Gene Symbol: S100a8
Description: S100 calcium binding protein A8 (calgranulin A)
Alias: 60B8Ag, AI323541, B8Ag, CFAg, CP-10, Caga, MRP8, protein S100-A8, MRP-8, S100 calcium-binding protein A8, calgranulin-A, chemotactic S100 protein, chemotactic cytokine CP-10, leukocyte L1 complex light chain, migration inhibitory factor-related protein 8, pro-inflammatory S100 cytokine
Species: mouse
Products:     S100a8

Top Publications

  1. Iismaa S, Hu S, Kocher M, Lackmann M, Harrison C, Thliveris S, et al. Recombinant and cellular expression of the murine chemotactic protein, CP-10. DNA Cell Biol. 1994;13:183-92 pubmed
  2. Hiratsuka S, Watanabe A, Aburatani H, Maru Y. Tumour-mediated upregulation of chemoattractants and recruitment of myeloid cells predetermines lung metastasis. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:1369-75 pubmed
    ..However, the mechanism of metastasis is not well understood. Here, we show that the inflammatory chemoattractants S100A8 and S100A9, whose expression is induced by distant primary tumours, attract Mac 1 (macrophage antigen 1)(+)-..
  3. Greenlee K, Corry D, Engler D, Matsunami R, Tessier P, Cook R, et al. Proteomic identification of in vivo substrates for matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 reveals a mechanism for resolution of inflammation. J Immunol. 2006;177:7312-21 pubmed
    ..In vitro cleavage assays and mass spectroscopy confirmed that three of the identified proteins, Ym1, S100A8, and S100A9, were substrates of MMP2, MMP9, or both...
  4. Passey R, Xu K, Hume D, Geczy C. S100A8: emerging functions and regulation. J Leukoc Biol. 1999;66:549-56 pubmed
    The functional importance of members of the S100 Ca2+-binding protein family is becoming apparent. Murine (m)S100A8 (initially named CP-10) is a potent chemoattractant (10(-13) to 10(-11) M) for myeloid cells and the chemotactic activity ..
  5. Marenholz I, Heizmann C, Fritz G. S100 proteins in mouse and man: from evolution to function and pathology (including an update of the nomenclature). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;322:1111-22 pubmed
    ..An update of the S100 nomenclature is included, because some of the recently identified S100 genes and pseudogenes had to be renamed. ..
  6. Pouliot P, Plante I, Raquil M, Tessier P, Olivier M. Myeloid-related proteins rapidly modulate macrophage nitric oxide production during innate immune response. J Immunol. 2008;181:3595-601 pubmed
    b>S100A8 and S100A9 are intracellular calcium-binding proteins produced by myeloid cells that promote neutrophil/monocyte recruitment at inflamed tissues by enhancing attachment to endothelial cells...
  7. Vogl T, Tenbrock K, Ludwig S, Leukert N, Ehrhardt C, van Zoelen M, et al. Mrp8 and Mrp14 are endogenous activators of Toll-like receptor 4, promoting lethal, endotoxin-induced shock. Nat Med. 2007;13:1042-9 pubmed
    ..the inflammatory cascade during sepsis, we characterized the functions of myeloid-related protein-8 (Mrp8, S100A8) and myeloid-related protein-14 (Mrp14, S100A9), two abundant cytoplasmic proteins of phagocytes...
  8. Ryckman C, McColl S, Vandal K, de Médicis R, Lussier A, Poubelle P, et al. Role of S100A8 and S100A9 in neutrophil recruitment in response to monosodium urate monohydrate crystals in the air-pouch model of acute gouty arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:2310-20 pubmed
    To examine the role of chemokines, S100A8, and S100A9 in neutrophil accumulation induced by the causative agent of gout, monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals.
  9. Hiroshima Y, Hsu K, Tedla N, Chung Y, Chow S, Herbert C, et al. S100A8 induces IL-10 and protects against acute lung injury. J Immunol. 2014;192:2800-11 pubmed publisher
    b>S100A8 is considered proinflammatory by activating TLR4 and/or the receptor for advanced glycation end products. The aim was to investigate inflammatory effects of S100A8 in murine lung...

