Gene Symbol: S100b
Description: S100 protein, beta polypeptide, neural
Alias: AI850290, Bpb, protein S100-B, S-100 protein beta chain, S-100 protein subunit beta, S100 calcium-binding protein B
Species: mouse
Products:     S100b

Top Publications

  1. Páez P, Batiz L, Roales Buján R, Rodríguez Pérez L, Rodriguez S, Jiménez A, et al. Patterned neuropathologic events occurring in hyh congenital hydrocephalic mutant mice. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2007;66:1082-92 pubmed
    ..All evidence collected on hydrocephalic hyh mutant mice indicates that a primary alteration in the neuroepithelium/ependyma cell lineage triggers both hydrocephalus and abnormalities in telencephalic development. ..
  2. Craft J, Watterson D, Marks A, Van Eldik L. Enhanced susceptibility of S-100B transgenic mice to neuroinflammation and neuronal dysfunction induced by intracerebroventricular infusion of human beta-amyloid. Glia. 2005;51:209-16 pubmed
    ..Our data are consistent with a model in which S-100B overexpression in AD enhances glial activation and leads to an augmented neuroinflammatory process that increases the severity of neuropathologic sequelae. ..
  3. Nishiyama H, Takemura M, Takeda T, Itohara S. Normal development of serotonergic neurons in mice lacking S100B. Neurosci Lett. 2002;321:49-52 pubmed
    b>S100B, a glia-derived calcium binding protein, exhibits strong neurite extension activity in cultured serotonergic neurons. Using S100B-knockout mice, we examined whether this protein possesses in vivo serotonergic trophic activity...
  4. Sakatani S, Seto Ohshima A, Itohara S, Hirase H. Impact of S100B on local field potential patterns in anesthetized and kainic acid-induced seizure conditions in vivo. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;25:1144-54 pubmed
    b>S100B is a calcium-binding protein predominantly expressed in astrocytes. Previous studies using gene-manipulated animals have suggested that the protein has a role in synaptic plasticity and learning...
  5. Ferron S, Charalambous M, Radford E, McEwen K, Wildner H, Hind E, et al. Postnatal loss of Dlk1 imprinting in stem cells and niche astrocytes regulates neurogenesis. Nature. 2011;475:381-5 pubmed publisher
  6. Maka M, Stolt C, Wegner M. Identification of Sox8 as a modifier gene in a mouse model of Hirschsprung disease reveals underlying molecular defect. Dev Biol. 2005;277:155-69 pubmed
    ..Our study suggests that Sox8 and Sox10 are jointly required for the maintenance of these vagal neural crest stem cells. ..
  7. Yu T, Yaguchi Y, Echevarria D, Martinez S, Basson M. Sprouty genes prevent excessive FGF signalling in multiple cell types throughout development of the cerebellum. Development. 2011;138:2957-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data demonstrate that FGF signalling levels have to be tightly controlled throughout cerebellar development in order to maintain the normal development of multiple cell types. ..
  8. Hong S, Song M. STAT3 but not STAT1 is required for astrocyte differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e86851 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results suggest that STAT3 is necessary and sufficient for astrocyte differentiation whereas STAT1 is dispensable. ..
  9. Vives V, Alonso G, Solal A, Joubert D, Legraverend C. Visualization of S100B-positive neurons and glia in the central nervous system of EGFP transgenic mice. J Comp Neurol. 2003;457:404-19 pubmed
    b>S100B, the EF-hand Ca(++)-binding protein with gliotrophic and neurotrophic properties implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, is coined as a glial marker, despite its documented presence in rodent brain neurons...

More Information


  1. Imayoshi I, Sakamoto M, Yamaguchi M, Mori K, Kageyama R. Essential roles of Notch signaling in maintenance of neural stem cells in developing and adult brains. J Neurosci. 2010;30:3489-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated an absolute requirement of Notch signaling for the maintenance of neural stem cells and a proper control of neurogenesis in both embryonic and adult brains. ..
  2. Deneen B, Ho R, Lukaszewicz A, Hochstim C, Gronostajski R, Anderson D. The transcription factor NFIA controls the onset of gliogenesis in the developing spinal cord. Neuron. 2006;52:953-68 pubmed
    ..At later stages, NFIA promotes migration and differentiation of astrocyte precursors, a function that is antagonized in oligodendrocyte precursors by Olig2. ..
