Gene Symbol: S100a9
Description: S100 calcium binding protein A9 (calgranulin B)
Alias: 60B8Ag, AW546964, BEE22, Cagb, GAGB, L1Ag, MRP14, p14, protein S100-A9, S100 calcium-binding protein A9, leukocyte L1 complex heavy chain, migration inhibitory factor-related protein 14
Species: mouse
Products:     S100a9

Top Publications

  1. Ryckman C, McColl S, Vandal K, de Médicis R, Lussier A, Poubelle P, et al. Role of S100A8 and S100A9 in neutrophil recruitment in response to monosodium urate monohydrate crystals in the air-pouch model of acute gouty arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:2310-20 pubmed
    To examine the role of chemokines, S100A8, and S100A9 in neutrophil accumulation induced by the causative agent of gout, monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals.
  2. Vogl T, Tenbrock K, Ludwig S, Leukert N, Ehrhardt C, van Zoelen M, et al. Mrp8 and Mrp14 are endogenous activators of Toll-like receptor 4, promoting lethal, endotoxin-induced shock. Nat Med. 2007;13:1042-9 pubmed
    ..we characterized the functions of myeloid-related protein-8 (Mrp8, S100A8) and myeloid-related protein-14 (Mrp14, S100A9), two abundant cytoplasmic proteins of phagocytes...
  3. Pouliot P, Plante I, Raquil M, Tessier P, Olivier M. Myeloid-related proteins rapidly modulate macrophage nitric oxide production during innate immune response. J Immunol. 2008;181:3595-601 pubmed
    S100A8 and S100A9 are intracellular calcium-binding proteins produced by myeloid cells that promote neutrophil/monocyte recruitment at inflamed tissues by enhancing attachment to endothelial cells...
  4. Boyd J, Kan B, Roberts H, Wang Y, Walley K. S100A8 and S100A9 mediate endotoxin-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction via the receptor for advanced glycation end products. Circ Res. 2008;102:1239-46 pubmed publisher
    ..exposed to systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we discovered that 2 small calcium-regulating proteins (S100A8 and S100A9) are highly upregulated...
  5. Corbin B, Seeley E, Raab A, Feldmann J, Miller M, Torres V, et al. Metal chelation and inhibition of bacterial growth in tissue abscesses. Science. 2008;319:962-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that calprotectin is a critical factor in the innate immune response to infection and define metal chelation as a strategy for inhibiting microbial growth inside abscessed tissue. ..
  6. Turovskaya O, Foell D, Sinha P, Vogl T, Newlin R, Nayak J, et al. RAGE, carboxylated glycans and S100A8/A9 play essential roles in colitis-associated carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:2035-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In human colon tumor tissues and in a mouse model of CAC, we found that myeloid progenitors expressing S100A8 and S100A9 infiltrate regions of dysplasia and adenoma. mAbGB3...
  7. Vandal K, Rouleau P, Boivin A, Ryckman C, Talbot M, Tessier P. Blockade of S100A8 and S100A9 suppresses neutrophil migration in response to lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol. 2003;171:2602-9 pubmed
    Recently, proinflammatory activities had been described for S100A8 and S100A9, two proteins found at inflammatory sites and within the neutrophil cytoplasm...
  8. Hiratsuka S, Watanabe A, Aburatani H, Maru Y. Tumour-mediated upregulation of chemoattractants and recruitment of myeloid cells predetermines lung metastasis. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:1369-75 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the inflammatory chemoattractants S100A8 and S100A9, whose expression is induced by distant primary tumours, attract Mac 1 (macrophage antigen 1)(+)-myeloid cells in ..
  9. Goto Y, Sanjoba C, Arakaki N, Okamoto M, Saeki K, Onodera T, et al. Accumulation of macrophages expressing MRP8 and MRP14 in skin lesions during Leishmania major infection in BALB/c and RAG-2 knockout mice. Parasitol Int. 2007;56:231-4 pubmed
    Migration inhibitory factor-related protein 8 (MRP8) and MRP14 are expressed by myeloid cells and especially known as marker proteins of an immature and inflammatory subtype of macrophages...

