Gene Symbol: Rxrg
Description: retinoid X receptor gamma
Alias: Nr2b3, retinoic acid receptor RXR-gamma, nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group B member 3
Species: mouse
Products:     Rxrg

Top Publications

  1. Lu L, Airey D, Williams R. Complex trait analysis of the hippocampus: mapping and biometric analysis of two novel gene loci with specific effects on hippocampal structure in mice. J Neurosci. 2001;21:3503-14 pubmed
    ..The Hipp gene loci modulate neuron number in the dentate gyrus, collectively shifting the population up or down by as much as 200,000 cells. Candidate genes for the Hipp loci include Rxrg and Fgfr3.
  2. Le T, Wroblewski E, Patel S, Riesenberg A, Brown N. Math5 is required for both early retinal neuron differentiation and cell cycle progression. Dev Biol. 2006;295:764-78 pubmed
    ..Thus, Math5 orchestrates neurogenesis in multiple ways, regulating both intrinsic and extrinsic processes. ..
  3. McCaffery P, Wagner E, O Neil J, Petkovich M, Drager U. Dorsal and ventral rentinoic territories defined by retinoic acid synthesis, break-down and nuclear receptor expression. Mech Dev. 1999;85:203-14 pubmed
  4. Huang J, Jarjour A, Nait Oumesmar B, Kerninon C, Williams A, Krezel W, et al. Retinoid X receptor gamma signaling accelerates CNS remyelination. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:45-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that RXR-? is a positive regulator of endogenous oligodendrocyte precursor cell differentiation and remyelination and might be a pharmacological target for regenerative therapy in the CNS. ..
  5. Ulven S, Gundersen T, Weedon M, Landaas V, Sakhi A, Fromm S, et al. Identification of endogenous retinoids, enzymes, binding proteins, and receptors during early postimplantation development in mouse: important role of retinal dehydrogenase type 2 in synthesis of all-trans-retinoic acid. Dev Biol. 2000;220:379-91 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our results suggest that RALDH2 is a key regulator in initiating retinoic acid synthesis sometime between the mid-primitive streak stage and the late allantoic bud stage in mouse embryos. ..
  6. van Deursen J, Ruitenbeek W, Heerschap A, Jap P, ter Laak H, Wieringa B. Creatine kinase (CK) in skeletal muscle energy metabolism: a study of mouse mutants with graded reduction in muscle CK expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:9091-5 pubmed
    ..The ability of muscles to perform burst activity is also subnormal and closely correlates with the level of M-CK expression. ..
  7. Kamei Y, Miura S, Suganami T, Akaike F, Kanai S, Sugita S, et al. Regulation of SREBP1c gene expression in skeletal muscle: role of retinoid X receptor/liver X receptor and forkhead-O1 transcription factor. Endocrinology. 2008;149:2293-305 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide in vivo and in vitro evidence that RXR/LXR up-regulates SREBP1c gene expression and that FOXO1 antagonizes this effect of RXR/LXR in skeletal muscle. ..
  8. Park S, Lee Y, Ko E, Kim J. Regulation of retinoid X receptor gamma expression by fed state in mouse liver. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;458:134-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that RXRγ may play an important role in tight control of glucose metabolism in the fasting-feeding cycle. ..
  9. Alric S, Froeschlé A, Piquemal D, Carnac G, Bonnieu A. Functional specificity of the two retinoic acid receptor RAR and RXR families in myogenesis. Oncogene. 1998;16:273-82 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate a critical role for RA-receptors in RA-control of C2 myogenesis and provide tools for studying the function of RA and its receptors during vertebrate development. ..

More Information


  1. Krezel W, Dupé V, Mark M, Dierich A, Kastner P, Chambon P. RXR gamma null mice are apparently normal and compound RXR alpha +/-/RXR beta -/-/RXR gamma -/- mutant mice are viable. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:9010-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, it appears that RXR gamma does not exert any essential function that cannot be performed by RXR alpha or RXR beta, and one copy of RXR alpha is sufficient to perform most of the functions of the RXRs. ..
  2. Carroll S, Zhang E, Wang B, Leclair K, Rahman A, Cohen D, et al. Adipocyte arrestin domain-containing 3 protein (Arrdc3) regulates uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) expression in white adipose independently of canonical changes in ?-adrenergic receptor signaling. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0173823 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this adipocyte effect is insufficient to generate the obesity-resistant phenotype of mice with ubiquitous deletion of Arrdc3, indicating a likely role for Arrdc3 in cells other than adipocytes. ..
