which is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is expressed selectively in tendon fibroblasts, binds ..
  7. Brown D, Wagner D, Li X, Richardson J, Olson E. Dual role of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor scleraxis in mesoderm formation and chondrogenesis during mouse embryogenesis. Development. 1999;126:4317-29 pubmed
    ..These results reveal an essential early role for scleraxis in mesoderm formation, as well as a later role in formation of somite-derived chondrogenic lineages, and suggest that scleraxis target genes mediate these processes. ..
  8. Murchison N, Price B, Conner D, Keene D, Olson E, Tabin C, et al. Regulation of tendon differentiation by scleraxis distinguishes force-transmitting tendons from muscle-anchoring tendons. Development. 2007;134:2697-708 pubmed
    The scleraxis (Scx) gene, encoding a bHLH transcription factor, is expressed in the progenitors and cells of all tendon tissues. To determine Scx function, we produced a mutant null allele...
  9. Furumatsu T, Shukunami C, Amemiya Kudo M, Shimano H, Ozaki T. Scleraxis and E47 cooperatively regulate the Sox9-dependent transcription. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2010;42:148-56 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, a tissue-specific basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Scleraxis (Scx) regulates the differentiation of tendon and ligament progenitors...

More Information


  1. Katz T, Singh M, Degenhardt K, RIVERA FELICIANO J, Johnson R, Epstein J, et al. Distinct compartments of the proepicardial organ give rise to coronary vascular endothelial cells. Dev Cell. 2012;22:639-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we resolve this conflict by identifying two proepicardial markers, Scleraxis (Scx) and Semaphorin3D (Sema3D), that genetically delineate heretofore uncharacterized proepicardial subcompartments...
  2. Levay A, Peacock J, Lu Y, Koch M, Hinton R, Kadler K, et al. Scleraxis is required for cell lineage differentiation and extracellular matrix remodeling during murine heart valve formation in vivo. Circ Res. 2008;103:948-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Scleraxis (scx) is a transcription factor required for tendon cell differentiation and matrix organization...
  3. Espira L, Lamoureux L, Jones S, Gerard R, Dixon I, Czubryt M. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor scleraxis regulates fibroblast collagen synthesis. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;47:188-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support a novel and previously unknown role for scleraxis in the regulation of collagen gene expression in the heart, including in post-infarct scar formation. ..
  4. Grifone R, Jarry T, Dandonneau M, Grenier J, Duprez D, Kelly R. Properties of branchiomeric and somite-derived muscle development in Tbx1 mutant embryos. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:3071-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The critical requirement for Tbx1 during muscle development is thus in the robust onset of myogenic specification in pharyngeal mesoderm. ..
  5. Abe H, Tominaga T, Matsubara T, Abe N, Kishi S, Nagai K, et al. Scleraxis modulates bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)-Smad1 protein-smooth muscle ?-actin (SMA) signal transduction in diabetic nephropathy. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:20430-42 pubmed publisher
    ..As a direct regulating molecule for SMA, we identified and characterized scleraxis (Scx) as a new phenotype modulator in advanced glycation end product (AGE)-exposed MCs...
  6. Kimura W, Machii M, Xue X, Sultana N, Hikosaka K, Sharkar M, et al. Irxl1 mutant mice show reduced tendon differentiation and no patterning defects in musculoskeletal system development. Genesis. 2011;49:2-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Irxl1 is required for the tendon differentiation but dispensable for the patterning of the musculoskeletal system in development. ..
  7. Wang L, Bresee C, Jiang H, He W, Ren T, Schweitzer R, et al. Scleraxis is required for differentiation of the stapedius and tensor tympani tendons of the middle ear. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2011;12:407-21 pubmed publisher
    Scleraxis (Scx) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor expressed in tendon and ligament progenitor cells and the differentiated cells within these connective tissues in the axial and appendicular skeleton...