More Information


  1. Cheng P, Corzo C, Luetteke N, Yu B, Nagaraj S, Bui M, et al. Inhibition of dendritic cell differentiation and accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancer is regulated by S100A9 protein. J Exp Med. 2008;205:2235-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that STAT3-inducible up-regulation of the myeloid-related protein S100A9 enhances MDSC production in cancer...
  2. Croce K, Gao H, Wang Y, Mooroka T, Sakuma M, Shi C, et al. Myeloid-related protein-8/14 is critical for the biological response to vascular injury. Circulation. 2009;120:427-36 pubmed publisher
    Myeloid-related protein (MRP)-8 (S100A8) and MRP-14 (S100A9) are members of the S100 family of calcium-modulated proteins that regulate myeloid cell function and control inflammation, in part, through activation of Toll-like receptor-4 ..
  3. Nacken W, Mooren F, Manitz M, Bode G, Sorg C, Kerkhoff C. S100A9 deficiency alters adenosine-5'-triphosphate induced calcium signalling but does not generally interfere with calcium and zinc homeostasis in murine neutrophils. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2005;37:1241-53 pubmed
    The two calcium- and zinc-binding proteins, S100A9 and S100 A8, abundant in myeloid cells are considered to play important roles in both calcium signalling and zinc homeostasis...
  4. Zreiqat H, Howlett C, Gronthos S, Hume D, Geczy C. S100A8/S100A9 and their association with cartilage and bone. J Mol Histol. 2007;38:381-91 pubmed
    S100A8 and S100A9 are calcium-binding proteins expressed in myeloid cells and are markers of numerous inflammatory diseases in humans. S100A9 has been associated with dystrophic calcification in human atherosclerosis...
  5. Sinha P, Okoro C, Foell D, Freeze H, Ostrand Rosenberg S, Srikrishna G. Proinflammatory S100 proteins regulate the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. J Immunol. 2008;181:4666-75 pubmed
    ..Since S100A8/A9 activation of MDSC is through the NF-kappaB signaling pathway, drugs that target this pathway may reduce MDSC levels and be useful therapeutic agents in conjunction with active immunotherapy in cancer patients. ..
  6. Liang S, Tan X, Luxenberg D, Karim R, Dunussi Joannopoulos K, Collins M, et al. Interleukin (IL)-22 and IL-17 are coexpressed by Th17 cells and cooperatively enhance expression of antimicrobial peptides. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2271-9 pubmed
    ..IL-22 in conjunction with IL-17A or IL-17F synergistically induced the expression of beta-defensin 2 and S100A9 and additively enhanced the expression of S100A7 and S100A8...
  7. Dessing M, Butter L, Teske G, Claessen N, van der Loos C, Vogl T, et al. S100A8/A9 is not involved in host defense against murine urinary tract infection. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13394 pubmed publisher
    ..coli transurethrally in wild type (WT) and S100A9 knockout (KO) mice...
  8. Greenlee K, Corry D, Engler D, Matsunami R, Tessier P, Cook R, et al. Proteomic identification of in vivo substrates for matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 reveals a mechanism for resolution of inflammation. J Immunol. 2006;177:7312-21 pubmed
    ..In vitro cleavage assays and mass spectroscopy confirmed that three of the identified proteins, Ym1, S100A8, and S100A9, were substrates of MMP2, MMP9, or both...
  9. Vogl T, Ludwig S, Goebeler M, Strey A, Thorey I, Reichelt R, et al. MRP8 and MRP14 control microtubule reorganization during transendothelial migration of phagocytes. Blood. 2004;104:4260-8 pubmed
    MRP14 (S100A9) is the major calcium-binding protein of neutrophils and monocytes. Targeted gene disruption reveals an essential role of this S100 protein for transendothelial migration of phagocytes...
