Gene Symbol: Sall1
Description: spalt like transcription factor 1
Alias: Msal-3, sal-like protein 1, sal-3, sal-like 1, zinc finger protein Spalt-3
Species: mouse
Products:     Sall1

Top Publications

  1. Harrison S, Parrish M, Monaghan A. Sall3 is required for the terminal maturation of olfactory glomerular interneurons. J Comp Neurol. 2008;507:1780-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Sall3 is required for the terminal maturation of neurons destined for the glomerular layer. ..
  2. Yuri S, Fujimura S, Nimura K, Takeda N, Toyooka Y, Fujimura Y, et al. Sall4 is essential for stabilization, but not for pluripotency, of embryonic stem cells by repressing aberrant trophectoderm gene expression. Stem Cells. 2009;27:796-805 pubmed publisher
    ..Although Sall1, also a Sall family gene, is known to genetically interact with Sall4 in vivo, Sall1-null ES cells have no ..
  3. Inoue S, Inoue M, Fujimura S, Nishinakamura R. A mouse line expressing Sall1-driven inducible Cre recombinase in the kidney mesenchyme. Genesis. 2010;48:207-12 pubmed publisher
    b>Sall1 is expressed in the metanephric mesenchyme in the developing kidney, and mice deficient in Sall1 show kidney agenesis or dysgenesis...
  4. Sato A, Kishida S, Tanaka T, Kikuchi A, Kodama T, Asashima M, et al. Sall1, a causative gene for Townes-Brocks syndrome, enhances the canonical Wnt signaling by localizing to heterochromatin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;319:103-13 pubmed
    ..Mutations of human SALL1 cause the autosomal dominant disorder, Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS), and result in ear, limb, anal, renal, and ..
  5. Ott T, Parrish M, Bond K, Schwaeger Nickolenko A, Monaghan A. A new member of the spalt like zinc finger protein family, Msal-3, is expressed in the CNS and sites of epithelial/mesenchymal interaction. Mech Dev. 2001;101:203-7 pubmed
    ..Both genes are expressed from E7 in opposite gradients in primitive streak mesoderm. Subsequently their transcripts are localized to regions of mesenchyme/epithelial interaction in the palate, heart, limbs, anal and urogenital region. ..
  6. Kiefer S, Robbins L, Barina A, Zhang Z, Rauchman M. SALL1 truncated protein expression in Townes-Brocks syndrome leads to ectopic expression of downstream genes. Hum Mutat. 2008;29:1133-40 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in SALL1 lead to the dominant multiorgan congenital anomalies that define Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS)...
  7. Elling U, Klasen C, Eisenberger T, Anlag K, Treier M. Murine inner cell mass-derived lineages depend on Sall4 function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16319-24 pubmed
    ..These data establish Sall4 as an essential transcription factor required for the early development of inner cell mass-derived cell lineages. ..
  8. Buck A, Archangelo L, Dixkens C, Kohlhase J. Molecular cloning, chromosomal localization, and expression of the murine SALL1 ortholog Sall1. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 2000;89:150-3 pubmed
    b>SALL1 has been identified as one of now three human homologs of the region specific homeotic gene spalt (sal) of Drosophila, which encodes a zinc finger protein of characteristic structure. Mutations of SALL1 on chromosome 16q12...
  9. Nishinakamura R, Matsumoto Y, Nakao K, Nakamura K, Sato A, Copeland N, et al. Murine homolog of SALL1 is essential for ureteric bud invasion in kidney development. Development. 2001;128:3105-15 pubmed
    b>SALL1 is a mammalian homolog of the Drosophila region-specific homeotic gene spalt (sal); heterozygous mutations in SALL1 in humans lead to Townes-Brocks syndrome...

More Information


  1. Kawakami Y, Uchiyama Y, Rodriguez Esteban C, Inenaga T, Koyano Nakagawa N, Kawakami H, et al. Sall genes regulate region-specific morphogenesis in the mouse limb by modulating Hox activities. Development. 2009;136:585-94 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sall1/Sall3 double null mutants exhibit a loss of digit1 as well as a loss or fusion of digit2 and digit3, metacarpals ..
  2. Böhm J, Buck A, Borozdin W, Mannan A, Matysiak Scholze U, Adham I, et al. Sall1, sall2, and sall4 are required for neural tube closure in mice. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:1455-63 pubmed publisher
    Four homologs to the Drosophila homeotic gene spalt (sal) exist in both humans and mice (SALL1 to SALL4/Sall1 to Sall4, respectively)...