  3. Paliouras G, Hamilton L, Aumont A, Joppé S, Barnabe Heider F, Fernandes K. Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling is a key regulator of the transit-amplifying progenitor pool in the adult and aging forebrain. J Neurosci. 2012;32:15012-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish fundamental links between mTOR signaling, proliferation, and aging-associated quiescence in the adult forebrain NSC niche. ..
  4. Xiong Z, O Hanlon D, Becker L, Roder J, MacDonald J, Marks A. Enhanced calcium transients in glial cells in neonatal cerebellar cultures derived from S100B null mice. Exp Cell Res. 2000;257:281-9 pubmed
    b>S100B is the major low-affinity Ca(2+)-binding protein in astrocytes. In order to study the role of S100B in the maintenance of Ca(2+) homeostasis, we generated S100B null mice by a targeted inactivation of the S100B gene...
  5. Sakatani S, Seto Ohshima A, Shinohara Y, Yamamoto Y, Yamamoto H, Itohara S, et al. Neural-activity-dependent release of S100B from astrocytes enhances kainate-induced gamma oscillations in vivo. J Neurosci. 2008;28:10928-36 pubmed publisher
    b>S100B is the principal calcium-binding protein of astrocytes and known to be secreted to extracellular space...
  6. He F, Ge W, Martinowich K, Becker Catania S, Coskun V, Zhu W, et al. A positive autoregulatory loop of Jak-STAT signaling controls the onset of astrogliogenesis. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:616-25 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that autoregulation of the Jak-STAT pathway controls the onset of astrogliogenesis. ..
  7. Jiang H, Shah S, Hilt D. Organization, sequence, and expression of the murine S100 beta gene. Transcriptional regulation by cell type-specific cis-acting regulatory elements. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:20502-11 pubmed
    ..The murine S100 beta gene is under complex transcriptional regulation involving tonic negative control exerted by combination of multiple cis-acting regulatory elements including cell type-specific elements. ..
  8. Shapiro L, Marks A, Whitaker Azmitia P. Increased clusterin expression in old but not young adult S100B transgenic mice: evidence of neuropathological aging in a model of Down Syndrome. Brain Res. 2004;1010:17-21 pubmed
    b>S100B is a calcium-binding protein, localized to astroglial cells, which has a variety of neurotrophic functions, including roles in serotonergic neuronal growth, synaptogenesis dendritic branching and apoptosis...
  9. Hachem S, Aguirre A, Vives V, Marks A, Gallo V, Legraverend C. Spatial and temporal expression of S100B in cells of oligodendrocyte lineage. Glia. 2005;51:81-97 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present study was to address an enduring discrepancy between several reported cases of S100B immunodetection in CNS myelin and myelinating OLs on the one hand, and the systematic use of the S100B protein as ..
  10. Kawaguchi D, Furutachi S, Kawai H, Hozumi K, Gotoh Y. Dll1 maintains quiescence of adult neural stem cells and segregates asymmetrically during mitosis. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1880 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest a model in which NSCs produce their own niche cells for their maintenance through asymmetric Dll1 inheritance at mitosis. ..
  11. von Bauer R, Oikonomou D, Sulaj A, Mohammed S, Hotz Wagenblatt A, Grone H, et al. CD166/ALCAM mediates proinflammatory effects of S100B in delayed type hypersensitivity. J Immunol. 2013;191:369-77 pubmed publisher
    ..identifies CD166/ALCAM (ALCAM) as a close structural and functional homolog of RAGE, and it shows that binding of S100B to CD166/ALCAM induces dose- and time-dependent expression of members of the NF-?B family in wild type (WT) and ..
  12. Shimizu A, Sakai Y, Ohno K, Masaki S, Kuwano R, Takahashi Y, et al. A molecular genetic linkage map of mouse chromosome 10, including the Myb, S100b, Pah, Sl, and Ifg genes. Biochem Genet. 1992;30:529-35 pubmed
    ..10 were detected in four genes, namely, the Myb protooncogene (Myb) and the genes for S100 beta protein (S100b), phenylalanine hydroxylase (Pah), and interferon-gamma (Ifg)...