  3. McDermott N, Gordon D, Kramer C, Liu Q, Linney E, Wood W, et al. Isolation and functional analysis of the mouse RXRgamma1 gene promoter in anterior pituitary cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:36839-44 pubmed
    ..Isolation and characterization of the mouse RXRgamma1 promoter region provides a tool for further investigation focusing on thyrotrope-specific gene expression as well as negative regulation of genes by retinoic acid. ..
  4. Huang J, Bi Y, Zhu G, He Y, Su Y, He B, et al. Retinoic acid signalling induces the differentiation of mouse fetal liver-derived hepatic progenitor cells. Liver Int. 2009;29:1569-81 pubmed publisher
    ..RA was further shown to induce glycogen synthesis in HP14.5 cells, an important function of mature hepatocytes. Our results strongly suggest that RA signalling may play an important role in regulating hepatic differentiation. ..
  5. Bartholin L, Powers S, Melhuish T, Lasse S, Weinstein M, Wotton D. TGIF inhibits retinoid signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:990-1001 pubmed
  6. Peirce J, Chesler E, Williams R, Lu L. Genetic architecture of the mouse hippocampus: identification of gene loci with selective regional effects. Genes Brain Behav. 2003;2:238-52 pubmed
    ..Using WebQTL's extensive database of published BXD phenotypes, we also detected a strong and potentially biologically meaningful correlation between hippocampal volume and the acoustic startle response. ..
  7. Morriss Kay G, Sokolova N. Embryonic development and pattern formation. FASEB J. 1996;10:961-8 pubmed
    ..Mutations leading to abnormality of the structure or regulation of RA signaling pathway genes may be an important cause of human congenital abnormality. ..
  8. Brown N, Smart A, Sharma V, Brinkmeier M, Greenlee L, Camper S, et al. Thyroid hormone resistance and increased metabolic rate in the RXR-gamma-deficient mouse. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:73-9 pubmed
  9. Lin Y, Jones B, Liu A, Tucker J, Rapp K, Luo L, et al. Retinoid receptors trigger neuritogenesis in retinal degenerations. FASEB J. 2012;26:81-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, RXRs are in the final common path and may be therapeutic targets to attenuate retinal remodeling and facilitate global intervention methods in blinding diseases and other neurodegenerative disorders. ..
  10. Poole T, Drinkwater N. Two genes abrogate the inhibition of murine hepatocarcinogenesis by ovarian hormones. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:5848-53 pubmed
    ..2 +/- 3.9). In backcross male mice, the double heterozygotes (35 +/- 22) and Hcf1 heterozygotes (28 +/- 12) were 5.4- and 4.3-fold more sensitive than mice homozygous for B6 alleles at both loci (6.5 +/- 5.4). ..
  11. Rubin W, LaMantia A. Age-dependent retinoic acid regulation of gene expression distinguishes the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal cord regions during development. Dev Neurosci. 1999;21:113-25 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the local availability of RA establishes absolute differences in gene expression that distinguish the thoracic and sacral cord from the cervical and lumbar cord during midgestation. ..
  12. Roberts M, Hendrickson A, McGuire C, Reh T. Retinoid X receptor (gamma) is necessary to establish the S-opsin gradient in cone photoreceptors of the developing mouse retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:2897-904 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a critical role for RXRs in regulating cell differentiation in the CNS and highlight a remarkable conservation of opsin regulation from Drosophila to mammals. ..
  13. Klimova L, Antosova B, Kuzelova A, Strnad H, Kozmik Z. Onecut1 and Onecut2 transcription factors operate downstream of Pax6 to regulate horizontal cell development. Dev Biol. 2015;402:48-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study suggests the model in which Pax6 regulates the maintenance of horizontal cells through the activation of Onecut1 and Onecut2 transcription factors. ..
  14. Bhasin N, Maynard T, Gallagher P, LaMantia A. Mesenchymal/epithelial regulation of retinoic acid signaling in the olfactory placode. Dev Biol. 2003;261:82-98 pubmed
    ..Some aspects of regulation in the placode are distinct, perhaps reflecting unique roles for additional local signals in neuronal differentiation in the developing olfactory pathway. ..