  3. Sato A, Matsumoto Y, Koide U, Kataoka Y, Yoshida N, Yokota T, et al. Zinc finger protein sall2 is not essential for embryonic and kidney development. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:62-9 pubmed a mammalian homolog of the Drosophila region-specific homeotic gene spalt (sal), and heterozygous mutations in SALL1 in humans lead to Townes-Brocks syndrome...
  4. Tsubooka N, Ichisaka T, Okita K, Takahashi K, Nakagawa M, Yamanaka S. Roles of Sall4 in the generation of pluripotent stem cells from blastocysts and fibroblasts. Genes Cells. 2009;14:683-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrated that Sall4 plays positive roles in the generation of pluripotent stem cells from blastocysts and fibroblasts. ..
  5. Lauberth S, Rauchman M. A conserved 12-amino acid motif in Sall1 recruits the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase corepressor complex. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:23922-31 pubmed
    b>Sall1 is a multi-zinc finger transcription factor that represses gene expression and regulates organogenesis. In this report, we further characterize the domain of Sall1 necessary for repression...
  6. Kiefer S, McDill B, Yang J, Rauchman M. Murine Sall1 represses transcription by recruiting a histone deacetylase complex. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:14869-76 pubmed
    ..In this report, we show that a member of the Sal family, mouse Sall1, is a potent transcriptional repressor...
  7. Linton J, Martin G, Reichardt L. The ECM protein nephronectin promotes kidney development via integrin alpha8beta1-mediated stimulation of Gdnf expression. Development. 2007;134:2501-9 pubmed
    ..Our results thus place nephronectin and alpha8beta1 integrin in a pathway that regulates Gdnf expression and is essential for kidney development. ..
  8. Yamashita K, Sato A, Asashima M, Wang P, Nishinakamura R. Mouse homolog of SALL1, a causative gene for Townes-Brocks syndrome, binds to A/T-rich sequences in pericentric heterochromatin via its C-terminal zinc finger domains. Genes Cells. 2007;12:171-82 pubmed
    The Spalt (sal) gene family is conserved from Drosophila to humans. Mutations of human SALL1 cause Townes-Brocks syndrome, with features of ear, limb, anal, renal and heart anomalies...
  9. Xu P, Zheng W, Huang L, Maire P, Laclef C, Silvius D. Six1 is required for the early organogenesis of mammalian kidney. Development. 2003;130:3085-94 pubmed
    ..In Six1(-/-) kidney development, we have found that Pax2, Six2 and Sall1 expression was markedly reduced in the metanephric mesenchyme at E10...
  10. Roy K, Kuznicki K, Wu Q, Sun Z, Bock D, Schutz G, et al. The Tlx gene regulates the timing of neurogenesis in the cortex. J Neurosci. 2004;24:8333-45 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that tlx is an essential intrinsic regulator in the decision to proliferate or differentiate in the developing forebrain. ..
  11. Harrison S, Nishinakamura R, Monaghan A. Sall1 regulates mitral cell development and olfactory nerve extension in the developing olfactory bulb. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18:1604-17 pubmed
    b>Sall1 is a zinc finger containing transcription factor that is highly expressed during mammalian embryogenesis. In humans, the developmental disorder Townes Brocks Syndrome is associated with mutations in the SALL1 gene...
  12. Yamamoto C, Fukuda N, Matsumoto T, Higuchi T, Ueno T, Matsumoto K. Zinc-finger transcriptional factor Sall1 induces angiogenesis by activation of the gene for VEGF-A. Hypertens Res. 2010;33:143-8 pubmed publisher
    Zinc-finger transcriptional factor Sall1 modulates gene expression and regulates organogenesis, including kidney development. Angiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is also required for organogenesis...
  13. Buck A, Kispert A, Kohlhase J. Embryonic expression of the murine homologue of SALL1, the gene mutated in Townes--Brocks syndrome. Mech Dev. 2001;104:143-6 pubmed
    b>SALL1 is one of three human homologues of the Drosophila region-specific homeotic gene spalt (sal). Mutations of SALL1 on chromosome 16q12...