  10. Marenholz I, Heizmann C, Fritz G. S100 proteins in mouse and man: from evolution to function and pathology (including an update of the nomenclature). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;322:1111-22 pubmed
    ..An update of the S100 nomenclature is included, because some of the recently identified S100 genes and pseudogenes had to be renamed. ..
  11. Kerkhoff C, Nacken W, Benedyk M, Dagher M, Sopalla C, Doussiere J. The arachidonic acid-binding protein S100A8/A9 promotes NADPH oxidase activation by interaction with p67phox and Rac-2. FASEB J. 2005;19:467-9 pubmed
    ..its functional relevance by the impaired oxidase activity in neutrophil-like NB4 cells, after specific blockage of S100A9 expression, and bone marrow polymorphonuclear neutrophils from S100A9-/- mice...
  12. Manitz M, Horst B, Seeliger S, Strey A, Skryabin B, Gunzer M, et al. Loss of S100A9 (MRP14) results in reduced interleukin-8-induced CD11b surface expression, a polarized microfilament system, and diminished responsiveness to chemoattractants in vitro. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:1034-43 pubmed
    The S100A9 (MRP14) protein is abundantly expressed in myeloid cells and has been associated with various inflammatory diseases. The S100A9-deficient mice described here were viable, fertile, and generally of healthy appearance...
  13. Achouiti A, Vogl T, Urban C, Röhm M, Hommes T, van Zoelen M, et al. Myeloid-related protein-14 contributes to protective immunity in gram-negative pneumonia derived sepsis. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002987 pubmed publisher
    ..pneumoniae is a common cause of pneumonia-derived sepsis. Myeloid related protein 8 (MRP8, S100A8) and MRP14 (S100A9) are the most abundant cytoplasmic proteins in neutrophils...
  14. Hofmann M, Drury S, Fu C, Qu W, Taguchi A, Lu Y, et al. RAGE mediates a novel proinflammatory axis: a central cell surface receptor for S100/calgranulin polypeptides. Cell. 1999;97:889-901 pubmed
    ..These data highlight a novel paradigm in inflammation and identify roles for EN-RAGEs and RAGE in chronic cellular activation and tissue injury. ..
  15. Lee M, Lee J, Choi J, Lee C, Sim J, Cho C, et al. Interleukin-6 induces S100A9 expression in colonic epithelial cells through STAT3 activation in experimental ulcerative colitis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e38801 pubmed publisher
    ..Although high concentrations of S100A9 protein and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are found in patients with IBD, the expression mechanism of S100A9 in colonic ..
  16. Passey R, Williams E, Lichanska A, Wells C, Hu S, Geczy C, et al. A null mutation in the inflammation-associated S100 protein S100A8 causes early resorption of the mouse embryo. J Immunol. 1999;163:2209-16 pubmed
    ..The gene is expressed together with its dimerization partner S100A9 during myelopoiesis in the fetal liver and in adult bone marrow as well as in mature granulocytes...
  17. Hobbs J, May R, Tanousis K, McNeill E, Mathies M, Gebhardt C, et al. Myeloid cell function in MRP-14 (S100A9) null mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:2564-76 pubmed
    ..In an in vivo model of peritonitis, MRP-14(-/-) mice showed no difference from wild-type mice in induced inflammatory response. The data indicate that MRP-14 and MRP-8 are dispensable for many myeloid cell functions. ..
  18. Raquil M, Anceriz N, Rouleau P, Tessier P. Blockade of antimicrobial proteins S100A8 and S100A9 inhibits phagocyte migration to the alveoli in streptococcal pneumonia. J Immunol. 2008;180:3366-74 pubmed
    We investigated the roles of the potent, chemotactic antimicrobial proteins S100A8, S100A9, and S100A8/A9 in leukocyte migration in a model of streptococcal pneumonia...