  15. Kobayashi H, Spilde T, Bhatia A, Buckingham R, Hembree M, Prasadan K, et al. Retinoid signaling controls mouse pancreatic exocrine lineage selection through epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Gastroenterology. 2002;123:1331-40 pubmed
    ..Retinoids regulate exocrine lineage selection through epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, mediated through up-regulation of mesenchymal laminin-1. ..
  16. Dowhan D, Muscat G. Characterization of the AB (AF-1) region in the muscle-specific retinoid X receptor-gamma: evidence that the AF-1 region functions in a cell-specific manner. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:264-71 pubmed
  17. Mangelsdorf D, Borgmeyer U, Heyman R, Zhou J, Ong E, Oro A, et al. Characterization of three RXR genes that mediate the action of 9-cis retinoic acid. Genes Dev. 1992;6:329-44 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that the RXR family plays critical roles in diverse aspects of development, from embryo implantation to organogenesis and central nervous system differentiation, as well as in adult physiology. ..
  18. Mark M, Ghyselinck N, Wendling O, Dupé V, Mascrez B, Kastner P, et al. A genetic dissection of the retinoid signalling pathway in the mouse. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999;58:609-13 pubmed
    ..This approach has allowed us to perform a genetic dissection of the retinoic acid signalling pathway. ..
  19. Georgiades P, Wood J, Brickell P. Retinoid X receptor-gamma gene expression is developmentally regulated in the embryonic rodent peripheral nervous system. Anat Embryol (Berl). 1998;197:477-84 pubmed
    ..We discuss the possible significance of the timing of RXRgamma expression in the developing PNS and suggest that closer examination of the structure and function of the PNS of RXRgamma null mutant mice would be of interest. ..
  20. Barros A, Erway L, Krezel W, Curran T, Kastner P, Chambon P, et al. Absence of thyroid hormone receptor beta-retinoid X receptor interactions in auditory function and in the pituitary-thyroid axis. Neuroreport. 1998;9:2933-7 pubmed
    ..This suggests that, contrary to in vitro models, RXRs may be dispensable and that TRbeta may function in vivo by an RXR-independent mechanism in the auditory system and pituitary-thyroid axis. ..
  21. Kastner P, Messaddeq N, Mark M, Wendling O, Grondona J, Ward S, et al. Vitamin A deficiency and mutations of RXRalpha, RXRbeta and RARalpha lead to early differentiation of embryonic ventricular cardiomyocytes. Development. 1997;124:4749-58 pubmed
  22. Jonk L, de Jonge M, Pals C, Wissink S, Vervaart J, Schoorlemmer J, et al. Cloning and expression during development of three murine members of the COUP family of nuclear orphan receptors. Mech Dev. 1994;47:81-97 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, strong ARP-1 expression was detected in lung and kidney. Our data strongly suggest an important role for the members of the COUP-family in the hormonal control of gene expression regulating embryogenesis. ..
  23. Sapin V, Ward S, Bronner S, Chambon P, Dolle P. Differential expression of transcripts encoding retinoid binding proteins and retinoic acid receptors during placentation of the mouse. Dev Dyn. 1997;208:199-210 pubmed
    ..5 dpc, whereas RXR alpha exhibits a strong expression in this zone until birth, suggesting a role for these receptors in the development and function of the definitive placenta. ..
  24. Chen H, Privalsky M. Cooperative formation of high-order oligomers by retinoid X receptors: an unexpected mode of DNA recognition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:422-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, oligomer formation plays an important role in determining the specificity of DNA recognition by nuclear receptors and contributes to isoform-dependent differences in gene regulation. ..
  25. Raz Y, Kelley M. Retinoic acid signaling is necessary for the development of the organ of Corti. Dev Biol. 1999;213:180-93 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that cells within the developing cochlea can respond to retinoic acid and that signaling by retinoic acid is necessary for the normal development of the organ of Corti. ..
  26. van Neerven S, Regen T, Wolf D, Nemes A, Johann S, Beyer C, et al. Inflammatory chemokine release of astrocytes in vitro is reduced by all-trans retinoic acid. J Neurochem. 2010;114:1511-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that retinoids should be further investigated as candidates for the treatment of neuroinflammation. ..