  8. Maeda T, Sakabe T, Sunaga A, Sakai K, Rivera A, Keene D, et al. Conversion of mechanical force into TGF-?-mediated biochemical signals. Curr Biol. 2011;21:933-41 pubmed publisher
    ..levels, mechanical forces maintain, through TGF-?/Smad2/3-mediated signaling, the expression of Scleraxis (Scx), a transcription factor specific for tenocytes and their progenitors...
  9. Cserjesi P, Brown D, Ligon K, Lyons G, Copeland N, Gilbert D, et al. Scleraxis: a basic helix-loop-helix protein that prefigures skeletal formation during mouse embryogenesis. Development. 1995;121:1099-110 pubmed
    ..The expression pattern, DNA-binding properties and transcriptional activity of scleraxis suggest that it is a regulator of gene expression within mesenchymal cell lineages that give rise to cartilage and connective tissue. ..
  10. Schweitzer R, Chyung J, Murtaugh L, Brent A, Rosen V, Olson E, et al. Analysis of the tendon cell fate using Scleraxis, a specific marker for tendons and ligaments. Development. 2001;128:3855-66 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that the endogenous expression of noggin within the condensing digit cartilage contributes to the induction of distal tendons. ..
  11. McKenzie J, Buettmann E, Abraham A, Gardner M, Silva M, Killian M. Loss of scleraxis in mice leads to geometric and structural changes in cortical bone, as well as asymmetry in fracture healing. FASEB J. 2017;31:882-892 pubmed publisher
    Scleraxis (Scx) is a known regulator of tendon development, and recent work has identified the role of Scx in bone modeling. However, the role of Scx in fracture healing has not yet been explored...
  12. Han D, Zhao H, Parada C, Hacia J, Bringas P, Chai Y. A TGF?-Smad4-Fgf6 signaling cascade controls myogenic differentiation and myoblast fusion during tongue development. Development. 2012;139:1640-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our study demonstrates that a TGF?-Smad4-Fgf6 signaling cascade plays a crucial role in myogenic cell fate determination and lineage progression during tongue myogenesis...
  13. Nakamichi R, Ito Y, Inui M, Onizuka N, Kayama T, Kataoka K, et al. Mohawk promotes the maintenance and regeneration of the outer annulus fibrosus of intervertebral discs. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12503 pubmed publisher
    ..Mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing Mkx promote functional AF regeneration in a mouse AF defect model, with abundant collagen fibril formation. Our results indicate a therapeutic strategy for AF regeneration. ..
  14. Muir T, Wilson Rawls J, Stevens J, Rawls A, Schweitzer R, Kang C, et al. Integration of CREB and bHLH transcriptional signaling pathways through direct heterodimerization of the proteins: role in muscle and testis development. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:1637-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The observations suggest a mechanism for direct cross-talk between cAMP induced and bHLH controlled cellular differentiation...
  15. Yasui K, Zhang S, Uemura M, Aizawa S, Ueki T. Expression of a twist-related gene, Bbtwist, during the development of a lancelet species and its relation to cephalochordate anterior structures. Dev Biol. 1998;195:49-59 pubmed
  16. Kutchuk L, Laitala A, Soueid Bomgarten S, Shentzer P, Rosendahl A, Eilot S, et al. Muscle composition is regulated by a Lox-TGFβ feedback loop. Development. 2015;142:983-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results allow a better understanding of diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, in which LOX and TGFβ signaling have been implicated and the balance between muscle constituents is disturbed. ..
  17. Anderson D, Arredondo J, Hahn K, Valente G, Martin J, Wilson Rawls J, et al. Mohawk is a novel homeobox gene expressed in the developing mouse embryo. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:792-801 pubmed
    ..Finally, Mohawk was detectable in the tips of the ureteric buds in the metanephric kidneys and the testis cords of the male gonad. Together, these observations suggest that Mohawk is an important regulator of vertebrate development. ..
  18. Takahashi Y, Takagi A, Hiraoka S, Koseki H, Kanno J, Rawls A, et al. Transcription factors Mesp2 and Paraxis have critical roles in axial musculoskeletal formation. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:1484-94 pubmed
    ..The present data strongly suggest that patterning events by bHLH-type transcription factors have deep impacts on regional chondrogenic and myogenic differentiation of somitic cells, mainly by means of control of Pax genes. ..