More Information


  1. Boyd J, Kan B, Roberts H, Wang Y, Walley K. S100A8 and S100A9 mediate endotoxin-induced cardiomyocyte dysfunction via the receptor for advanced glycation end products. Circ Res. 2008;102:1239-46 pubmed publisher
    ..tissue exposed to systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we discovered that 2 small calcium-regulating proteins (S100A8 and S100A9) are highly upregulated...
  2. Corbin B, Seeley E, Raab A, Feldmann J, Miller M, Torres V, et al. Metal chelation and inhibition of bacterial growth in tissue abscesses. Science. 2008;319:962-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that calprotectin is a critical factor in the innate immune response to infection and define metal chelation as a strategy for inhibiting microbial growth inside abscessed tissue. ..
  3. Endoh Y, Chung Y, Clark I, Geczy C, Hsu K. IL-10-dependent S100A8 gene induction in monocytes/macrophages by double-stranded RNA. J Immunol. 2009;182:2258-68 pubmed publisher
    The S100 calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 are elevated systemically in patients with viral infections...
  4. Ravasi T, Hsu K, Goyette J, Schroder K, Yang Z, Rahimi F, et al. Probing the S100 protein family through genomic and functional analysis. Genomics. 2004;84:10-22 pubmed
    ..Structure-function analysis of the chemotactic properties of murine S100A8 and human S100A12, particularly within the active hinge domain, suggests that the human protein is the functional ..
  5. Zreiqat H, Howlett C, Gronthos S, Hume D, Geczy C. S100A8/S100A9 and their association with cartilage and bone. J Mol Histol. 2007;38:381-91 pubmed
    b>S100A8 and S100A9 are calcium-binding proteins expressed in myeloid cells and are markers of numerous inflammatory diseases in humans. S100A9 has been associated with dystrophic calcification in human atherosclerosis...
  6. Achouiti A, Vogl T, Urban C, Röhm M, Hommes T, van Zoelen M, et al. Myeloid-related protein-14 contributes to protective immunity in gram-negative pneumonia derived sepsis. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002987 pubmed publisher
    Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae is a common cause of pneumonia-derived sepsis. Myeloid related protein 8 (MRP8, S100A8) and MRP14 (S100A9) are the most abundant cytoplasmic proteins in neutrophils...
  7. Sinha P, Okoro C, Foell D, Freeze H, Ostrand Rosenberg S, Srikrishna G. Proinflammatory S100 proteins regulate the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. J Immunol. 2008;181:4666-75 pubmed
    ..that Gr1(high)CD11b(high)F4/80(-)CD80(+)IL4Ralpha(+/-)Arginase(+) MDSC are induced by the proinflammatory proteins S100A8/A9...
  8. Hobbs J, May R, Tanousis K, McNeill E, Mathies M, Gebhardt C, et al. Myeloid cell function in MRP-14 (S100A9) null mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:2564-76 pubmed
    ..In an in vivo model of peritonitis, MRP-14(-/-) mice showed no difference from wild-type mice in induced inflammatory response. The data indicate that MRP-14 and MRP-8 are dispensable for many myeloid cell functions. ..
  9. Raquil M, Anceriz N, Rouleau P, Tessier P. Blockade of antimicrobial proteins S100A8 and S100A9 inhibits phagocyte migration to the alveoli in streptococcal pneumonia. J Immunol. 2008;180:3366-74 pubmed
    We investigated the roles of the potent, chemotactic antimicrobial proteins S100A8, S100A9, and S100A8/A9 in leukocyte migration in a model of streptococcal pneumonia...
  10. Passey R, Williams E, Lichanska A, Wells C, Hu S, Geczy C, et al. A null mutation in the inflammation-associated S100 protein S100A8 causes early resorption of the mouse embryo. J Immunol. 1999;163:2209-16 pubmed
    b>S100A8 (also known as CP10 or MRP8) was the first member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins shown to be chemotactic for myeloid cells...
  11. van Lent P, Grevers L, Blom A, Arntz O, van de Loo F, van der Kraan P, et al. Stimulation of chondrocyte-mediated cartilage destruction by S100A8 in experimental murine arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:3776-87 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether S100A8 is actively involved in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated chondrocyte activation.