  19. Dai J, Kumbhare A, Youssef D, McCall C, El Gazzar M. Intracellular S100A9 Promotes Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells during Late Sepsis. Front Immunol. 2017;8:1565 pubmed publisher
    ..b>S100A9 mRNA and intracellular protein levels increase during early sepsis and remain elevated in Gr1+CD11b..
  20. Tsai S, Segovia J, Chang T, Morris I, Berton M, Tessier P, et al. DAMP molecule S100A9 acts as a molecular pattern to enhance inflammation during influenza A virus infection: role of DDX21-TRIF-TLR4-MyD88 pathway. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1003848 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified a DAMP molecule, S100A9 (also known as Calgranulin B or MRP-14), as an endogenous non-PAMP activator of TLR signaling during influenza A ..
  21. Björk P, Björk A, Vogl T, Stenstrom M, Liberg D, Olsson A, et al. Identification of human S100A9 as a novel target for treatment of autoimmune disease via binding to quinoline-3-carboxamides. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e97 pubmed publisher
    ..a radioactively labelled quinoline-3-carboxamide compound, we could determine a direct association between human S100A9 and quinoline-3-carboxamides. This interaction was strictly dependent on both Zn++ and Ca++...
  22. Ortiz M, Kumar V, Martner A, Mony S, Donthireddy L, Condamine T, et al. Immature myeloid cells directly contribute to skin tumor development by recruiting IL-17-producing CD4+ T cells. J Exp Med. 2015;212:351-67 pubmed publisher
    ..that predispose to development of skin and colon tumors are associated with accumulation in tissues of CD33+S100A9+ cells, the phenotype typical for myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancer or immature myeloid cells (IMCs) in ..
  23. Volz H, Laohachewin D, Seidel C, Lasitschka F, Keilbach K, Wienbrandt A, et al. S100A8/A9 aggravates post-ischemic heart failure through activation of RAGE-dependent NF-?B signaling. Basic Res Cardiol. 2012;107:250 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides evidence that sustained activation of S100A8/A9 critically contributes to the development of post-ischemic HF driving the progressive course of HF through activation of RAGE. ..
  24. Marenholz I, Lovering R, Heizmann C. An update of the S100 nomenclature. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1763:1282-3 pubmed
    ..Here we present the official and updated nomenclature of this protein family, approved by the HGNC (HUGO gene nomenclature committee) and ECS (European Calcium Society). ..
  25. Mares C, Ojeda S, Morris E, Li Q, Teale J. Initial delay in the immune response to Francisella tularensis is followed by hypercytokinemia characteristic of severe sepsis and correlating with upregulation and release of damage-associated molecular patterns. Infect Immun. 2008;76:3001-10 pubmed publisher
    ..was further supported by a bacteremia and the cellular relocalization and release of high-mobility group box-1 and S100A9, both of which are damage-associated molecular pattern molecules and are known to be mediators of severe sepsis.
  26. Moore J, Becker K, Nicklay J, Boyd K, Skaar E, Caprioli R. Imaging mass spectrometry for assessing temporal proteomics: analysis of calprotectin in Acinetobacter baumannii pulmonary infection. Proteomics. 2014;14:820-828 pubmed publisher
    ..The antimicrobial S100 protein calprotectin, a heterodimer of subunits S100A8 and S100A9, is an abundant cytosolic component of neutrophils...
  27. Zhang J, Gao F, Zhi H, Luo A, Ding F, Wu M, et al. Expression patterns of esophageal cancer deregulated genes in C57BL/6J mouse embryogenesis. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:1088-92 pubmed
    ..S100A8 and S100A9 may play different roles in early embryonic development...
  28. Ridinger K, Ilg E, Niggli F, Heizmann C, Schafer B. Clustered organization of S100 genes in human and mouse. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1448:254-63 pubmed
    ..The linkage relationships between the genes S100A8-S100A9 and S100A3-S100A4-S100A5-S100A6 were conserved during divergence of human and mouse about 70 million years ago...