  19. Leitges M, Neidhardt L, Haenig B, Herrmann B, Kispert A. The paired homeobox gene Uncx4.1 specifies pedicles, transverse processes and proximal ribs of the vertebral column. Development. 2000;127:2259-67 pubmed
    ..The mesenchymal anlagen for these elements are formed initially, but condensation and chondrogenesis do not occur. Hence, Uncx4.1 is required for the maintenance and differentiation of particular elements of the axial skeleton. ..
  20. Dreyer S, Naruse T, Morello R, Zabel B, Winterpacht A, Johnson R, et al. Lmx1b expression during joint and tendon formation: localization and evaluation of potential downstream targets. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;4:397-405 pubmed
    ..sFrp2, Six1 and Six2 exhibited asymmetrical dorsoventral expression and in Lmx1b KO mice, this asymmetry is lost; however, none were solely restricted to or excluded from dorsal Lmx1b expressing tissues. ..
  21. Mella S, Soula C, Morello D, Crozatier M, Vincent A. Expression patterns of the coe/ebf transcription factor genes during chicken and mouse limb development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2004;4:537-42 pubmed
    ..They thus represent useful new markers for studying vertebrate limb development, particularly formation of ligaments. ..
  22. Ito Y, Toriuchi N, Yoshitaka T, Ueno Kudoh H, Sato T, Yokoyama S, et al. The Mohawk homeobox gene is a critical regulator of tendon differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10538-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Mkx plays a critical role in tendon differentiation by regulating type I collagen production in tendon cells. ..
  23. Killian M, Thomopoulos S. Scleraxis is required for the development of a functional tendon enthesis. FASEB J. 2016;30:301-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to determine how the transcription factor Scleraxis (Scx) influences the development and maturation of the tendon-to-bone attachment (enthesis)...
  24. Eloy Trinquet S, Wang H, Edom Vovard F, Duprez D. Fgf signaling components are associated with muscles and tendons during limb development. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:1195-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our data showed that Fgf4 positively regulated Pea3, Sprouty1, and 2 expression in chick limb mesenchyme. ..
  25. Blitz E, Sharir A, Akiyama H, Zelzer E. Tendon-bone attachment unit is formed modularly by a distinct pool of Scx- and Sox9-positive progenitors. Development. 2013;140:2680-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Fields of Sox9-positive, Scx-positive, Col2a1-negative cells identified at presumable eminence sites confirm the identity and specificity of ..
  26. Ashe A, Butterfield N, Town L, Courtney A, Cooper A, Ferguson C, et al. Mutations in mouse Ift144 model the craniofacial, limb and rib defects in skeletal ciliopathies. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:1808-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This allelic series of mouse mutants provides a unique opportunity to uncover the underlying mechanistic basis of this intriguing subset of ciliopathies. ..
  27. Dear T, Hainzl T, Follo M, Nehls M, Wilmore H, Matena K, et al. Identification of interaction partners for the basic-helix-loop-helix protein E47. Oncogene. 1997;14:891-8 pubmed
    ..A cDNA encoding part of the nucleolin protein sequence interacted with the E47 basic-helix-loop-helix only when fused to a beta-galactosidase tag. ..
  28. Grenier J, Teillet M, Grifone R, Kelly R, Duprez D. Relationship between neural crest cells and cranial mesoderm during head muscle development. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4381 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our results show that interactions between muscles and tendons during craniofacial development are similar to those observed in the limb, despite the distinct embryological origin of these cell types in the head. ..