  12. Turovskaya O, Foell D, Sinha P, Vogl T, Newlin R, Nayak J, et al. RAGE, carboxylated glycans and S100A8/A9 play essential roles in colitis-associated carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:2035-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Carboxylated glycans are expressed on a subpopulation of RAGE on colon cancer cells and mediate S100A8/A9 binding to RAGE...
  13. Goto Y, Sanjoba C, Arakaki N, Okamoto M, Saeki K, Onodera T, et al. Accumulation of macrophages expressing MRP8 and MRP14 in skin lesions during Leishmania major infection in BALB/c and RAG-2 knockout mice. Parasitol Int. 2007;56:231-4 pubmed
    Migration inhibitory factor-related protein 8 (MRP8) and MRP14 are expressed by myeloid cells and especially known as marker proteins of an immature and inflammatory subtype of macrophages...
  14. Vandal K, Rouleau P, Boivin A, Ryckman C, Talbot M, Tessier P. Blockade of S100A8 and S100A9 suppresses neutrophil migration in response to lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol. 2003;171:2602-9 pubmed
    Recently, proinflammatory activities had been described for S100A8 and S100A9, two proteins found at inflammatory sites and within the neutrophil cytoplasm...
  15. Nacken W, Mooren F, Manitz M, Bode G, Sorg C, Kerkhoff C. S100A9 deficiency alters adenosine-5'-triphosphate induced calcium signalling but does not generally interfere with calcium and zinc homeostasis in murine neutrophils. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2005;37:1241-53 pubmed
    ..Polymorphonuclear neutrophils from S100A9 ko mice are also devoid of S100A8. Therefore, S100A9-deficient neutrophils were used as a model to study the role of the two S100 proteins in the ..
  16. Hofmann M, Drury S, Fu C, Qu W, Taguchi A, Lu Y, et al. RAGE mediates a novel proinflammatory axis: a central cell surface receptor for S100/calgranulin polypeptides. Cell. 1999;97:889-901 pubmed
    ..These data highlight a novel paradigm in inflammation and identify roles for EN-RAGEs and RAGE in chronic cellular activation and tissue injury. ..
  17. Lim S, Raftery M, Cai H, Hsu K, Yan W, Hseih H, et al. S-nitrosylated S100A8: novel anti-inflammatory properties. J Immunol. 2008;181:5627-36 pubmed
    b>S100A8 and S100A9, highly expressed by neutrophils, activated macrophages, and microvascular endothelial cells, are secreted during inflammatory processes...
  18. Petersen B, Wolf M, Austermann J, van Lent P, Foell D, Ahlmann M, et al. The alarmin Mrp8/14 as regulator of the adaptive immune response during allergic contact dermatitis. EMBO J. 2013;32:100-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Mrp8 and Mrp14 are endogenous alarmins amplifying inflammation via Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) activation...
  19. Muller I, Vogl T, Pappritz K, Miteva K, Savvatis K, Rohde D, et al. Pathogenic Role of the Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns S100A8 and S100A9 in Coxsackievirus B3-Induced Myocarditis. Circ Heart Fail. 2017;10: pubmed publisher
    The alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 are damage-associated molecular patterns, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular diseases, inflammation, and viral infections...
  20. Sevilla L, Latorre V, Sanchis A, Perez P. Epidermal inactivation of the glucocorticoid receptor triggers skin barrier defects and cutaneous inflammation. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:361-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Many upregulated genes, including S100a8/a9 and Tslp, also have increased expression in inflammatory skin diseases...
  21. Cangkrama M, Darido C, Georgy S, Partridge D, Auden A, Srivastava S, et al. Two Ancient Gene Families Are Critical for Maintenance of the Mammalian Skin Barrier in Postnatal Life. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:1438-1448 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings define the molecular safeguards for barrier function that accompany the transition from intrauterine to terrestrial life. ..
  22. Ridinger K, Ilg E, Niggli F, Heizmann C, Schafer B. Clustered organization of S100 genes in human and mouse. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1448:254-63 pubmed
    ..The linkage relationships between the genes S100A8-S100A9 and S100A3-S100A4-S100A5-S100A6 were conserved during divergence of human and mouse about 70 million years ..