  14. Nishinakamura R, Osafune K. Essential roles of Sall family genes in kidney development. J Physiol Sci. 2006;56:131-6 pubmed
    We isolated a mouse Sall1, a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila region-specific homeotic gene spalt (sal), and found that mice deficient in Sall1 die in the perinatal period from kidney agenesis...
  15. Kiefer S, Ohlemiller K, Yang J, McDill B, Kohlhase J, Rauchman M. Expression of a truncated Sall1 transcriptional repressor is responsible for Townes-Brocks syndrome birth defects. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:2221-7 pubmed
    ..Mutations in SALL1 have been postulated to cause TBS by haploinsufficiency; however, a mouse model carrying a sall1-null allele does ..
  16. Uchiyama Y, Sakaguchi M, Terabayashi T, Inenaga T, Inoue S, Kobayashi C, et al. Kif26b, a kinesin family gene, regulates adhesion of the embryonic kidney mesenchyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9240-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously demonstrated that the zinc finger protein Sall1 is essential for ureteric bud attraction toward the mesenchyme...
  17. Self M, Lagutin O, Bowling B, Hendrix J, Cai Y, Dressler G, et al. Six2 is required for suppression of nephrogenesis and progenitor renewal in the developing kidney. EMBO J. 2006;25:5214-28 pubmed
    ..We propose that in the developing kidney, Six2 activity is required for maintaining the mesenchymal progenitor population in an undifferentiated state by opposing the inductive signals emanating from the ureteric bud...
  18. Sakaki Yumoto M, Kobayashi C, Sato A, Fujimura S, Matsumoto Y, Takasato M, et al. The murine homolog of SALL4, a causative gene in Okihiro syndrome, is essential for embryonic stem cell proliferation, and cooperates with Sall1 in anorectal, heart, brain and kidney development. Development. 2006;133:3005-13 pubmed
    ..that anorectal and heart anomalies in Okihiro syndrome are caused by Sall4 haploinsufficiency and that Sall4/Sall1 heterozygotes exhibited an increased incidence of anorectal and heart anomalies, exencephaly and kidney agenesis...
  19. Karantzali E, Lekakis V, Ioannou M, Hadjimichael C, Papamatheakis J, Kretsovali A. Sall1 regulates embryonic stem cell differentiation in association with nanog. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:1037-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Sall1 is a multi-zinc finger transcription factor that regulates kidney organogenesis. It is considered to be a transcriptional repressor, preferentially localized on heterochromatin...
  20. Chai L, Yang J, Di C, Cui W, Kawakami K, Lai R, et al. Transcriptional activation of the SALL1 by the human SIX1 homeodomain during kidney development. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:18918-26 pubmed
    b>SALL1 is a member of the SAL gene family that encodes a group of putative developmental transcription factors...
  21. Silberschmidt D, Rodriguez Mallon A, Mithboakar P, Cali G, Amendola E, Sanges R, et al. In vivo role of different domains and of phosphorylation in the transcription factor Nkx2-1. BMC Dev Biol. 2011;11:9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results have implication for the evolutionary role of mutations in transcription factors. ..
  22. Suzuki K, Numata T, Suzuki H, Raga D, Ipulan L, Yokoyama C, et al. Sexually dimorphic expression of Mafb regulates masculinization of the embryonic urethral formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:16407-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The current results provide evidence that Mafb is an androgen-inducible, sexually dimorphic regulator of embryonic urethral masculinization. ..
  23. Buttgereit A, Lelios I, Yu X, Vrohlings M, Krakoski N, Gautier E, et al. Sall1 is a transcriptional regulator defining microglia identity and function. Nat Immunol. 2016;17:1397-1406 pubmed publisher
    ..Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). Gene expression profiling has identified Sall1, which encodes a transcriptional regulator, as a microglial signature gene...
  24. Miller A, Ralser M, Kloet S, Loos R, Nishinakamura R, Bertone P, et al. Sall4 controls differentiation of pluripotent cells independently of the Nucleosome Remodelling and Deacetylation (NuRD) complex. Development. 2016;143:3074-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model whereby enhancer binding by Sall4 and other pluripotency-associated transcription factors is responsible for maintaining the balance between transcriptional programmes in pluripotent cells. ..