  29. Kuijper S, Beverdam A, Kroon C, Brouwer A, Candille S, Barsh G, et al. Genetics of shoulder girdle formation: roles of Tbx15 and aristaless-like genes. Development. 2005;132:1601-10 pubmed
  30. McDermott A, Gustafsson M, Elsam T, Hui C, Emerson C, Borycki A. Gli2 and Gli3 have redundant and context-dependent function in skeletal muscle formation. Development. 2005;132:345-57 pubmed
    ..Together, our data demonstrate both positive and negative regulatory functions for Gli2 and Gli3 in the control of Myf5 activation in the epaxial muscle progenitor cells and in dorsoventral and mediolateral patterning of the somite. ..
  31. Zhu X, Yuan X, Wang M, Fang Y, Liu Y, Zhang X, et al. A Wnt/Notch/Pax7 signaling network supports tissue integrity in tongue development. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:9409-9419 pubmed publisher
  32. Perez A, Perrine M, Brainard N, Vogel K. Scleraxis (Scx) directs lacZ expression in tendon of transgenic mice. Mech Dev. 2003;120:1153-63 pubmed
    ..When an additional 160 bp were deleted so that only approximately 200 bp of 5' flanking region was directing lacZ expression, no beta-galactosidase activity was observed in the tendons. ..
  33. Barnette D, VandeKopple M, Wu Y, Willoughby D, Lincoln J. RNA-seq analysis to identify novel roles of scleraxis during embryonic mouse heart valve remodeling. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e101425 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcription factor Scleraxis (Scx) is detected in mouse valves from E15...
  34. Liu W, Watson S, Lan Y, Keene D, Ovitt C, Liu H, et al. The atypical homeodomain transcription factor Mohawk controls tendon morphogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:4797-807 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to defects in tendon collagen fibrillogenesis, Mkx(-/-) mutant mice exhibited abnormal tendon sheaths. These results identify Mkx as an important regulator of tendon development. ..
  35. Hasson P, Del Buono J, Logan M. Tbx5 is dispensable for forelimb outgrowth. Development. 2007;134:85-92 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate a short temporal requirement for Tbx5 during early limb development, and suggest that the defects found in HOS arise as a result of disrupted TBX5 function during this narrow time window. ..
  36. Burgess R, Rawls A, Brown D, Bradley A, Olson E. Requirement of the paraxis gene for somite formation and musculoskeletal patterning. Nature. 1996;384:570-3 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that paraxis regulates somite morphogenesis, and that the function of somites is to pattern the axial skeleton and skeletal muscles. ..
  37. Grifone R, Demignon J, Houbron C, Souil E, Niro C, Seller M, et al. Six1 and Six4 homeoproteins are required for Pax3 and Mrf expression during myogenesis in the mouse embryo. Development. 2005;132:2235-49 pubmed
    ..These results highlight the different roles played by Six proteins during skeletal myogenesis. ..
  38. Barnette D, Hulin A, Ahmed A, Colige A, Azhar M, Lincoln J. Tgf?-Smad and MAPK signaling mediate scleraxis and proteoglycan expression in heart valves. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2013;65:137-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the clinical significance, the etiology of this phenotype is not known. Scleraxis (Scx) is a basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor that we previously showed to be required for establishing heart ..
  39. Inman K, Purcell P, Kume T, Trainor P. Interaction between Foxc1 and Fgf8 during mammalian jaw patterning and in the pathogenesis of syngnathia. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003949 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our work provides a framework for understanding jaw patterning and the etiology of other congenital craniofacial anomalies, including temporomandibular joint agenesis. ..
  40. Brent A, Braun T, Tabin C. Genetic analysis of interactions between the somitic muscle, cartilage and tendon cell lineages during mouse development. Development. 2005;132:515-28 pubmed
  41. Zhu X, Zhu H, Zhang L, Huang S, Cao J, Ma G, et al. Wls-mediated Wnts differentially regulate distal limb patterning and tissue morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2012;365:328-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a comprehensive view of the role of Wnts in limb patterning and tissue morphogenesis...
  42. Bagchi R, Roche P, Aroutiounova N, Espira L, Abrenica B, Schweitzer R, et al. The transcription factor scleraxis is a critical regulator of cardiac fibroblast phenotype. BMC Biol. 2016;14:21 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the key role of this phenotype conversion in fibrotic disease, the identification of such novel transcriptional regulators may yield new targets for therapies for fibrosis...