  13. Li J, Habbes H, Eiberger J, Willecke K, Dermietzel R, Meier C. Analysis of connexin expression during mouse Schwann cell development identifies connexin29 as a novel marker for the transition of neural crest to precursor cells. Glia. 2007;55:93-103 pubmed
    ..Thus, the coordinated expression of connexin proteins in cells of the embryonic and postnatal Schwann cell lineage might point to a potential role in peripheral nerve development and maturation. ..
  14. Gomes W, Mehler M, Kessler J. Transgenic overexpression of BMP4 increases astroglial and decreases oligodendroglial lineage commitment. Dev Biol. 2003;255:164-77 pubmed
    ..Therefore, BMPs are likely important mediators of astrocyte development in vivo. ..
  15. Hanson M, Fregoso V, Vrana J, Tucker C, Niswander L. Peripheral nervous system defects in a mouse model for peroxisomal biogenesis disorders. Dev Biol. 2014;395:84-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify PEX10 function, and likely other PEX proteins, as an essential component of the spinal locomotor circuit. ..
  16. Magri L, Cominelli M, Cambiaghi M, Cursi M, Leocani L, Minicucci F, et al. Timing of mTOR activation affects tuberous sclerosis complex neuropathology in mouse models. Dis Model Mech. 2013;6:1185-97 pubmed publisher
  17. Murphy P, Topilko P, Schneider Maunoury S, Seitanidou T, Baron van Evercooren A, Charnay P. The regulation of Krox-20 expression reveals important steps in the control of peripheral glial cell development. Development. 1996;122:2847-57 pubmed
    ..iii) In sensory ganglia, the microenvironment is capable of negatively regulating Krox-20, presumably by preventing the conversion of satellite glial cells toward a Schwann cell-like phenotype. ..
  18. Maier V, Jolicoeur C, Rayburn H, Takegahara N, Kumanogoh A, Kikutani H, et al. Semaphorin 4C and 4G are ligands of Plexin-B2 required in cerebellar development. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011;46:419-31 pubmed publisher
  19. Sathyamurthy A, Yin D, Barik A, Shen C, Bean J, Figueiredo D, et al. ERBB3-mediated regulation of Bergmann glia proliferation in cerebellar lamination. Development. 2015;142:522-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations identify a crucial role for ERBB3 in cerebellar lamination and reveal a novel mechanism that regulates BG development. ..
  20. Bicker F, Vasic V, Horta G, Ortega F, Nolte H, Kavyanifar A, et al. Neurovascular EGFL7 regulates adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone and thereby affects olfactory perception. Nat Commun. 2017;8:15922 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, EGFL7-knockout mice display severe physiological defects in olfactory behaviour and perception. ..
  21. Watanabe S, Sanuki R, Sugita Y, Imai W, Yamazaki R, Kozuka T, et al. Prdm13 regulates subtype specification of retinal amacrine interneurons and modulates visual sensitivity. J Neurosci. 2015;35:8004-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our current study provides new insights into mechanisms of the diversification of amacrine cells and their function in vision. ..
  22. Stolt C, Lommes P, Sock E, Chaboissier M, Schedl A, Wegner M. The Sox9 transcription factor determines glial fate choice in the developing spinal cord. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1677-89 pubmed
  23. Schulte Herbrüggen O, Hörtnagl H, Ponath G, Rothermundt M, Hellweg R. Distinct regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and noradrenaline in S100B knockout mice. Neurosci Lett. 2008;442:100-3 pubmed publisher
    The mainly glia-derived protein S100B has been shown to be involved in the pathophysiology of diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases, schizophrenia or depression...
  24. Lin W, Sanchez H, Deerinck T, Morris J, Ellisman M, Lee K. Aberrant development of motor axons and neuromuscular synapses in erbB2-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:1299-304 pubmed
    ..The postsynaptic defect features an impairment of junctional folds at the neuromuscular synapse in the mutants. These results demonstrate that erbB2 is essential for in vivo development of the NMJ. ..
  25. Soret R, Mennetrey M, Bergeron K, Dariel A, Neunlist M, Grunder F, et al. A collagen VI-dependent pathogenic mechanism for Hirschsprung's disease. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:4483-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, as COL6A1 and COL6A2 are on human Chr.21q, this mechanism is highly relevant to the predisposition of patients with Down syndrome to HSCR. ..