  27. Mori M, Ghyselinck N, Chambon P, Mark M. Systematic immunolocalization of retinoid receptors in developing and adult mouse eyes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:1312-8 pubmed
    ..The abundance of RARbeta, RARgamma, and RXRalpha in the periocular mesenchyme suggests that this tissue represents an important site of retinoid actions during eye development and in adulthood. ..
  28. Billas I, Moulinier L, Rochel N, Moras D. Crystal structure of the ligand-binding domain of the ultraspiracle protein USP, the ortholog of retinoid X receptors in insects. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:7465-74 pubmed
    ..The structure of this receptor provides the template for designing inhibitors, which could be utilized as a novel type of environmentally safe insecticides. ..
  29. Romand R, Sapin V, Dolle P. Spatial distributions of retinoic acid receptor gene transcripts in the prenatal mouse inner ear. J Comp Neurol. 1998;393:298-308 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the colocalization of several RAR and RXR gene transcripts suggests possible heterodimerization between these receptors in several regions of the cochlea. ..
  30. Aavani T, Tachibana N, Wallace V, Biernaskie J, Schuurmans C. Temporal profiling of photoreceptor lineage gene expression during murine retinal development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2017;23-24:32-44 pubmed publisher
    ..5 with the expression of Thrb, Neurog1, Sall3 and Rxrg expression, and at P0 by Nrl and Nr2e3 expression...
  31. Horn V, Minucci S, Ogryzko V, Adamson E, Howard B, Levin A, et al. RAR and RXR selective ligands cooperatively induce apoptosis and neuronal differentiation in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. FASEB J. 1996;10:1071-7 pubmed
    ..Together, our results indicate that retinoid-induced apoptosis and neuronal differentiation are closely coupled, and that both RAR and RXR play a role in these processes as active receptors for their respective ligands...
  32. Lee H, Wroblewski E, Philips G, Stair C, Conley K, Reedy M, et al. Multiple requirements for Hes 1 during early eye formation. Dev Biol. 2005;284:464-78 pubmed
    ..Together, these studies demonstrate that Hes1, like Pax6, simultaneously regulates multiple developmental processes during optic development. ..
  33. Sharma V, Hays W, Wood W, Pugazhenthi U, St Germain D, Bianco A, et al. Effects of rexinoids on thyrotrope function and the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Endocrinology. 2006;147:1438-51 pubmed
    ..Rexinoids also stimulate type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase activity in the liver and pituitary. ..
  34. Krezel W, Ghyselinck N, Samad T, Dupé V, Kastner P, Borrelli E, et al. Impaired locomotion and dopamine signaling in retinoid receptor mutant mice. Science. 1998;279:863-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, retinoid receptors are involved in the regulation of brain functions, and retinoic acid signaling defects may contribute to pathologies such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. ..
  35. Hoopes C, Taketo M, Ozato K, Liu Q, Howard T, Linney E, et al. Mapping of the mouse Rxr loci encoding nuclear retinoid X receptors RXR alpha, RXR beta, and RXR gamma. Genomics. 1992;14:611-7 pubmed
    ..We have mapped genetic loci Rxra, Rxrb, and Rxrg encoding three RXR subtypes, RXR alpha, RXR beta, and RXR gamma, respectively, using interspecific backcross mice...
  36. Maurer K, Riesenberg A, Brown N. Notch signaling differentially regulates Atoh7 and Neurog2 in the distal mouse retina. Development. 2014;141:3243-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Notch signaling controls the overall tempo of retinogenesis, by integrating cell fate specification, the wave of neurogenesis and the developmental status of cells ahead of this wave. ..
  37. Saga Y, Kobayashi M, Ohta H, Murai N, Nakai N, Oshima M, et al. Impaired extrapyramidal function caused by the targeted disruption of retinoid X receptor RXRgamma1 isoform. Genes Cells. 1999;4:219-28 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that RXRgamma1 plays an important role in either the development or activation of cholinergic neurones in nigrostriatal extrapyramidal pathways. ..
  38. Chiang M, Misner D, Kempermann G, Schikorski T, Giguere V, Sucov H, et al. An essential role for retinoid receptors RARbeta and RXRgamma in long-term potentiation and depression. Neuron. 1998;21:1353-61 pubmed
    ..These findings not only genetically uncouple LTP and LTD but also reveal a novel and unexpected role for vitamin A in higher cognitive functions. ..