  43. Pingault V, Puliti A, Prehu M, Samadi A, Bondurand N, Goossens M. Human homology and candidate genes for the Dominant megacolon locus, a mouse model of Hirschsprung disease. Genomics. 1997;39:86-9 pubmed
    ..Three genes (Smstr3, Lgals1, and Pdgfb) are possible Dom candidates, as they do not recombine with the Dom mutation in a 252 Dom/+ animal backcross. ..
  44. Yamamoto M, Watt C, Schmidt R, Kuscuoglu U, Miesfeld R, Goldhamer D. Cloning and characterization of a novel MyoD enhancer-binding factor. Mech Dev. 2007;124:715-28 pubmed
  45. Bagchi R, Lin J, Wang R, Czubryt M. Regulation of fibronectin gene expression in cardiac fibroblasts by scleraxis. Cell Tissue Res. 2016;366:381-391 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate a novel and required role for scleraxis in the regulation of cardiac fibroblast fibronectin gene expression basally or in response to TGF?. ..
  46. McGlinn E, van Bueren K, Fiorenza S, Mo R, Poh A, Forrest A, et al. Pax9 and Jagged1 act downstream of Gli3 in vertebrate limb development. Mech Dev. 2005;122:1218-33 pubmed
    ..Our data have also revealed that perturbation of early patterning events within the Gli3(Xt/Xt) limb culminates in a specific delay of anterior chondrogenesis which is subsequently realised as extra digits. ..
  47. Bénazet J, Pignatti E, Nugent A, Unal E, Laurent F, Zeller R. Smad4 is required to induce digit ray primordia and to initiate the aggregation and differentiation of chondrogenic progenitors in mouse limb buds. Development. 2012;139:4250-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our analysis reveals that SMAD4 is required to initiate: (1) formation of the Sox9-positive digit ray primordia; and (2) aggregation and chondrogenic differentiation of all limb skeletal elements...
  48. Arao Y, Carpenter K, Hewitt S, Korach K. Estrogen down-regulation of the Scx gene is mediated by the opposing strand-overlapping gene Bop1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:4806-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Bop1 and Scx are a pair of bidirectional overlapping coding genes related to cellular proliferation and differentiation, ..
  49. HUANG A, Riordan T, Wang L, Eyal S, Zelzer E, Brigande J, et al. Repositioning forelimb superficialis muscles: tendon attachment and muscle activity enable active relocation of functional myofibers. Dev Cell. 2013;26:544-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the intrinsic FDB pattern represents the original tetrapod limb and that translocation of the muscles to form the FDS is a mammalian evolutionary addition. ..
  50. Parada C, Han D, Grimaldi A, Sarrión P, Park S, Pelikan R, et al. Disruption of the ERK/MAPK pathway in neural crest cells as a potential cause of Pierre Robin sequence. Development. 2015;142:3734-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the ERK pathway serves as a crucial point of convergence for multiple signaling pathways, our study will facilitate a better understanding of the molecular regulatory mechanisms of craniofacial development. ..
  51. Yamamoto Shiraishi Y, Kuroiwa A. Wnt and BMP signaling cooperate with Hox in the control of Six2 expression in limb tendon precursor. Dev Biol. 2013;377:363-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that autopodal Hox genes regulate Six2 expression in the autopodal tendon precursor in cooperation with the factors from cartilage and ectoderm. ..
  52. Asou Y, Nifuji A, Tsuji K, Shinomiya K, Olson E, Koopman P, et al. Coordinated expression of scleraxis and Sox9 genes during embryonic development of tendons and cartilage. J Orthop Res. 2002;20:827-33 pubmed
  53. Shukunami C, Takimoto A, Miura S, Nishizaki Y, Hiraki Y. Chondromodulin-I and tenomodulin are differentially expressed in the avascular mesenchyme during mouse and chick development. Cell Tissue Res. 2008;332:111-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, the expression domains of ChM-I and TeM during vertebrate development incorporate the typical avascular regions of the mesenchymal tissues. ..