  26. Brunne B, FRANCO S, Bouché E, Herz J, Howell B, Pahle J, et al. Role of the postnatal radial glial scaffold for the development of the dentate gyrus as revealed by Reelin signaling mutant mice. Glia. 2013;61:1347-63 pubmed publisher
  27. Borella A, Sumangali R, Ko J, Whitaker Azmitia P. Characterization of social behaviors and oxytocinergic neurons in the S-100 beta overexpressing mouse model of Down Syndrome. Behav Brain Res. 2003;141:229-36 pubmed
    ..These results are discussed in terms of oxytocin contributions to socialization and fear responding and the significance of these findings to DS. ..
  28. Duchala C, Shick H, Garcia J, Deweese D, Sun X, Stewart V, et al. The toppler mouse: a novel mutant exhibiting loss of Purkinje cells. J Comp Neurol. 2004;476:113-29 pubmed
    ..Given the changes in both Purkinje cells and glia in toppler cerebellum, this may be a very useful model in which to investigate the developmental interaction of Purkinje cells and Bergmann glia. ..
  29. Bentley C, Lee K. p75 is important for axon growth and schwann cell migration during development. J Neurosci. 2000;20:7706-15 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence that p75 is important in the developing embryo for regulating axon growth and arborization and for Schwann cell migration. ..
  30. Yao J, Kitt C, Reeves R. Chronic elevation of S100 beta protein does not alter APP mRNA expression or promote beta-amyloid deposition in the brains of aging transgenic mice. Brain Res. 1995;702:32-6 pubmed
    ..However, neither control nor transgenic aged mice showed any evidence of abnormal deposition of amyloid in neuritic plaques. These results are discussed in the context of hypotheses about the role of elevated S100 beta in DS and AD. ..
  31. Raponi E, Agenes F, Delphin C, Assard N, Baudier J, Legraverend C, et al. S100B expression defines a state in which GFAP-expressing cells lose their neural stem cell potential and acquire a more mature developmental stage. Glia. 2007;55:165-77 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that S100B, a marker of glial cells, is absent from GFAP-expressing cells of the SVZ and that its onset of expression ..
  32. Marenholz I, Lovering R, Heizmann C. An update of the S100 nomenclature. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1763:1282-3 pubmed
    ..Here we present the official and updated nomenclature of this protein family, approved by the HGNC (HUGO gene nomenclature committee) and ECS (European Calcium Society). ..
  33. Rodriguez M, Choi J, Park S, Sockanathan S. Gde2 regulates cortical neuronal identity by controlling the timing of cortical progenitor differentiation. Development. 2012;139:3870-9 pubmed
  34. Heupel K, Sargsyan V, Plomp J, Rickmann M, Varoqueaux F, Zhang W, et al. Loss of transforming growth factor-beta 2 leads to impairment of central synapse function. Neural Dev. 2008;3:25 pubmed publisher
    ..The functional alterations in the respiratory center of the brain are probably the underlying cause of the perinatal death of the TGF-beta2 knock-out mice. ..
  35. Roltsch E, Holcomb L, Young K, Marks A, Zimmer D. PSAPP mice exhibit regionally selective reductions in gliosis and plaque deposition in response to S100B ablation. J Neuroinflammation. 2010;7:78 pubmed publisher
    Numerous studies have reported that increased expression of S100B, an intracellular Ca2+ receptor protein and secreted neuropeptide, exacerbates Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology...
  36. Dyck R, Bogoch I, Marks A, Melvin N, Teskey G. Enhanced epileptogenesis in S100B knockout mice. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;106:22-9 pubmed
    b>S100B is a small calcium- and zinc-binding protein expressed by astrocytes in the central nervous system...
  37. Lloyd Burton S, Roskams A. SPARC-like 1 (SC1) is a diversely expressed and developmentally regulated matricellular protein that does not compensate for the absence of SPARC in the CNS. J Comp Neurol. 2012;520:2575-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that SC1 and SPARC may share significant homology, but are likely to have distinct but complementary roles in nervous system development. ..
  38. Memic F, Knoflach V, Sadler R, Tegerstedt G, Sundström E, Guillemot F, et al. Ascl1 Is Required for the Development of Specific Neuronal Subtypes in the Enteric Nervous System. J Neurosci. 2016;36:4339-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Enteric nervous system progenitor cells may therefore possess strong intrinsic control over their specification at the initial waves of neurogenesis. ..