  23. Deng Q, Sun M, Yang K, Zhu M, Chen K, Yuan J, et al. MRP8/14 enhances corneal susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection by amplifying inflammatory responses. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:1227-34 pubmed publisher
    We explored the role of myeloid-related protein 8 and 14 (MRP8/14) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) keratitis. MRP8/14 mRNA levels in human corneal scrapes and mouse corneas infected by PA were tested using real-time PCR...
  24. Lackmann M, Rajasekariah P, Iismaa S, Jones G, Cornish C, Hu S, et al. Identification of a chemotactic domain of the pro-inflammatory S100 protein CP-10. J Immunol. 1993;150:2981-91 pubmed
  25. Teng Z, Wang C, Wang Y, Huang K, Xiang X, Niu W, et al. S100A8, An Oocyte-Specific Chemokine, Directs the Migration of Ovarian Somatic Cells During Mouse Primordial Follicle Assembly. J Cell Physiol. 2015;230:2998-3008 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed that S100A8, a multi-functional chemokine, may participate in the process as it is mainly expressed in oocytes within the ..
  26. Lu S, Yu C, Liu Y, Dong H, Zhang X, Zhang S, et al. S100A8 contributes to postoperative cognitive dysfunction in mice undergoing tibial fracture surgery by activating the TLR4/MyD88 pathway. Brain Behav Immun. 2015;44:221-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Although S100A8 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) have been increasingly recognized to contribute to neuro-inflammation, little is ..
  27. Moore J, Becker K, Nicklay J, Boyd K, Skaar E, Caprioli R. Imaging mass spectrometry for assessing temporal proteomics: analysis of calprotectin in Acinetobacter baumannii pulmonary infection. Proteomics. 2014;14:820-828 pubmed publisher
    ..The antimicrobial S100 protein calprotectin, a heterodimer of subunits S100A8 and S100A9, is an abundant cytosolic component of neutrophils...
  28. Donato R. Functional roles of S100 proteins, calcium-binding proteins of the EF-hand type. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1450:191-231 pubmed
  29. Ryu M, Liu Y, Zhong X, Du J, Peterson N, Kong G, et al. Oncogenic Kras expression in postmitotic neurons leads to S100A8-S100A9 protein overexpression and gliosis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:22948-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Microarray analysis identified S100A8 and S100A9 as two secreted molecules that are significantly overexpressed in mutant cortices...
  30. Krausgruber T, Schiering C, Adelmann K, Harrison O, Chomka A, Pearson C, et al. T-bet is a key modulator of IL-23-driven pathogenic CD4(+) T cell responses in the intestine. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11627 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies T-bet as a key modulator of IL-23-driven colitogenic responses in the intestine and has important implications for understanding of heterogeneity among inflammatory bowel disease patients. ..
  31. Zhang X, Ai F, Li X, She X, Li N, Tang A, et al. Inflammation-induced S100A8 activates Id3 and promotes colorectal tumorigenesis. Int J Cancer. 2015;137:2803-14 pubmed publisher
    The aberrant expression of S100A8 and S100A9 is linked to nonresolving inflammation and ultimately to carcinogenesis, whereas the underlying mechanism that allows inflammation to progress to specific cancer types remains unknown...
  32. Nacken W, Manitz M, Sorg C. Molecular characterisation of the genomic locus of the mouse MRP8 gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996;1315:1-5 pubmed
    b>MRP8 is an inflammatory marker protein specifically expressed throughout the myeloid cell lineage in mouse and humans. Here the nucleotide sequence and the genomic structure of the mouse MRP8 gene (MM-MRP8) is presented...
  33. Raftery M, Harrison C, Alewood P, Jones A, Geczy C. Isolation of the murine S100 protein MRP14 (14 kDa migration-inhibitory-factor-related protein) from activated spleen cells: characterization of post-translational modifications and zinc binding. Biochem J. 1996;316 ( Pt 1):285-93 pubmed
    ..Ca2+ decreased Zn2+ binding in S100 beta but it did not influence binding to MRP14, suggesting that the Zn2+ binding site was distinct from and independent of the two Ca2+ binding domains. ..