  25. Murashima A, Akita H, Okazawa M, Kishigami S, Nakagata N, Nishinakamura R, et al. Midline-derived Shh regulates mesonephric tubule formation through the paraxial mesoderm. Dev Biol. 2014;386:216-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Mesonephros-specific ablation of Shh in Hoxb7-Cre;Shh(flox/-) and Sall1(CreERT2/+);Shh(flox/-) mice embryos indicated that Shh expressed in the mesonephros was not required for either ..
  26. Ruf S, Symmons O, Uslu V, Dolle D, Hot C, Ettwiller L, et al. Large-scale analysis of the regulatory architecture of the mouse genome with a transposon-associated sensor. Nat Genet. 2011;43:379-86 pubmed publisher
  27. Camp E, Hope R, Kortschak R, Cox T, Lardelli M. Expression of three spalt (sal) gene homologues in zebrafish embryos. Dev Genes Evol. 2003;213:35-43 pubmed
    ..sac and the pronephric ducts of zebrafish embryos is possibly consistent with some of the abnormalities seen in Sall1-deficient mice and in Townes-Brocks Syndrome, a human disorder which is caused by mutations in the human spalt ..
  28. Song R, Preston G, Kidd L, Bushnell D, Sims Lucas S, Bates C, et al. Prorenin receptor is critical for nephron progenitors. Dev Biol. 2016;409:382-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings demonstrate a cell-autonomous requirement for the PRR within nephron progenitors for progenitor maintenance, progression of nephrogenesis, normal kidney development and function. ..
  29. Basta J, Robbins L, Denner D, Kolar G, Rauchman M. A Sall1-NuRD interaction regulates multipotent nephron progenitors and is required for loop of Henle formation. Development. 2017;144:3080-3094 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of Sall1-NuRD in vivo in knock-in mice (?SRM) resulted in accelerated differentiation of nephron progenitors ..
  30. Hosoe Nagai Y, Hidaka T, Sonoda A, Sasaki Y, Yamamoto Nonaka K, Seki T, et al. Re-expression of Sall1 in podocytes protects against adriamycin-induced nephrosis. Lab Invest. 2017;97:1306-1320 pubmed publisher
    ..Humans and mice each have four known Sal-like genes (SALL1-4 in humans and Sall1-4 in mice). Sall1 is known to have a crucial role in kidney development...
  31. Nishinakamura R, Takasato M. Essential roles of Sall1 in kidney development. Kidney Int. 2005;68:1948-50 pubmed
    b>SALL1 is a mammalian homologue of the Drosophila region-specific homeotic gene spalt (sal) and heterozygous mutations in SALL1 in humans lead to Townes-Brocks syndrome...
  32. Pitera J, Scambler P, Woolf A. Fras1, a basement membrane-associated protein mutated in Fraser syndrome, mediates both the initiation of the mammalian kidney and the integrity of renal glomeruli. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:3953-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Fras1 deficiency causes defective interactions between the bud and mesenchyme, correlating with disturbed expression of key nephrogenic molecules. Furthermore, Fras1 may also be required for the formation of normal glomeruli. ..
  33. Kiefer S, Robbins L, Stumpff K, Lin C, Ma L, Rauchman M. Sall1-dependent signals affect Wnt signaling and ureter tip fate to initiate kidney development. Development. 2010;137:3099-106 pubmed publisher
    ..In mouse Sall1 mutants, the ureteric bud grows out and invades the metanephric mesenchyme, but it fails to initiate branching ..
  34. Hu M, Mo R, Bhella S, Wilson C, Chuang P, Hui C, et al. GLI3-dependent transcriptional repression of Gli1, Gli2 and kidney patterning genes disrupts renal morphogenesis. Development. 2006;133:569-78 pubmed
    ..Shh deficiency decreased expression of kidney patterning genes (Pax2 and Sall1) and cell cycle regulators (cyclin D1 and MYCN)...
  35. Abedin M, Imai N, Rosenberg M, Gupta S. Identification and characterization of Sall1-expressing cells present in the adult mouse kidney. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2011;119:e75-82 pubmed publisher
    b>Sall1 is a transcription factor that best identifies stem cells present in the mouse embryonic kidney...
  36. Poladia D, Kish K, Kutay B, Hains D, Kegg H, Zhao H, et al. Role of fibroblast growth factor receptors 1 and 2 in the metanephric mesenchyme. Dev Biol. 2006;291:325-39 pubmed situ hybridization, regions of mutant mesenchyme near the ureteric bud(s) express Eya1 and Six1, but not Six2, Sall1, or Pax2, while the ureteric bud expresses Ret and Pax2 normally...