  54. Liu Y, Nifuji A, Tamura M, Wozney J, Olson E, Noda M. Scleraxis messenger ribonucleic acid is expressed in C2C12 myoblasts and its level is down-regulated by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2). J Cell Biochem. 1997;67:66-74 pubmed
    ..mobility shift assay showed that the proteins in the crude nuclear extracts prepared from C2C12 cells bound to an Scx-E-box sequence, CATGTG, which is preferentially recognized by scleraxis...
  55. Eyal S, Blitz E, Shwartz Y, Akiyama H, Schweitzer R, Zelzer E. On the development of the patella. Development. 2015;142:1831-9 pubmed publisher
    ..level, we show that, similar to bone eminences, the patella is formed secondarily by a distinct pool of Sox9- and Scx-positive progenitor cells...
  56. Kardasinski M, Thum T. Cardiac fibroblasts on the fast track--scleraxis: from Achilles' heel to anti-fibrotic therapy. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;47:174-6 pubmed publisher
  57. Castets P, Maugenre S, Gartioux C, Rederstorff M, Krol A, Lescure A, et al. Selenoprotein N is dynamically expressed during mouse development and detected early in muscle precursors. BMC Dev Biol. 2009;9:46 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, its specific expression pattern could be related to the current hypothesis that selenoprotein N may regulate the activity of the ryanodine receptors. ..
  58. Burgess R, Cserjesi P, Ligon K, Olson E. Paraxis: a basic helix-loop-helix protein expressed in paraxial mesoderm and developing somites. Dev Biol. 1995;168:296-306 pubmed
  59. Dyment N, Liu C, Kazemi N, Aschbacher Smith L, Kenter K, Breidenbach A, et al. The paratenon contributes to scleraxis-expressing cells during patellar tendon healing. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e59944 pubmed publisher
    ..Normal adult patellar tendon consists of scleraxis-expressing (Scx) tendon fibroblasts situated among aligned collagen fibrils...
  60. Georg I, Barrionuevo F, Wiech T, Scherer G. Sox9 and Sox8 are required for basal lamina integrity of testis cords and for suppression of FOXL2 during embryonic testis development in mice. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:99 pubmed publisher
    ..This study shows that Sox9 and Sox8 maintain integrity of the basal lamina to prevent testis cord disintegration and that both factors actively suppress the ovarian program during early testis development. ..
  61. Hosokawa R, Oka K, Yamaza T, Iwata J, Urata M, Xu X, et al. TGF-beta mediated FGF10 signaling in cranial neural crest cells controls development of myogenic progenitor cells through tissue-tissue interactions during tongue morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2010;341:186-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The addition of FGF10 rescued the muscle cell number in Wnt1-Cre;Tgfbr2(flox/flox) mice. Thus, TGF-beta induced FGF10 signaling has a critical function in regulating tissue-tissue interaction during tongue skeletal muscle development. ..
  62. Liu C, Aschbacher Smith L, Barthelery N, Dyment N, Butler D, Wylie C. Spatial and temporal expression of molecular markers and cell signals during normal development of the mouse patellar tendon. Tissue Eng Part A. 2012;18:598-608 pubmed publisher
    ..These data will allow both the functional analysis of specific signaling pathways in tenocyte development and their application to tissue-engineering studies in vitro. ..
  63. Pryce B, Watson S, Murchison N, Staverosky J, Dünker N, Schweitzer R. Recruitment and maintenance of tendon progenitors by TGFbeta signaling are essential for tendon formation. Development. 2009;136:1351-61 pubmed publisher
  64. Salingcarnboriboon R, Yoshitake H, Tsuji K, Obinata M, Amagasa T, Nifuji A, et al. Establishment of tendon-derived cell lines exhibiting pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell-like property. Exp Cell Res. 2003;287:289-300 pubmed
    ..These observations indicated that the established tendon cell line possesses mesenchymal stem cell-like properties, suggesting the existence of mesenchymal stem cell in tendon tissue. ..