  39. Murthy M, Bocking S, Verginelli F, Stifani S. Transcription factor Runx1 inhibits proliferation and promotes developmental maturation in a selected population of inner olfactory nerve layer olfactory ensheathing cells. Gene. 2014;540:191-200 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations provide an avenue for further exploration into the molecular mechanisms underlying the development and function of specific OEC subpopulations. ..
  40. Heng Y, Zhou B, Harris L, Harvey T, Smith A, Horne E, et al. NFIX Regulates Proliferation and Migration Within the Murine SVZ Neurogenic Niche. Cereb Cortex. 2015;25:3758-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that NFIX regulates both proliferation and migration during the development of the SVZ neurogenic niche. ..
  41. CHALAZONITIS A, Tang A, Shang Y, Pham T, Hsieh I, Setlik W, et al. Homeodomain interacting protein kinase 2 regulates postnatal development of enteric dopaminergic neurons and glia via BMP signaling. J Neurosci. 2011;31:13746-57 pubmed publisher
  42. Tanga F, Raghavendra V, Nutile McMenemy N, Marks A, DeLeo J. Role of astrocytic S100beta in behavioral hypersensitivity in rodent models of neuropathic pain. Neuroscience. 2006;140:1003-10 pubmed
    ..Together, these results from both series of experiments using a peripheral nerve injury model in two different species implicate the involvement of glial-derived S100beta in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. ..
  43. Zheng K, Li H, Zhu Y, Zhu Q, Qiu M. MicroRNAs are essential for the developmental switch from neurogenesis to gliogenesis in the developing spinal cord. J Neurosci. 2010;30:8245-50 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, the early patterning and development of motor neurons were not affected in the mutant spinal cord tissue. ..
  44. Carson C, Murdoch B, Roskams A. Notch 2 and Notch 1/3 segregate to neuronal and glial lineages of the developing olfactory epithelium. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1678-88 pubmed
    ..Notch 2 and Notch 1/3 may, therefore, have different roles in the commitment and differentiation of neuronal and glial lineages of the OE during development, and the maintenance of non-neuronal phenotypes postnatally. ..
  45. Wang T, Tamakoshi T, Uezato T, Shu F, Kanzaki Kato N, Fu Y, et al. Forkhead transcription factor Foxf2 (LUN)-deficient mice exhibit abnormal development of secondary palate. Dev Biol. 2003;259:83-94 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the Foxf2 gene plays key roles in palatogenesis by reshaping the growing tongue. ..
  46. Deloulme J, Raponi E, Gentil B, Bertacchi N, Marks A, Labourdette G, et al. Nuclear expression of S100B in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells correlates with differentiation toward the oligodendroglial lineage and modulates oligodendrocytes maturation. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004;27:453-65 pubmed
    The S100B protein belongs to the S100 family of EF-hand calcium binding proteins implicated in cell growth and differentiation...
  47. Kreuzberg M, Deuchars J, Weiss E, Schober A, Sonntag S, Wellershaus K, et al. Expression of connexin30.2 in interneurons of the central nervous system in the mouse. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;37:119-34 pubmed
    ..This suggests that the lack of Cx30.2 in interneurons can be largely compensated by other connexins, most likely Cx36. ..
  48. Araya R, Kudo M, Kawano M, Ishii K, Hashikawa T, Iwasato T, et al. BMP signaling through BMPRIA in astrocytes is essential for proper cerebral angiogenesis and formation of the blood-brain-barrier. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;38:417-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that BMPRIA signaling in astrocytes regulates the expression of VEGF for proper cerebrovascular angiogenesis and has a role on in the formation of the blood-brain-barrier. ..
  49. Fujiya A, Nagasaki H, Seino Y, Okawa T, Kato J, Fukami A, et al. The role of S100B in the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014;22:371-9 pubmed publisher
    The S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B) implicated in brain inflammation acts via the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and is also secreted from adipocytes...
  50. Platt R, Zhou Y, Slaymaker I, Shetty A, Weisbach N, Kim J, et al. Chd8 Mutation Leads to Autistic-like Behaviors and Impaired Striatal Circuits. Cell Rep. 2017;19:335-350 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support a mechanism linking chromatin modification to striatal dysfunction and the molecular pathology of ASD. ..