  37. Usui J, Kobayashi T, Yamaguchi T, Knisely A, Nishinakamura R, Nakauchi H. Generation of kidney from pluripotent stem cells via blastocyst complementation. Am J Pathol. 2012;180:2417-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have extended this technique to kidney generation using Sall1(-/-) mouse blastocysts...
  38. Zhang J, Taylor R, La Torre A, Wilken M, Cox K, Reh T, et al. Ezh2 maintains retinal progenitor proliferation, transcriptional integrity, and the timing of late differentiation. Dev Biol. 2015;403:128-38 pubmed publisher
  39. Ipulan L, Suzuki K, Sakamoto Y, Murashima A, Imai Y, Omori A, et al. Nonmyocytic androgen receptor regulates the sexually dimorphic development of the embryonic bulbocavernosus muscle. Endocrinology. 2014;155:2467-79 pubmed publisher
    ..5. AR mutation on the nonmyocytic cells using spalt-like transcription factor 1 (Sall1) Cre driver mouse was performed, which resulted in defective BC formation...
  40. Tian Y, Yuan L, Goss A, Wang T, Yang J, Lepore J, et al. Characterization and in vivo pharmacological rescue of a Wnt2-Gata6 pathway required for cardiac inflow tract development. Dev Cell. 2010;18:275-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal a molecular pathway regulating the posterior cardiac mesoderm and demonstrate that cardiovascular defects caused by loss of Wnt signaling can be rescued pharmacologically in vivo. ..
  41. Recuenco M, Ohmori T, Tanigawa S, Taguchi A, Fujimura S, Conti M, et al. Nonmuscle Myosin II Regulates the Morphogenesis of Metanephric Mesenchyme-Derived Immature Nephrons. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015;26:1081-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data also suggest that Myh9 deletion in mice results in failure to maintain renal tubules but not in glomerulosclerosis. ..
  42. Yu Y, Chen Y, Kim B, Wang H, Zhao C, He X, et al. Olig2 targets chromatin remodelers to enhancers to initiate oligodendrocyte differentiation. Cell. 2013;152:248-61 pubmed publisher
  43. Denner D, Rauchman M. Mi-2/NuRD is required in renal progenitor cells during embryonic kidney development. Dev Biol. 2013;375:105-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This process requires an intricate balance between self-renewal and differentiation of the renal progenitor pool. Sall1 is a transcription factor necessary for renal development which is expressed in renal progenitor cells (cap ..
  44. Sheth R, Barozzi I, Langlais D, Osterwalder M, Nemec S, Carlson H, et al. Distal Limb Patterning Requires Modulation of cis-Regulatory Activities by HOX13. Cell Rep. 2016;17:2913-2926 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that proper termination of the early limb transcriptional program and activation of the late-distal limb program are coordinated by the dual action of HOX13 on cis-regulatory modules. ..
  45. Nimura K, Ura K, Shiratori H, Ikawa M, Okabe M, Schwartz R, et al. A histone H3 lysine 36 trimethyltransferase links Nkx2-5 to Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome. Nature. 2009;460:287-91 pubmed publisher
    ..homologues, governed H3K36me3 along euchromatin by associating with the cell-type-specific transcription factors Sall1, Sall4 and Nanog in embryonic stem cells, and Nkx2-5 in embryonic hearts, regulating the expression of their ..
  46. Thiagarajan R, Cloonan N, Gardiner B, Mercer T, Kolle G, Nourbakhsh E, et al. Refining transcriptional programs in kidney development by integration of deep RNA-sequencing and array-based spatial profiling. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:441 pubmed publisher
    ..was also detected including uncharacterized non-coding transcripts overlapping kidney progenitor markers, Six2 and Sall1, and were validated by section in situ hybridization...
  47. Bagherie Lachidan M, Reginensi A, Pan Q, Zaveri H, Scott D, Blencowe B, et al. Stromal Fat4 acts non-autonomously with Dchs1/2 to restrict the nephron progenitor pool. Development. 2015;142:2564-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support a model in which FAT4 in the stroma binds to DCHS1/2 in the mouse CM to restrict progenitor self-renewal. ..