  34. Serewko Auret M, Mould A, Loffler K, Duncan R, Kay G, Hayward N. Alterations in gene expression in MEN1-associated insulinoma development. Pancreas. 2010;39:1140-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To identify gene expression alterations associated with insulinoma formation and progression in 2 mouse models of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1...
  35. Takano A, Munhoz C, Moriscot A, Gupta S, Barreto Chaves M. S100A8/MYD88/NF-Ò›B: a novel pathway involved in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy driven by thyroid hormone. J Mol Med (Berl). 2017;95:671-682 pubmed publisher
    ..of cardiac hypertrophy and other consequences on the cardiovascular system, including the calcium-binding protein S100A8. However, this has never been investigated in the thyroid hormone (TH)-prompted cardiac hypertrophy...
  36. Hiroshima Y, Hsu K, Tedla N, Wong S, Chow S, Kawaguchi N, et al. S100A8/A9 and S100A9 reduce acute lung injury. Immunol Cell Biol. 2017;95:461-472 pubmed publisher
    b>S100A8 and S100A9 are myeloid cell-derived proteins that are elevated in several types of inflammatory lung disorders. Pro- and anti-inflammatory properties are reported and these proteins are proposed to activate TLR4...
  37. Zhang J, Gao F, Zhi H, Luo A, Ding F, Wu M, et al. Expression patterns of esophageal cancer deregulated genes in C57BL/6J mouse embryogenesis. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:1088-92 pubmed
    ..The known genes included differentiation related genes (S100A8), immunity related gene (IGL), translation and transcription regulation genes (RPL15, EEF1A1), cytoskeletal ..
  38. Kehl Fie T, Zhang Y, Moore J, Farrand A, Hood M, Rathi S, et al. MntABC and MntH contribute to systemic Staphylococcus aureus infection by competing with calprotectin for nutrient manganese. Infect Immun. 2013;81:3395-405 pubmed publisher
    ..In total, these studies provide insight into the mechanisms utilized by bacteria to evade host-imposed nutrient metal starvation and the critical importance of restricting manganese availability during infection. ..
  39. Hsu K, Chung Y, Endoh Y, Geczy C. TLR9 ligands induce S100A8 in macrophages via a STAT3-dependent pathway which requires IL-10 and PGE2. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e103629 pubmed publisher
    b>S100A8 and S100A9 are highly-expressed calcium-binding proteins in neutrophils and monocytes, and in subsets of macrophages in inflammatory lesions...
  40. Park S, Chen W, Durmus N, Bleck B, Reibman J, Riemekasten G, et al. The Effects of Antigen-Specific IgG1 Antibody for the Pulmonary-Hypertension-Phenotype and B Cells for Inflammation in Mice Exposed to Antigen and Fine Particles from Air Pollution. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0129910 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies have identified B cells and antigen specific IgG1 as potential therapeutic targets for pulmonary hypertension associated with immune dysfunction and environmental exposures. ..
  41. Wei X, Wu B, Zhao J, Zeng Z, Xuan W, Cao S, et al. Myocardial Hypertrophic Preconditioning Attenuates Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy and Slows Progression to Heart Failure Through Upregulation of S100A8/A9. Circulation. 2015;131:1506-17; discussion 1517 pubmed publisher
    ..Both mRNA and protein expression of S100A8 and S100A9 showed significant upregulation after the removal of hypertrophic stimulation and persisted for 6 weeks ..
  42. Maiseyeu A, Badgeley M, Kampfrath T, Mihai G, Deiuliis J, Liu C, et al. In vivo targeting of inflammation-associated myeloid-related protein 8/14 via gadolinium immunonanoparticles. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:962-70 pubmed publisher
    ..both ApoE(-/-) and double knockout mice, differentiated to macrophages, and were treated with LPS, with or without Mrp8, Mrp14, or Mrp8/14; conditioned media was used for in vitro studies...