  65. Han A, Zhao H, Li J, Pelikan R, Chai Y. ALK5-mediated transforming growth factor ? signaling in neural crest cells controls craniofacial muscle development via tissue-tissue interactions. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:3120-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that CNCCs play critical roles in controlling craniofacial myogenic proliferation and differentiation through tissue-tissue interactions. ..
  66. Henderson D, Conway S, Copp A. Rib truncations and fusions in the Sp2H mouse reveal a role for Pax3 in specification of the ventro-lateral and posterior parts of the somite. Dev Biol. 1999;209:143-58 pubmed
    ..Our findings point to additional regulatory functions for the Pax3 transcription factor, apart from those already demonstrated for development of the neural tube, neural crest, and dermomyotome. ..
  67. Swinehart I, Schlientz A, Quintanilla C, Mortlock D, Wellik D. Hox11 genes are required for regional patterning and integration of muscle, tendon and bone. Development. 2013;140:4574-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Hox genes are not simply regulators of skeletal morphology as previously thought, but are key factors that regulate regional patterning and integration of the musculoskeletal system. ..
  68. Hall M, Murray C, Valdez M, Perantoni A. Mesoderm-specific Stat3 deletion affects expression of Sox9 yielding Sox9-dependent phenotypes. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006610 pubmed publisher
  69. Cesario J, Almaidhan A, Jeong J. Expression of forkhead box transcription factor genes Foxp1 and Foxp2 during jaw development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2016;20:111-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, we demonstrated for the first time that Foxp1 and Foxp2 are expressed during craniofacial development. Our data suggest that the Foxp genes may regulate development of the aboral and posterior regions of the jaw. ..
  70. Guo X, Day T, Jiang X, Garrett Beal L, Topol L, Yang Y. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is sufficient and necessary for synovial joint formation. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2404-17 pubmed
    ..Wnt4, Wnt14, and Wnt16 may play redundant roles in synovial joint induction by signaling through the beta-catenin-mediated canonical Wnt pathway. ..
  71. Mendias C, Gumucio J, Bakhurin K, Lynch E, Brooks S. Physiological loading of tendons induces scleraxis expression in epitenon fibroblasts. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:606-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice with a targeted inactivation of scleraxis (Scx(-/-)) fail to properly form limb tendons, but the role that scleraxis has in regulating the growth and adaptation ..
  72. Mendias C, Gumucio J, Davis M, Bromley C, Davis C, Brooks S. Transforming growth factor-beta induces skeletal muscle atrophy and fibrosis through the induction of atrogin-1 and scleraxis. Muscle Nerve. 2012;45:55-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide new insight into the effect of TGF-? on muscle contractility and the molecular mechanisms behind TGF-?-mediated muscle atrophy and fibrosis. ..
  73. Kouskoura T, El Fersioui Y, Angelini M, Graf D, Katsaros C, Chiquet M. Dislocated Tongue Muscle Attachment and Cleft Palate Formation. J Dent Res. 2016;95:453-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus propose that in Pierre Robin sequence, palatal shelf elevation is not impaired simply by physical obstruction by the tongue but by a specific developmental defect that leads to functional changes in tongue movements. ..
  74. Sugimoto Y, Takimoto A, Akiyama H, Kist R, Scherer G, Nakamura T, et al. Scx+/Sox9+ progenitors contribute to the establishment of the junction between cartilage and tendon/ligament. Development. 2013;140:2280-8 pubmed publisher
    SRY-box containing gene 9 (Sox9) and scleraxis (Scx) regulate cartilage and tendon formation, respectively...
  75. Mann Z, Chang W, Lee K, King K, Kelley M. Expression and function of scleraxis in the developing auditory system. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75521 pubmed publisher
    A study of genes expressed in the developing inner ear identified the bHLH transcription factor Scleraxis (Scx) in the developing cochlea...