  29. Yamamoto K, Miki Y, Sato M, Taketomi Y, Nishito Y, Taya C, et al. The role of group IIF-secreted phospholipase A2 in epidermal homeostasis and hyperplasia. J Exp Med. 2015;212:1901-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight PLA2G2F as a previously unrecognized regulator of skin pathophysiology and point to this enzyme as a novel drug target for epidermal-hyperplasic diseases. ..
  30. Lagasse E, Weissman I. Mouse MRP8 and MRP14, two intracellular calcium-binding proteins associated with the development of the myeloid lineage. Blood. 1992;79:1907-15 pubmed
    MRP8 and MRP14 are two S100-like calcium-binding proteins of unknown function, associated with numbers of human inflammatory disorders. Both molecules have been described as L1 complex, cystic fibrosis antigen, or p8 and p14...
  31. Wang J, Zhou X, Zhao J, Li Z, Li X. Screening for feature genes associated with hereditary hemochromatosis and functional analysis with DNA microarrays. Genet Mol Res. 2013;12:6240-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed that the S100a8 and S100a9 genes were common DEGs in both tissues examined...
  32. Zreiqat H, Belluoccio D, Smith M, Wilson R, Rowley L, Jones K, et al. S100A8 and S100A9 in experimental osteoarthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12:R16 pubmed publisher
    The objective was to evaluate the changes in S100A8 S100A9, and their complex (S100A8/S100A9) in cartilage during the onset of osteoarthritis (OA) as opposed to inflammatory arthritis...
  33. Wei X, Wu B, Zhao J, Zeng Z, Xuan W, Cao S, et al. Myocardial Hypertrophic Preconditioning Attenuates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy and Slows Progression to Heart Failure Through Upregulation of S100A8/A9. Circulation. 2015;131:1506-17; discussion 1517 pubmed publisher
    ..Both mRNA and protein expression of S100A8 and S100A9 showed significant upregulation after the removal of hypertrophic stimulation and persisted for 6 weeks in ..
  34. Kim H, Ryu J, Woo H, Cho S, Sung M, Kim S, et al. Patterns of gene expression associated with Pten deficiency in the developing inner ear. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97544 pubmed publisher
    ..From this study, we suggest two key regulatory signaling networks mediated by Spp1 and Rgs4, which may play potential roles in neuronal differentiation of developing auditory neurons. ..
  35. De Filippo K, Neill D, Mathies M, Bangert M, McNeill E, Kadioglu A, et al. A new protective role for S100A9 in regulation of neutrophil recruitment during invasive pneumococcal pneumonia. FASEB J. 2014;28:3600-8 pubmed publisher
    ..we investigated S100A8/A9 involvement in the host response to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection making use of S100a9(-/-) mice that lack heterodimer expression in myeloid cells...
  36. Krausgruber T, Schiering C, Adelmann K, Harrison O, Chomka A, Pearson C, et al. T-bet is a key modulator of IL-23-driven pathogenic CD4(+) T cell responses in the intestine. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11627 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies T-bet as a key modulator of IL-23-driven colitogenic responses in the intestine and has important implications for understanding of heterogeneity among inflammatory bowel disease patients. ..
  37. Yu Z, Lin K, Bhandari A, Spencer J, Xu X, Wang N, et al. The Grainyhead-like epithelial transactivator Get-1/Grhl3 regulates epidermal terminal differentiation and interacts functionally with LMO4. Dev Biol. 2006;299:122-36 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the Get-1 and LMO4 genes interact functionally to regulate epidermal terminal differentiation. ..
  38. Petersen B, Wolf M, Austermann J, van Lent P, Foell D, Ahlmann M, et al. The alarmin Mrp8/14 as regulator of the adaptive immune response during allergic contact dermatitis. EMBO J. 2013;32:100-11 pubmed publisher
    Mrp8 and Mrp14 are endogenous alarmins amplifying inflammation via Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) activation...