  39. Uehara M, Yashiro K, Takaoka K, Yamamoto M, Hamada H. Removal of maternal retinoic acid by embryonic CYP26 is required for correct Nodal expression during early embryonic patterning. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1689-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that maternal RA must be removed by embryonic CYP26 for correct Nodal expression during embryonic patterning. ..
  40. Harel I, Maezawa Y, Avraham R, Rinon A, Ma H, Cross J, et al. Pharyngeal mesoderm regulatory network controls cardiac and head muscle morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18839-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that PM-derived cardiogenesis and myogenesis are network properties rather than properties specific to individual PM members. These findings shed new light on the developmental underpinnings of congenital defects. ..
  41. Liao W, Tsai H, Wang H, Chang J, Lu K, Wu H, et al. Modular patterning of structure and function of the striatum by retinoid receptor signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6765-70 pubmed publisher
    ..RARbeta signaling thus plays a crucial role in setting up striatal compartments that may engage in neural circuits of psychomotor control. ..
  42. Sato Y, Heuckeroth R. Retinoic acid regulates murine enteric nervous system precursor proliferation, enhances neuronal precursor differentiation, and reduces neurite growth in vitro. Dev Biol. 2008;320:185-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively these data demonstrate diverse effects of RA on ENS precursor development and suggest that altered fetal retinoid availability or metabolism could contribute to intestinal motility disorders. ..
  43. Puskas L, Bereczki E, Santha M, Vigh L, Csanádi G, Spener F, et al. Cholesterol and cholesterol plus DHA diet-induced gene expression and fatty acid changes in mouse eye and brain. Biochimie. 2004;86:817-24 pubmed
    ..Our results on fatty acid composition and gene expression changes may open up new alleys in understanding the complex roles of cholesterol and PUFAs in normal and pathological visual and brain function. ..
  44. Bonney S, Harrison Uy S, Mishra S, MacPherson A, Choe Y, Li D, et al. Diverse Functions of Retinoic Acid in Brain Vascular Development. J Neurosci. 2016;36:7786-801 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, RA may act as a "brake" on endothelial WNT signaling and Sox17 to ensure normal brain vascular development. ..
  45. Qiu F, Jiang H, Xiang M. A comprehensive negative regulatory program controlled by Brn3b to ensure ganglion cell specification from multipotential retinal precursors. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3392-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Brn3b specifies the RGC fate from multipotential precursors not only by promoting RGC differentiation but also by suppressing non-RGC differentiation programs as a safeguard mechanism. ..
  46. Mayeda A, Hofstetter J. A QTL for the genetic variance in free-running period and level of locomotor activity between inbred strains of mice. Behav Genet. 1999;29:171-6 pubmed
    ..In addition, these data suggest that this region has a QTL for the mean amount of daily activity and for the pattern of locomotor activity. ..
  47. Leid M, Kastner P, Lyons R, Nakshatri H, Saunders M, Zacharewski T, et al. Purification, cloning, and RXR identity of the HeLa cell factor with which RAR or TR heterodimerizes to bind target sequences efficiently. Cell. 1992;68:377-95 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a convergence of the signaling pathways of some members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. ..
  48. Colbert M, Rubin W, Linney E, LaMantia A. Retinoid signaling and the generation of regional and cellular diversity in the embryonic mouse spinal cord. Dev Dyn. 1995;204:1-12 pubmed
  49. Hufnagel R, Le T, Riesenberg A, Brown N. Neurog2 controls the leading edge of neurogenesis in the mammalian retina. Dev Biol. 2010;340:490-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this study supports the hypothesis that the intrinsic factors Neurog2 and Ascl1 regulate the temporal progression of retinal neurogenesis by directing overlapping waves of neuron formation. ..
  50. Vezina C, Allgeier S, Fritz W, Moore R, Strerath M, Bushman W, et al. Retinoic acid induces prostatic bud formation. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:1321-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that reciprocal changes in hedgehog and BMP signaling by RA may regulate bud initiation. ..
  51. Wang B, Lufkin T, Rubenstein J. Dlx6 regulates molecular properties of the striatum and central nucleus of the amygdala. J Comp Neurol. 2011;519:2320-34 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA expression array analysis of the E18.5 striatum was useful in identifying the transcription factors that are expressed in this tissue, but did not identify major changes in gene expression in the Dlx6(LacZ/LacZ) mutant. ..
