Gene Symbol: Rxra
Description: retinoid X receptor alpha
Alias: 9530071D11Rik, Nr2b1, RXRalpha1, retinoic acid receptor RXR-alpha, RXR alpha 1, nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group B member 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Rxra

Top Publications

  1. Kastner P, Grondona J, Mark M, Gansmuller A, LeMeur M, Decimo D, et al. Genetic analysis of RXR alpha developmental function: convergence of RXR and RAR signaling pathways in heart and eye morphogenesis. Cell. 1994;78:987-1003 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, RXR alpha/RAR double mutants exhibited several malformations not seen in single mutants. This functional convergence strongly suggests that RXR alpha/RAR heterodimers mediate retinoid signaling in vivo. ..
  2. Wan Y, An D, Cai Y, Repa J, Hung Po Chen T, Flores M, et al. Hepatocyte-specific mutation establishes retinoid X receptor alpha as a heterodimeric integrator of multiple physiological processes in the liver. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4436-44 pubmed
  3. Wan Y, Cai Y, Lungo W, Fu P, Locker J, French S, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-mediated pathways are altered in hepatocyte-specific retinoid X receptor alpha-deficient mice. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:28285-90 pubmed
    ..These data suggested that in comparison to PPARalpha, hepatocyte RXRalpha has its unique role in lipid homeostasis and that the effect of RXRalpha, -beta, and -gamma is redundant in certain aspects. ..
  4. Li M, Indra A, Warot X, Brocard J, Messaddeq N, Kato S, et al. Skin abnormalities generated by temporally controlled RXRalpha mutations in mouse epidermis. Nature. 2000;407:633-6 pubmed
    ..We show that RXRalpha has key roles in hair cycling, probably through RXR/VDR heterodimers, and in epidermal keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. ..
  5. Imai T, Jiang M, Kastner P, Chambon P, Metzger D. Selective ablation of retinoid X receptor alpha in hepatocytes impairs their lifespan and regenerative capacity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:4581-6 pubmed
    ..We conclude that RXRalpha plays important cell-autonomous function(s) in the mechanism(s) involved in the lifespan of hepatocytes and liver regeneration. ..
  6. Kosters A, Tian F, Wan Y, Wan Y, Karpen S. Gene-specific alterations of hepatic gene expression by ligand activation or hepatocyte-selective inhibition of retinoid X receptor-? signalling during inflammation. Liver Int. 2012;32:321-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Inflammation-mediated reduction of nuclear RXR? levels is a main factor in reduced nuclear receptor (NR)-regulated hepatic gene expression, eventually leading to cholestasis and liver damage...
  7. Gyamfi M, Kocsis M, He L, Dai G, Mendy A, Wan Y. The role of retinoid X receptor alpha in regulating alcohol metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;319:360-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, CYP2E1 as well as mitochondrial and cytosolic glutathione S-transferase activities were significantly lower in RXRalpha KO mice than in wild-type mice. Our results reveal the central role of RXRalpha in ethanol metabolism. ..
  8. Cai Y, Dai T, Ao Y, Konishi T, Chuang K, Lue Y, et al. Cytochrome P450 genes are differentially expressed in female and male hepatocyte retinoid X receptor alpha-deficient mice. Endocrinology. 2003;144:2311-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that testosterone has a negative impact on retinoid signaling when the level of RXRalpha is low, which may in turn reduce the expression of the CYP450 genes. ..
  9. Sucov H, Dyson E, Gumeringer C, Price J, Chien K, Evans R. RXR alpha mutant mice establish a genetic basis for vitamin A signaling in heart morphogenesis. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1007-18 pubmed
    ..These results ascribe an essential function for the RXR alpha gene in embryonic development and provide the first evidence of a requirement for RXR in one of its predicted hormone response pathways. ..