  51. Fox E, McAdams J. Smooth-muscle-specific expression of neurotrophin-3 in mouse embryonic and neonatal gastrointestinal tract. Cell Tissue Res. 2010;340:267-86 pubmed publisher
  52. Pei Y, Brun S, Markant S, Lento W, Gibson P, Taketo M, et al. WNT signaling increases proliferation and impairs differentiation of stem cells in the developing cerebellum. Development. 2012;139:1724-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that the WNT pathway is a potent regulator of cerebellar stem cell growth and differentiation. ..
  53. Chuang C, Guh J, Lu C, Wang Y, Chen H, Chuang L. Steap4 attenuates high glucose and S100B-induced effects in mesangial cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2015;19:1234-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we studied the roles of Steap4 in high glucose (HG, 27.5 mM) or S100B (1 μM, a ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end-product or RAGE)-induced effects in mouse ..
  54. Chang M, Ariah L, Marks A, Azmitia E. Chronic gliosis induced by loss of S-100B: knockout mice have enhanced GFAP-immunoreactivity but blunted response to a serotonin challenge. Brain Res. 2005;1031:1-9 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that 5-HT may modulate glial morphology by inducing a release of intracellular S-100B, and this pathway is inoperable in the S-100B KO (-/-). ..
  55. Wang H, Zhang L, Zhang I, Chen X, Da Fonseca A, Wu S, et al. S100B promotes glioma growth through chemoattraction of myeloid-derived macrophages. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:3764-75 pubmed publisher
    b>S100B is member of a multigenic family of Ca(2+)-binding proteins, which is overexpressed by gliomas. Recently, we showed that low concentrations of S100B attenuated microglia activation through the induction of Stat3...
  56. Takeo Y, Kurabayashi N, Nguyen M, Sanada K. The G protein-coupled receptor GPR157 regulates neuronal differentiation of radial glial progenitors through the Gq-IP3 pathway. Sci Rep. 2016;6:25180 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GPR157-Gq signaling at the primary cilia of RGPs is activated by the CSF and contributes to neurogenesis. ..
  57. Kohama C, Kato H, Numata K, Hirose M, Takemasa T, Ogura A, et al. ES cell differentiation system recapitulates the establishment of imprinted gene expression in a cell-type-specific manner. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:1391-401 pubmed publisher
  58. Tomita K, Moriyoshi K, Nakanishi S, Guillemot F, Kageyama R. Mammalian achaete-scute and atonal homologs regulate neuronal versus glial fate determination in the central nervous system. EMBO J. 2000;19:5460-72 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that Mash1 and Math3 direct neuronal versus glial fate determination in the CNS and raised the possibility that downregulation of these bHLH genes is one of the mechanisms to initiate gliogenesis. ..
  59. Liu J, Wang H, Zhang L, Xu Y, Deng W, Zhu H, et al. S100B transgenic mice develop features of Parkinson's disease. Arch Med Res. 2011;42:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We undertook this study to establish the brain-specific S100B gene transgenic mice and investigate the role of S100B in the development of PD...
  60. Taylor M, Yeager K, Morrison S. Physiological Notch signaling promotes gliogenesis in the developing peripheral and central nervous systems. Development. 2007;134:2435-47 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that physiological Notch signaling is required for gliogenesis in vivo, independent of the role of Notch in the maintenance of undifferentiated neural progenitors. ..
  61. Sorci G, Giovannini G, Riuzzi F, Bonifazi P, Zelante T, Zagarella S, et al. The danger signal S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1001315 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we reveal a previously unknown mechanism by which the danger molecule S100B integrates pathogen- and danger-sensing pathways to restrain inflammation...
  62. Matsuda S, Kuwako K, Okano H, Tsutsumi S, Aburatani H, Saga Y, et al. Sox21 promotes hippocampal adult neurogenesis via the transcriptional repression of the Hes5 gene. J Neurosci. 2012;32:12543-57 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Sox21 controls hippocampal adult neurogenesis via transcriptional repression of the Hes5 gene. ..
  63. Mundell N, Plank J, Legrone A, Frist A, Zhu L, Shin M, et al. Enteric nervous system specific deletion of Foxd3 disrupts glial cell differentiation and activates compensatory enteric progenitors. Dev Biol. 2012;363:373-87 pubmed publisher
  64. Kojima T, Yoshikawa Y, Takada S, Sato M, Nakamura T, Takahashi N, et al. Genomic organization of the Shc-related phosphotyrosine adapters and characterization of the full-length Sck/ShcB: specific association of p68-Sck/ShcB with pp135. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;284:1039-47 pubmed
    ..The Sck-pp135 interaction was reduced by Src kinase inhibitors. These results suggest that Sck, but not N-Shc nor Shc, transmit signals in conjunction with pp135 following Src activation and/or calcium entry in the cell. ..