  52. Gaemers I, van Pelt A, van der Saag P, Hoogerbrugge J, Themmen A, de Rooij D. Effect of retinoid status on the messenger ribonucleic acid expression of nuclear retinoid receptors alpha, beta, and gamma, and retinoid X receptors alpha, beta, and gamma in the mouse testis. Endocrinology. 1997;138:1544-51 pubmed
    ..Apparently, ATRA does not need to be metabolized to 4-oxo-RA, which was previously shown to be a more potent inducer of spermatogonial proliferation than ATRA, to be effective. ..
  53. Ogino Y, Suzuki K, Haraguchi R, Satoh Y, Dolle P, Yamada G. External genitalia formation: role of fibroblast growth factor, retinoic acid signaling, and distal urethral epithelium. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;948:13-31 pubmed
    ..In RA-treated embryos, Fgf8 expression was still detected in the distal GT regions. Possible regulatory roles of the FGF and RA signaling systems in external genitalia formation are discussed. ..
  54. Kumar R, Thompson E. The structure of the nuclear hormone receptors. Steroids. 1999;64:310-9 pubmed
    ..In this review, we summarize and discuss the current information on structures of the steroid-thyroid-retinoid receptors. ..
  55. Oakey R, Watson M, Seldin M. Construction of a physical map on mouse and human chromosome 1: comparison of 13 Mb of mouse and 11 Mb of human DNA. Hum Mol Genet. 1992;1:613-20 pubmed
    ..These data support the use of comparative mapping in physical map construction and further suggest the value of using mouse genetics to help define human disease loci. ..
  56. Mascrez B, Mark M, Krezel W, Dupé V, LeMeur M, Ghyselinck N, et al. Differential contributions of AF-1 and AF-2 activities to the developmental functions of RXR alpha. Development. 2001;128:2049-62 pubmed
    ..However, AF-2 of RXR alpha, but not AF-1, is required for differentiation of labyrinthine trophoblast cells, a late step in the formation of the placental barrier. ..
  57. Villarroya F, Giralt M, Iglesias R. Retinoids and adipose tissues: metabolism, cell differentiation and gene expression. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999;23:1-6 pubmed
    ..Retinoic acid (RA) has a specific effect on brown adipose tissue, because it activates transcription of the gene for uncoupling protein-1, responsible for brown fat thermogenesis. ..
  58. Mingaud F, Mormede C, Etchamendy N, Mons N, Niedergang B, Wietrzych M, et al. Retinoid hyposignaling contributes to aging-related decline in hippocampal function in short-term/working memory organization and long-term declarative memory encoding in mice. J Neurosci. 2008;28:279-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are discussed within current neurobiological perspectives questioning the historical consensus on STWM and LTDM system partition. ..
  59. Hurskainen T, Hirohata S, Seldin M, Apte S. ADAM-TS5, ADAM-TS6, and ADAM-TS7, novel members of a new family of zinc metalloproteases. General features and genomic distribution of the ADAM-TS family. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:25555-63 pubmed
    ..Individual ADAM-TS members differ in the number of COOH-terminal TS modules, and some have unique COOH-terminal domains. The ADAM-TS genes are dispersed in human and mouse genomes. ..
  60. Spencer C, Pajovic S, Devlin H, Dinh Q, Corson T, Gallie B. Distinct patterns of expression of the RB gene family in mouse and human retina. Gene Expr Patterns. 2005;5:687-94 pubmed
    ..The RB gene family is dynamically and variably expressed through retinal development in specific retinal cells. ..
  61. Ashbrook D, Williams R, Lu L, Hager R. A cross-species genetic analysis identifies candidate genes for mouse anxiety and human bipolar disorder. Front Behav Neurosci. 2015;9:171 pubmed publisher
    ..While TNR is a novel candidate for BD, we can confirm previously suggested associations with CMYA5, MCTP1, and RXRG. A cross-species, systems genetics analysis shows that MCTP1, RXRG, and TNR coexpress with genes linked to ..