  39. Schelbergen R, de Munter W, van den Bosch M, Lafeber F, Sloetjes A, Vogl T, et al. Alarmins S100A8/S100A9 aggravate osteophyte formation in experimental osteoarthritis and predict osteophyte progression in early human symptomatic osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016;75:218-25 pubmed publisher
    Alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 are major products of activated macrophages regulating cartilage damage and synovial activation during murine and human osteoarthritis (OA)...
  40. He Z, Riva M, Björk P, Swärd K, Morgelin M, Leanderson T, et al. CD14 Is a Co-Receptor for TLR4 in the S100A9-Induced Pro-Inflammatory Response in Monocytes. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0156377 pubmed publisher
    The cytosolic Ca2+-binding S100A9 and S100A8 proteins form heterodimers that are primarily expressed in human neutrophils and monocytes...
  41. Hibino T, Sakaguchi M, Miyamoto S, Yamamoto M, Motoyama A, Hosoi J, et al. S100A9 is a novel ligand of EMMPRIN that promotes melanoma metastasis. Cancer Res. 2013;73:172-83 pubmed publisher
    The calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 can dimerize to form calprotectin, the release of which during tissue damage has been implicated in inflammation and metastasis...
  42. Zackular J, Moore J, Jordan A, Juttukonda L, Noto M, Nicholson M, et al. Dietary zinc alters the microbiota and decreases resistance to Clostridium difficile infection. Nat Med. 2016;22:1330-1334 pubmed publisher
    ..difficile. ..
  43. Hiroshima Y, Hsu K, Tedla N, Wong S, Chow S, Kawaguchi N, et al. S100A8/A9 and S100A9 reduce acute lung injury. Immunol Cell Biol. 2017;95:461-472 pubmed publisher
    S100A8 and S100A9 are myeloid cell-derived proteins that are elevated in several types of inflammatory lung disorders. Pro- and anti-inflammatory properties are reported and these proteins are proposed to activate TLR4...
  44. Raftery M, Harrison C, Alewood P, Jones A, Geczy C. Isolation of the murine S100 protein MRP14 (14 kDa migration-inhibitory-factor-related protein) from activated spleen cells: characterization of post-translational modifications and zinc binding. Biochem J. 1996;316 ( Pt 1):285-93 pubmed
    b>MRP14 (macrophage migration-inhibitory factor-related protein of molecular mass 14 kDa) is an S100 calcium binding protein constitutively expressed in human neutrophils which may be associated with cellular activation/inflammation...
  45. Pagano R, Sampaio S, Juliano L, Juliano M, Giorgi R. The C-terminus of murine S100A9 inhibits spreading and phagocytic activity of adherent peritoneal cells. Inflamm Res. 2005;54:204-10 pubmed
    In the present study, the effect of a synthetic peptide (H(92)-G(102)) identical to the C-terminus of murine S100A9 (mS100A9p) was investigated on adherent peritoneal cell function...
  46. Kuipers M, Vogl T, Aslami H, Jongsma G, van den Berg E, Vlaar A, et al. High levels of S100A8/A9 proteins aggravate ventilator-induced lung injury via TLR4 signaling. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68694 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, wild-type and S100A9 knock-out mice, naive and with lipopolysaccharide-induced injured lungs, were randomized to 5 hours of ..
  47. Narumi K, Miyakawa R, Ueda R, Hashimoto H, Yamamoto Y, Yoshida T, et al. Proinflammatory Proteins S100A8/S100A9 Activate NK Cells via Interaction with RAGE. J Immunol. 2015;194:5539-48 pubmed publisher
    ..c. inoculated Pan02 cells stably expressing S100A8 and S100A9 proteins (Pan02-S100A8/A9) in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice...
  48. Lim S, Raftery M, Cai H, Hsu K, Yan W, Hseih H, et al. S-nitrosylated S100A8: novel anti-inflammatory properties. J Immunol. 2008;181:5627-36 pubmed
    S100A8 and S100A9, highly expressed by neutrophils, activated macrophages, and microvascular endothelial cells, are secreted during inflammatory processes...