  65. Cole S, Wiltshire T, Reeves R. Physical mapping of the evolutionary boundary between human chromosomes 21 and 22 on mouse chromosome 10. Genomics. 1998;50:109-11 pubmed
    ..analyses demonstrates that Prmt2 has a position consistent with its human homolog, HRMT1L1, being telomeric to S100B on HSA21...
  66. Ueda S, Saitoh Y, Koibuchi N, Ishizuya Oka A. Local disturbance of neuronal migration in the S-100beta-retarded mutant mouse. Cell Tissue Res. 1997;289:547-51 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that abnormal cortical lamination closely correlates with disturbance of neuronal migration and abnormalities of glial cells, especially a significant decrease of S-100beta-immunoreactive cells. ..
  67. Hosokawa K, Hamada Y, Fujiya A, Murase M, Maekawa R, Niwa Y, et al. S100B impairs glycolysis via enhanced poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in rodent muscle cells. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2017;312:E471-E481 pubmed publisher
    S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B), a multifunctional macromolecule mainly expressed in nerve tissues and adipocytes, has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity...
  68. Kindlundh Högberg A, Zhang X, Svenningsson P. S100B overexpressing mutant mice exhibit prolonged behavioural and biochemical responses towards repeated intermittent binge treatments with MDMA. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009;12:201-15 pubmed publisher
    ..with MDMA (5 mg/kg, 3 times daily, 3 h apart, once per week for 4 wk) was found to increase gene expression of S100B, a neurotrophic factor that modulates neuronal plasticity...
  69. He L, Yu K, Lu F, Wang J, Wu L, Zhao C, et al. Transcriptional Regulator ZEB2 Is Essential for Bergmann Glia Development. J Neurosci. 2018;38:1575-1587 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding demonstrates a previously unrecognized critical role for ZEB2 in Bergmann glia specification, and points to an important contribution of ZEB2 dysfunction to cerebellar motor disorders in Mowat-Wilson syndrome. ..
  70. Schmid J, Bernreuther C, Nikonenko A, Ling Z, Mies G, Hossmann K, et al. Heterozygosity for the mutated X-chromosome-linked L1 cell adhesion molecule gene leads to increased numbers of neurons and enhanced metabolism in the forebrain of female carrier mice. Brain Struct Funct. 2013;218:1375-90 pubmed publisher
  71. Qin S, Liu M, Niu W, Zhang C. Dysregulation of Kruppel-like factor 4 during brain development leads to hydrocephalus in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:21117-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The ventricular cilia, vital for cerebrospinal fluid flow, are also disrupted in the mutant mice. These results indicate that down-regulation of KLF4 is critical for neural development and its dysregulation may lead to hydrocephalus. ..
  72. He S, Iwashita T, Buchstaller J, Molofsky A, Thomas D, Morrison S. Bmi-1 over-expression in neural stem/progenitor cells increases proliferation and neurogenesis in culture but has little effect on these functions in vivo. Dev Biol. 2009;328:257-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Bmi-1 over-expression therefore has more pronounced effects in culture and does not appear to be sufficient to induce tumorigenesis in vivo. ..
  73. Hu S, Harrison C, Xu K, Cornish C, Geczy C. Induction of the chemotactic S100 protein, CP-10, in monocyte/macrophages by lipopolysaccharide. Blood. 1996;87:3919-28 pubmed
    ..We propose that CP-10 may play a key role in recruitment of leukocytes into tissues in response to gram-negative bacterial infection. ..
  74. Knock E, Pereira J, Lombard P, Dimond A, Leaford D, Livesey F, et al. The methyl binding domain 3/nucleosome remodelling and deacetylase complex regulates neural cell fate determination and terminal differentiation in the cerebral cortex. Neural Dev. 2015;10:13 pubmed publisher
  75. Mori Y, Mori D, Chung U, Tanaka S, Heierhorst J, Buchou T, et al. S100A1 and S100B are dispensable for endochondral ossification during skeletal development. Biomed Res. 2014;35:243-50 pubmed
    S100A1 and S100B are induced by the SOX trio transcription factors (SOX9, SOX5, and SOX6) in chondrocytes, and inhibit their hypertrophic differentiation in culture...