  62. Zhang Q. Retinoic acid biosynthetic activity and retinoid receptors in the olfactory mucosa of adult mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;256:346-51 pubmed
  63. Krzyzosiak A, Szyszka Niagolov M, Wietrzych M, Gobaille S, Muramatsu S, Krezel W. Retinoid x receptor gamma control of affective behaviors involves dopaminergic signaling in mice. Neuron. 2010;66:908-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined, our data argue that control of NAc D2r expression is critical for Rxrgamma-mediated modulation of affective behaviors. ..
  64. Welch C, Xia Y, Hong H, Stallcup M, Lusis A. Localization of the mouse glucocorticoid receptor-interacting protein 1 gene (Grip1) to proximal chromosome 1 by linkage analysis. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:620-1 pubmed
  65. Orieux G, Picault L, Slembrouck A, Roger J, Guillonneau X, Sahel J, et al. Involvement of Bcl-2-associated transcription factor 1 in the differentiation of early-born retinal cells. J Neurosci. 2014;34:1530-41 pubmed publisher
  66. Millonig J, Millen K, Hatten M. The mouse Dreher gene Lmx1a controls formation of the roof plate in the vertebrate CNS. Nature. 2000;403:764-9 pubmed
    ..Lmx1a is expressed in the roof plate along the neuraxis during development of the CNS. Thus, Lmx1a is required for development of the roof plate and, in turn, for specification of dorsal cell fates in the CNS and developing vertebrae. ..
  67. Fujieda H, Bremner R, Mears A, Sasaki H. Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha regulates a subset of cone genes during mouse retinal development. J Neurochem. 2009;108:91-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that RORalpha plays a crucial role in cone development by directly regulating multiple cone genes. ..
  68. Seldin M, Hirohata S, Apte S. Chromosomal mapping of Adam9, Adam15 and Adam21. Matrix Biol. 2000;19:185-7 pubmed
    ..The mapping of these mouse loci and the extrapolated loci for their human orthologs may facilitate the mapping of diseases involving these genes. ..
  69. Ben Shushan E, Sharir H, Pikarsky E, Bergman Y. A dynamic balance between ARP-1/COUP-TFII, EAR-3/COUP-TFI, and retinoic acid receptor:retinoid X receptor heterodimers regulates Oct-3/4 expression in embryonal carcinoma cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:1034-48 pubmed
  70. Garel S, Marin F, Grosschedl R, Charnay P. Ebf1 controls early cell differentiation in the embryonic striatum. Development. 1999;126:5285-94 pubmed
  71. Liu Q, Linney E. The mouse retinoid-X receptor-gamma gene: genomic organization and evidence for functional isoforms. Mol Endocrinol. 1993;7:651-8 pubmed
    ..The results of this study along with those of previously published studies suggest that there may be more than two isoforms of mRXR gamma. ..
  72. Bach I, Rhodes S, Pearse R, Heinzel T, Gloss B, Scully K, et al. P-Lim, a LIM homeodomain factor, is expressed during pituitary organ and cell commitment and synergizes with Pit-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:2720-4 pubmed
    ..The LIM domain of P-Lim specifically interacts with the Pit-1 POU domain and is required for synergistic interactions with Pit-1, but not for basal transcriptional activation events. ..
  73. Gordon P, Yun S, Clark A, Monuki E, Murtaugh L, Levine E. Lhx2 balances progenitor maintenance with neurogenic output and promotes competence state progression in the developing retina. J Neurosci. 2013;33:12197-207 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify Lhx2 as a key regulator of RPC properties that contribute to the ordered production of multiple cell types during retinal tissue formation. ..
  74. Yagishita N, Yamamoto Y, Yoshizawa T, Sekine K, Uematsu Y, Murayama H, et al. Aberrant growth plate development in VDR/RXR gamma double null mutant mice. Endocrinology. 2001;142:5332-41 pubmed
  75. Anchan R, Drake D, Haines C, Gerwe E, LaMantia A. Disruption of local retinoid-mediated gene expression accompanies abnormal development in the mammalian olfactory pathway. J Comp Neurol. 1997;379:171-84 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that local retinoid signaling is essential for the normal development of the mammalian olfactory pathway. ..
  76. Clugston R, Zhang W, Alvarez S, de Lera A, Greer J. Understanding abnormal retinoid signaling as a causative mechanism in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;42:276-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also yielded a novel experimental model that should prove particularly useful for further studies of CDH. ..
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