  43. Gui J, Gober M, Yang X, Katlinski K, Marshall C, Sharma M, et al. Therapeutic Elimination of the Type 1 Interferon Receptor for Treating Psoriatic Skin Inflammation. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:1990-2002 pubmed publisher
  44. Kuipers M, Vogl T, Aslami H, Jongsma G, van den Berg E, Vlaar A, et al. High levels of S100A8/A9 proteins aggravate ventilator-induced lung injury via TLR4 signaling. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68694 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of endogenous triggers of innate immunity herein is less well understood. S100A8/A9 proteins are released by phagocytes during inflammation...
  45. Chiba M, Murata S, Myronovych A, Kohno K, Hiraiwa N, Nishibori M, et al. Elevation and characteristics of Rab30 and S100a8/S100a9 expression in an early phase of liver regeneration in the mouse. Int J Mol Med. 2011;27:567-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Among them, Rab30 and S100a8/S100a9, were identified as novel genes up-regulated over 20-fold at 2 h post PH as compared to normal liver, and ..
  46. Narumi K, Miyakawa R, Ueda R, Hashimoto H, Yamamoto Y, Yoshida T, et al. Proinflammatory Proteins S100A8/S100A9 Activate NK Cells via Interaction with RAGE. J Immunol. 2015;194:5539-48 pubmed publisher
    b>S100A8/A9, a proinflammatory protein, is upregulated in inflammatory diseases, and also has a tumor-promoting activity by the recruitment of myeloid cells and tumor cell invasion...
  47. Schelbergen R, de Munter W, van den Bosch M, Lafeber F, Sloetjes A, Vogl T, et al. Alarmins S100A8/S100A9 aggravate osteophyte formation in experimental osteoarthritis and predict osteophyte progression in early human symptomatic osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2016;75:218-25 pubmed publisher
    Alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 are major products of activated macrophages regulating cartilage damage and synovial activation during murine and human osteoarthritis (OA)...
  48. Holzinger D, Nippe N, Vogl T, Marketon K, Mysore V, Weinhage T, et al. Myeloid-related proteins 8 and 14 contribute to monosodium urate monohydrate crystal-induced inflammation in gout. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2014;66:1327-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These endogenous TLR-4 ligands released by activated phagocytes contribute to the maintenance of inflammation in gout. ..
  49. Maxwell J, Zhang Y, Brown W, Smith C, Byrne F, Fiorino M, et al. Differential Roles for Interleukin-23 and Interleukin-17 in Intestinal Immunoregulation. Immunity. 2015;43:739-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that IL-17A acts on intestinal epithelium to promote barrier function and provide insight into mechanisms underlying exacerbation of Crohn's disease when IL-17A or IL-17RA is inhibited. ..
  50. McNeill E, Hogg N. S100A9 has a protective role in inflammation-induced skin carcinogenesis. Int J Cancer. 2014;135:798-808 pubmed publisher
    The S100A8/A9 heterodimer is expressed by myeloid cells where its function has been extensively investigated...
  51. Chernov A, Dolkas J, Hoang K, Angert M, Srikrishna G, Vogl T, et al. The calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 initiate the early inflammatory program in injured peripheral nerves. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:11771-84 pubmed publisher
    ..b>S100a8 and S100a9 were the top up-regulated genes in both the P and D segments...
  52. De Ponti A, Wiechert L, Schneller D, Pusterla T, Longerich T, Hogg N, et al. A pro-tumorigenic function of S100A8/A9 in carcinogen-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Lett. 2015;369:396-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that the damage-associated molecular pattern molecules S100A8 and S100A9, forming a heterodimer called calprotectin, might be critically involved in HCC development...
  53. Loser K, Vogl T, Voskort M, Lueken A, Kupas V, Nacken W, et al. The Toll-like receptor 4 ligands Mrp8 and Mrp14 are crucial in the development of autoreactive CD8+ T cells. Nat Med. 2010;16:713-7 pubmed publisher
    Mechanisms linking innate immunity and autoimmune responses are poorly understood. Myeloid-related protein-8 (Mrp8) and Mrp14 are damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) highly upregulated in various autoimmune disorders...