  49. De Ponti A, Wiechert L, Schneller D, Pusterla T, Longerich T, Hogg N, et al. A pro-tumorigenic function of S100A8/A9 in carcinogen-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 2015;369:396-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that the damage-associated molecular pattern molecules S100A8 and S100A9, forming a heterodimer called calprotectin, might be critically involved in HCC development...
  50. Lioumi M, Ferguson C, Sharpe P, Freeman T, Marenholz I, Mischke D, et al. Isolation and characterization of human and mouse ZIRTL, a member of the IRT1 family of transporters, mapping within the epidermal differentiation complex. Genomics. 1999;62:272-80 pubmed
    ..within chromosomal band 1q21, while the mouse gene maps within the mouse EDC, on mouse chromosome 3, between S100A9 and S100A13...
  51. Shimizu K, Libby P, Rocha V, Folco E, Shubiki R, Grabie N, et al. Loss of myeloid related protein-8/14 exacerbates cardiac allograft rejection. Circulation. 2011;124:2920-32 pubmed publisher
    The calcium-binding proteins myeloid-related protein (MRP)-8 (S100A8) and MRP-14 (S100A9) form MRP-8/14 heterodimers (S100A8/A9, calprotectin) that regulate myeloid cell function and inflammatory responses and serve as early serum markers ..
  52. Tsai S, Segovia J, Chang T, Shil N, Pokharel S, Kannan T, et al. Regulation of TLR3 Activation by S100A9. J Immunol. 2015;195:4426-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In the current study, we identified intracellular S100A9 protein as a critical regulator of TLR3 trafficking...
  53. Contreras I, Shio M, Cesaro A, Tessier P, Olivier M. Impact of neutrophil-secreted myeloid related proteins 8 and 14 (MRP 8/14) on leishmaniasis progression. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2461 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our study reveals the critical role played by MRPs in the regulation of Leishmania infection and how this pathogen can subvert its action. ..
  54. Nemeth J, Stein I, Haag D, Riehl A, Longerich T, Horwitz E, et al. S100A8 and S100A9 are novel nuclear factor kappa B target genes during malignant progression of murine and human liver carcinogenesis. Hepatology. 2009;50:1251-62 pubmed publisher
    ..HCC) revealed a comprehensive list of known and novel putative NF-kappaB target genes, including S100a8 and S100a9. We detected increased co-expression of S100A8 and S100A9 proteins in mouse HCC cells, in human HCC tissue, and in ..
  55. Riva M, Källberg E, Björk P, Hancz D, Vogl T, Roth J, et al. Induction of nuclear factor-?B responses by the S100A9 protein is Toll-like receptor-4-dependent. Immunology. 2012;137:172-82 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we investigated the capacity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -free S100A9 (DAMP) protein to activate human and mouse cells compared with lipoprotein-free LPS (PAMP)...
  56. Jia J, Arif A, Terenzi F, Willard B, Plow E, Hazen S, et al. Target-selective protein S-nitrosylation by sequence motif recognition. Cell. 2014;159:623-34 pubmed publisher
    ..a stimulus-inducible, heterotrimeric S-nitrosylase complex consisting of inducible NOS (iNOS), S100A8, and S100A9. S100A9 exhibits transnitrosylase activity, shuttling NO from iNOS to the target protein, whereas S100A8 and ..
  57. Gonzalez Lopez A, Aguirre A, López Alonso I, Amado L, Astudillo A, Fernández García M, et al. MMP-8 deficiency increases TLR/RAGE ligands S100A8 and S100A9 and exacerbates lung inflammation during endotoxemia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39940 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a proteomic approach, we identify alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 as two of the main differences between genotypes...