  76. Gerlai R, Wojtowicz J, Marks A, Roder J. Overexpression of a calcium-binding protein, S100 beta, in astrocytes alters synaptic plasticity and impairs spatial learning in transgenic mice. Learn Mem. 1995;2:26-39 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that the changes are due to calcium mediated processes. Our results support the notion that astrocytes are involved in higher brain functions. ..
  77. Tsoporis J, Marks A, Haddad A, Dawood F, Liu P, Parker T. S100B expression modulates left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in mice. Circulation. 2005;111:598-606 pubmed
    b>S100B, a 20-kDa, Ca2+-binding dimer, is a putative intrinsic negative regulator of myocardial hypertrophy expressed after myocardial infarction...
  78. Liu Y, Rao M. Olig genes are expressed in a heterogeneous population of precursor cells in the developing spinal cord. Glia. 2004;45:67-74 pubmed
  79. Nishide K, Nakatani Y, Kiyonari H, Kondo T. Glioblastoma formation from cell population depleted of Prominin1-expressing cells. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6869 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that the tamoxifen-treated GICs-LD (GICs-DTA) form tumor-spheres in culture and transplantable GBM in vivo. Thus, our studies demonstrate that Prom1-expressing cells are dispensable for gliomagenesis in this mouse model. ..
  80. Stewart C, Corella K, Samberg B, Jones P, Linscott M, Chung W. Perinatal midline astrocyte development is impaired in fibroblast growth factor 8 hypomorphic mice. Brain Res. 2016;1646:287-296 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide an experimentally-based mechanistic explanation as to why corpus callosum formation may fail in KS patients with deficits in FGF signaling. ..
  81. Tubaro C, Arcuri C, Giambanco I, Donato R. S100B protein in myoblasts modulates myogenic differentiation via NF-kappaB-dependent inhibition of MyoD expression. J Cell Physiol. 2010;223:270-82 pubmed publisher
    b>S100B, a Ca(2+)-binding protein of the EF-hand type, is expressed in myoblasts, the precursors of skeletal myofibers, and muscle satellite cells (this work)...
  82. Alsiö J, Tarchini B, Cayouette M, Livesey F. Ikaros promotes early-born neuronal fates in the cerebral cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:E716-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that Ikaros plays a similar role in regulating early temporal fates in the mammalian cerebral cortex as Ikaros/Hunchback proteins do in the Drosophila nerve cord. ..
  83. Aoki M, Takeuchi H, Nakashima A, Nishizumi H, Sakano H. Possible roles of Robo1+ ensheathing cells in guiding dorsal-zone olfactory sensory neurons in mouse. Dev Neurobiol. 2013;73:828-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate a novel strategy of axon guidance in the mouse olfactory system during development. ..
  84. Chuang C, Guh J, Lu C, Chen H, Chuang L. S100B is required for high glucose-induced pro-fibrotic gene expression and hypertrophy in mesangial cells. Int J Mol Med. 2015;35:546-52 pubmed publisher
    ..RAGE binds to numerous ligands besides AGE, including S100B. In the present study, the roles of S100B in high glucose‑induced p21WAF1, extracellular matrices, TGFâ€..
  85. Rothermundt M, Peters M, Prehn J, Arolt V. S100B in brain damage and neurodegeneration. Microsc Res Tech. 2003;60:614-32 pubmed
    b>S100B is a calcium-binding peptide produced mainly by astrocytes that exert paracrine and autocrine effects on neurons and glia...
  86. Lee J, Wu Y, Qi Y, Xue H, Liu Y, Scheel D, et al. Neurogenin3 participates in gliogenesis in the developing vertebrate spinal cord. Dev Biol. 2003;253:84-98 pubmed
    ..Overall, the data suggest that Ngn3 may regulate glial differentiation at a developmental stage prior to the segregation of the oligodendrocyte and astrocyte lineage. ..
  87. Mohammadzadeh F, Desjardins J, Tsoporis J, Proteau G, Leong Poi H, Parker T. S100B: role in cardiac remodeling and function following myocardial infarction in diabetes. Life Sci. 2013;92:639-47 pubmed publisher
    b>S100B plays a role in cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction (MI) and in diabetic vascular complications but not examined in diabetic myocardium...