  54. Ieguchi K, Omori T, Komatsu A, Tomita T, Deguchi A, Maru Y. Ephrin-A1 expression induced by S100A8 is mediated by the toll-like receptor 4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;440:623-9 pubmed publisher
    ..tumor, in mice and TNF?, an authentic positive regulator of ephrin-A1, was not elevated in the tumors, whereas S100A8 was. Moreover, S100A8 induced ephrin-A1 expression mediated by the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)...
  55. Contreras I, Shio M, Cesaro A, Tessier P, Olivier M. Impact of neutrophil-secreted myeloid related proteins 8 and 14 (MRP 8/14) on leishmaniasis progression. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2461 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our study reveals the critical role played by MRPs in the regulation of Leishmania infection and how this pathogen can subvert its action. ..
  56. Nemeth J, Stein I, Haag D, Riehl A, Longerich T, Horwitz E, et al. S100A8 and S100A9 are novel nuclear factor kappa B target genes during malignant progression of murine and human liver carcinogenesis. Hepatology. 2009;50:1251-62 pubmed publisher
    ..carcinoma (HCC) revealed a comprehensive list of known and novel putative NF-kappaB target genes, including S100a8 and S100a9...
  57. Croce K, Gao H, Wang Y, Mooroka T, Sakuma M, Shi C, et al. Myeloid-related protein-8/14 is critical for the biological response to vascular injury. Circulation. 2009;120:427-36 pubmed publisher
    Myeloid-related protein (MRP)-8 (S100A8) and MRP-14 (S100A9) are members of the S100 family of calcium-modulated proteins that regulate myeloid cell function and control inflammation, in part, through activation of Toll-like receptor-4 ..
  58. Grevers L, de Vries T, Vogl T, Abdollahi Roodsaz S, Sloetjes A, Leenen P, et al. S100A8 enhances osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro through activation of Toll-like receptor 4: implications for bone destruction in murine antigen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2011;63:1365-75 pubmed publisher
    Rheumatoid arthritis, which is associated with elevated levels of S100A8 and S100A9, is characterized by severe bone erosions caused by enhanced osteoclast formation and activity...
  59. Tirkos S, Newbigging S, Nguyen V, Keet M, Ackerley C, Kent G, et al. Expression of S100A8 correlates with inflammatory lung disease in congenic mice deficient of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. Respir Res. 2006;7:51 pubmed
    ..In contrast, lungs of congenic BALB/c CF mice remain unaffected. The basis of the neutrophil influx to the airways of CF patients and C57BL/6 mice, and its precipitating factor(s) (spontaneous or infection induced) remains unclear...
  60. Sekimoto R, Fukuda S, Maeda N, Tsushima Y, Matsuda K, Mori T, et al. Visualized macrophage dynamics and significance of S100A8 in obese fat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E2058-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant increase of S100A8 was detected in mature adipocyte fraction just 5 d after HF/HS diet...
  61. Lackmann M, Cornish C, Simpson R, Moritz R, Geczy C. Purification and structural analysis of a murine chemotactic cytokine (CP-10) with sequence homology to S100 proteins. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:7499-504 pubmed
    ..CP-10 appears to be the first protein of this family with a well defined function affecting cell migration, and its biological potency suggests an important role for this cytokine in cellular immune reactions. ..
  62. Mukai K, Miyagi T, Nishio K, Yokoyama Y, Yoshioka T, Saito Y, et al. S100A8 Production in CXCR2-Expressing CD11b+Gr-1high Cells Aggravates Hepatitis in Mice Fed a High-Fat and High-Cholesterol Diet. J Immunol. 2016;196:395-406 pubmed publisher
    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common chronic liver disease with a spectrum of presentations. S100A8 has been suggested to play a pivotal role as an endogenous immune-activator in inflammatory diseases...
  63. Shimizu K, Libby P, Rocha V, Folco E, Shubiki R, Grabie N, et al. Loss of myeloid related protein-8/14 exacerbates cardiac allograft rejection. Circulation. 2011;124:2920-32 pubmed publisher
    The calcium-binding proteins myeloid-related protein (MRP)-8 (S100A8) and MRP-14 (S100A9) form MRP-8/14 heterodimers (S100A8/A9, calprotectin) that regulate myeloid cell function and inflammatory responses and serve as early serum markers ..