  58. Akbarzadeh R, Yu X, Vogl T, Ludwig R, Schmidt E, Zillikens D, et al. Myeloid-related proteins-8 and -14 are expressed but dispensable in the pathogenesis of experimental epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and bullous pemphigoid. J Dermatol Sci. 2016;81:165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Although MRP-8/-14 expression is highly increased in experimental as well as human disease, these proteins do not contribute to the pathogenesis in the effector phase of EBA and BP. ..
  59. New S, Goettsch C, Aikawa M, Marchini J, Shibasaki M, Yabusaki K, et al. Macrophage-derived matrix vesicles: an alternative novel mechanism for microcalcification in atherosclerotic plaques. Circ Res. 2013;113:72-7 pubmed publisher
    ..MVs expressed exosomal markers (CD9 and TSG101) and contained S100A9 and annexin V...
  60. Ravasi T, Hsu K, Goyette J, Schroder K, Yang Z, Rahimi F, et al. Probing the S100 protein family through genomic and functional analysis. Genomics. 2004;84:10-22 pubmed
    ..Evolution of the S100 proteins appears to have occurred in a modular fashion, also seen in other protein families such as the C2H2-type zinc-finger family. ..
  61. Baker J, Jeffery R, May R, Mathies M, Spencer Dene B, Poulsom R, et al. Distinct roles for S100a8 in early embryo development and in the maternal deciduum. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2194-203 pubmed publisher
    ..protein expressed in myeloid cells where it forms a stable heterodimer with another S100 protein family member, S100a9. The S100a9(-/-) mouse is viable and phenotypically normal, whereas the S100a8(-/-) condition is embryonic lethal...
  62. Liu Y, Wei J, Shi M, Jiang H, Zhou J. Glucocorticoid Induces Hepatic Steatosis by Inhibiting Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3)/S100A9 Protein Signaling in Granulocytic Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cells. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:21771-21785 pubmed
    ..accumulation mediated the effects of GCs on the fatty liver, in which activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3)/S100A9 signaling plays an important role...
  63. Källberg E, Vogl T, Liberg D, Olsson A, Björk P, Wikstrom P, et al. S100A9 interaction with TLR4 promotes tumor growth. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34207 pubmed publisher
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    ..These findings define the molecular safeguards for barrier function that accompany the transition from intrauterine to terrestrial life. ..
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    ..During infection, neutrophils release complexes of myeloid-related protein (MRP)8 and MRP14 (MRP8/14)...
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    ..Microarray gene expression analysis showed that S100a9, Defa20, Mmp10, Mmp7, Ptgs2, and Ang2 were among the most downregulated genes, whereas Per3, Tef, Rnf152, and ..
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    ..WT) mice with glomerulonephritis have elevated serum levels of S100A8/A9, whereas mice deficient in MRP14 (S100a9(-/-)), and hence S100A8/A9, are significantly protected from disease...
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    b>S100A9 is constitutively expressed in neutrophils, dendritic cells, and monocytes; is associated with acute and chronic inflammatory conditions; and is implicated in obesity and cardiovascular disease in humans...
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    The Mrp8 and Mrp14 proteins (calprotectin) accumulate within tissues during aging and may contribute to chronic inflammation...
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    ..Our studies have identified B cells and antigen specific IgG1 as potential therapeutic targets for pulmonary hypertension associated with immune dysfunction and environmental exposures. ..
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    The S100 family member S100A9 and its heterodimeric partner, S100A8, are cytosolic Ca2+ binding proteins abundantly expressed in neutrophils...
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    ..transfected cell models, we found that MDSC expansion is driven by the interaction of the proinflammatory molecule S100A9 with CD33...
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    ..MRI of the formulations were assessed in vivo in high fat-fed apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)), ApoE(-/-)/Mrp14(-/-) (double knockout) and chow-fed wild-type (C57BL/6) mice...
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    ..Wt, tlr2(-/-), tlr4(-/-), and s100a9(-/-) mice were administered CCl4 either acutely (8, 24, 48, or 72 h) or chronically (8 weeks) and livers ..