  48. Kobayashi H, Kawakami K, Asashima M, Nishinakamura R. Six1 and Six4 are essential for Gdnf expression in the metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud formation, while Six1 deficiency alone causes mesonephric-tubule defects. Mech Dev. 2007;124:290-303 pubmed
    ..These results highlight the fact that Six1 and Six4 have collaborative functions in the metanephros but not in the mesonephros. ..
  49. Koso H, Tsuhako A, Lai C, Baba Y, Otsu M, Ueno K, et al. Conditional rod photoreceptor ablation reveals Sall1 as a microglial marker and regulator of microglial morphology in the retina. Glia. 2016;64:2005-24 pubmed publisher
    ..the activated microglia and infiltrating macrophages, we identified microglia-specific genes, including Ak1, Ctsf, Sall1, Phlda3, and Spns2...
  50. Xu B, Hrycaj S, McIntyre D, Baker N, Takeuchi J, Jeannotte L, et al. Hox5 interacts with Plzf to restrict Shh expression in the developing forelimb. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:19438-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings, along with previous reports showing that point mutations in the Shh limb enhancer lead to similar anterior limb defects, highlight the importance of Shh repression for proper patterning of the vertebrate limb. ..
  51. Ranghini E, Dressler G. Evidence for intermediate mesoderm and kidney progenitor cell specification by Pax2 and PTIP dependent mechanisms. Dev Biol. 2015;399:296-305 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide evidence that Pax2 specifies the intermediate mesoderm and renal epithelial cells through epigenetic mechanisms and in part by repressing paraxial mesodermal fate. ..
  52. Zou D, Silvius D, Rodrigo Blomqvist S, Enerback S, Xu P. Eya1 regulates the growth of otic epithelium and interacts with Pax2 during the development of all sensory areas in the inner ear. Dev Biol. 2006;298:430-41 pubmed
  53. Ohmori T, Tanigawa S, Kaku Y, Fujimura S, Nishinakamura R. Sall1 in renal stromal progenitors non-cell autonomously restricts the excessive expansion of nephron progenitors. Sci Rep. 2015;5:15676 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed previously that deletion of the nuclear factor Sall1 in nephron progenitors leads to their depletion in mice...
  54. Jiang Q, Fujimura S, Kobayashi C, Nishinakamura R. Overexpression of Sall1 in vivo leads to reduced body weight without affecting kidney development. J Biochem. 2010;147:445-50 pubmed publisher
    Human SALL1 is a homologue of the Drosophila region-specific homeotic gene sal, and is also known as a causative gene for Townes-Brocks syndrome, which is characterized by multi-organ malformations...
  55. Harrison S, Nishinakamura R, Jones K, Monaghan A. Sall1 regulates cortical neurogenesis and laminar fate specification in mice: implications for neural abnormalities in Townes-Brocks syndrome. Dis Model Mech. 2012;5:351-65 pubmed publisher
    Progenitor cells in the cerebral cortex undergo dynamic cellular and molecular changes during development. Sall1 is a putative transcription factor that is highly expressed in progenitor cells during development...
  56. Morita Y, Andersen P, Hotta A, Tsukahara Y, Sasagawa N, Hayashida N, et al. Sall1 transiently marks undifferentiated heart precursors and regulates their fate. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2016;92:158-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that Spalt-like gene 1 (Sall1), a zing-finger transcription factor, is expressed in undifferentiated CPCs giving rise to both left and right ..
  57. Toyoda D, Taguchi A, Chiga M, Ohmori T, Nishinakamura R. Sall4 Is Transiently Expressed in the Caudal Wolffian Duct and the Ureteric Bud, but Dispensable for Kidney Development. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68508 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Sall1 expressed in the metanephric mesenchyme is essential for ureteric bud attraction in kidney development...
  58. Kanda S, Tanigawa S, Ohmori T, Taguchi A, Kudo K, Suzuki Y, et al. Sall1 maintains nephron progenitors and nascent nephrons by acting as both an activator and a repressor. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2014;25:2584-95 pubmed publisher
    ..A nuclear factor, Sall1, is expressed in Six2-positive progenitors as well as differentiating nascent nephrons, and it is essential for ..
  59. Chu J, Sims Lucas S, Bushnell D, Bodnar A, Kreidberg J, Ho J. Dicer function is required in the metanephric mesenchyme for early kidney development. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014;306:F764-72 pubmed publisher
    ..with normal expression of several transcription factors known to be critical in progenitors, including Six2, Pax2, Sall1, and Wt1...