  64. Sakaguchi M, Yamamoto M, Miyai M, Maeda T, Hiruma J, Murata H, et al. Identification of an S100A8 Receptor Neuroplastin-β and its Heterodimer Formation with EMMPRIN. J Invest Dermatol. 2016;136:2240-2250 pubmed publisher
    We previously reported a positive feedback loop between S100A8/A9 and proinflammatory cytokines mediated by extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer, an S100A9 receptor...
  65. Gonzalez Lopez A, Aguirre A, López Alonso I, Amado L, Astudillo A, Fernández García M, et al. MMP-8 deficiency increases TLR/RAGE ligands S100A8 and S100A9 and exacerbates lung inflammation during endotoxemia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39940 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a proteomic approach, we identify alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 as two of the main differences between genotypes...
  66. Baker J, Jeffery R, May R, Mathies M, Spencer Dene B, Poulsom R, et al. Distinct roles for S100a8 in early embryo development and in the maternal deciduum. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2194-203 pubmed publisher
    b>S100a8 is a cytosolic protein expressed in myeloid cells where it forms a stable heterodimer with another S100 protein family member, S100a9...
  67. Ma L, Sun P, Zhang J, Zhang Q, Yao S. Proinflammatory effects of S100A8/A9 via TLR4 and RAGE signaling pathways in BV-2 microglial cells. Int J Mol Med. 2017;40:31-38 pubmed publisher
    b>S100A8/A9, a heterodimer of the two calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9, has emerged as an important proinflammatory mediator in acute and chronic inflammation...
  68. Vrakas C, O Sullivan R, Evans S, Ingram D, Jones C, Phuong T, et al. The Measure of DAMPs and a role for S100A8 in recruiting suppressor cells in breast cancer lung metastasis. Immunol Invest. 2015;44:174-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Although S100A8 was expressed at relatively low levels in the tumor cells, expression was 100-fold higher in the lung and liver ..
  69. Akbarzadeh R, Yu X, Vogl T, Ludwig R, Schmidt E, Zillikens D, et al. Myeloid-related proteins-8 and -14 are expressed but dispensable in the pathogenesis of experimental epidermolysis bullosa acquisita and bullous pemphigoid. J Dermatol Sci. 2016;81:165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Although MRP-8/-14 expression is highly increased in experimental as well as human disease, these proteins do not contribute to the pathogenesis in the effector phase of EBA and BP. ..
  70. Ichikawa M, Williams R, Wang L, Vogl T, Srikrishna G. S100A8/A9 activate key genes and pathways in colon tumor progression. Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9:133-48 pubmed publisher
    The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in modulating tumor progression. Earlier, we showed that S100A8/A9 proteins secreted by myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) present within tumors and metastatic sites promote an ..
  71. Coveney A, Wang W, Kelly J, Liu J, Blankson S, Wu Q, et al. Myeloid-related protein 8 induces self-tolerance and cross-tolerance to bacterial infection via TLR4- and TLR2-mediated signal pathways. Sci Rep. 2015;5:13694 pubmed publisher
    Myeloid-related protein 8 (Mrp8) is the active component of Mrp8/14 protein complex released by phagocytes at the site of infection and stimulates inflammatory responses...
  72. de Guzman Strong C, Wertz P, Wang C, Yang F, Meltzer P, Andl T, et al. Lipid defect underlies selective skin barrier impairment of an epidermal-specific deletion of Gata-3. J Cell Biol. 2006;175:661-70 pubmed
    ..Comparison of these animal models illustrates how impairment of the skin barrier by two genetically distinct mechanisms leads to innate immune responses, as observed in the common human skin disorders psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. ..
  73. Kraakman M, Lee M, Al Sharea A, Dragoljevic D, Barrett T, Montenont E, et al. Neutrophil-derived S100 calcium-binding proteins A8/A9 promote reticulated thrombocytosis and atherogenesis in diabetes. J Clin Invest. 2017;127:2133-2147 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we found that in response to hyperglycemia, neutrophil-derived S100 calcium-binding proteins A8/A9 (S100A8/A9) interact with the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) on hepatic Kupffer cells, resulting in ..