More Information


  1. Indra A, Castaneda E, Antal M, Jiang M, Messaddeq N, Meng X, et al. Malignant transformation of DMBA/TPA-induced papillomas and nevi in the skin of mice selectively lacking retinoid-X-receptor alpha in epidermal keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1250-60 pubmed
  2. Dai G, Chou N, He L, Gyamfi M, Mendy A, Slitt A, et al. Retinoid X receptor alpha Regulates the expression of glutathione s-transferase genes and modulates acetaminophen-glutathione conjugation in mouse liver. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;68:1590-6 pubmed
    ..This report reveals a potential novel strategy to enhance the detoxification of APAP or other xenobiotics by manipulating Gst activity through RXRalpha-mediated pathways. ..
  3. Hyter S, Bajaj G, Liang X, Barbacid M, Ganguli Indra G, Indra A. Loss of nuclear receptor RXR? in epidermal keratinocytes promotes the formation of Cdk4-activated invasive melanomas. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2010;23:635-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate the contribution of keratinocytic paracrine signaling during the cellular transformation and malignant conversion of melanocytes. ..
  4. Leid M, Kastner P, Lyons R, Nakshatri H, Saunders M, Zacharewski T, et al. Purification, cloning, and RXR identity of the HeLa cell factor with which RAR or TR heterodimerizes to bind target sequences efficiently. Cell. 1992;68:377-95 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a convergence of the signaling pathways of some members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. ..
  5. Chen S, Wang K, Wan Y. Retinoids activate RXR/CAR-mediated pathway and induce CYP3A. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;79:270-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The experimental data demonstrate that retinoids can effectively regulate CYP3A gene expression through the RXR/CAR-mediated pathway. ..
  6. Wang Z, Coleman D, Bajaj G, Liang X, Ganguli Indra G, INDRA A. RXR? ablation in epidermal keratinocytes enhances UVR-induced DNA damage, apoptosis, and proliferation of keratinocytes and melanocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131:177-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Considered together, the results of our study suggest that RXR antagonists, together with inhibitors of cell proliferation, can be effective in preventing solar UVR-induced photocarcinogenesis...
  7. Horn V, Minucci S, Ogryzko V, Adamson E, Howard B, Levin A, et al. RAR and RXR selective ligands cooperatively induce apoptosis and neuronal differentiation in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. FASEB J. 1996;10:1071-7 pubmed
    ..Together, our results indicate that retinoid-induced apoptosis and neuronal differentiation are closely coupled, and that both RAR and RXR play a role in these processes as active receptors for their respective ligands...
  8. Zhan Q, Fang Y, He Y, Liu H, Fang J, Wan Y. Function annotation of hepatic retinoid x receptor ? based on genome-wide DNA binding and transcriptome profiling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50013 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to metabolism, RXR? dictates the expression of genes that regulate RNA processing, translation, and protein folding illustrating the novel roles of hepatic RXR? in post-transcriptional regulation. ..
  9. Wu Y, Zhang X, Bardag Gorce F, Robel R, Aguilo J, Chen L, et al. Retinoid X receptor alpha regulates glutathione homeostasis and xenobiotic detoxification processes in mouse liver. Mol Pharmacol. 2004;65:550-7 pubmed
    ..Regulation of hepatic GSH levels by RXRalpha is essential to protect hepatocytes from oxidative stress, whereas up-regulation of phase I drug metabolism genes by RXRalpha may render the liver more sensitive to APAP-induced toxicity. ..
  10. Guo M, Gong L, He L, Lehman McKeeman L, Wan Y. Hepatocyte RXRalpha deficiency in matured and aged mice: impact on the expression of cancer-related hepatic genes in a gender-specific manner. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:403 pubmed publisher
  11. Wan Y, Han G, Cai Y, Dai T, Konishi T, Leng A. Hepatocyte retinoid X receptor-alpha-deficient mice have reduced food intake, increased body weight, and improved glucose tolerance. Endocrinology. 2003;144:605-11 pubmed
    ..The result also suggests that an increase in serum IGF-I level might be one of the mechanisms leading to improved glucose tolerance in hepatocyte RXRalpha-deficient mice. ..
  12. Meyer M, Goetsch P, Pike J. Genome-wide analysis of the VDR/RXR cistrome in osteoblast cells provides new mechanistic insight into the actions of the vitamin D hormone. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;121:136-41 pubmed publisher
  13. Yang X, Guo M, Wan Y. Deregulation of growth factor, circadian clock, and cell cycle signaling in regenerating hepatocyte RXRalpha-deficient mouse livers. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:733-43 pubmed publisher
    ..As many of these observed changes were not documented in the regenerating livers of other nuclear receptor knockout mice, these observed effects may be hepatocyte RXRalpha specific. ..
  14. Roy B, Taneja R, Chambon P. Synergistic activation of retinoic acid (RA)-responsive genes and induction of embryonal carcinoma cell differentiation by an RA receptor alpha (RAR alpha)-, RAR beta-, or RAR gamma-selective ligand in combination with a retinoid X receptor-specific . Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:6481-7 pubmed
    ..Our results also indicate that there is a significant degree of functional redundancy between the three RAR types which, however, varies with the nature of the RA target genes. ..
  15. Li M, Messaddeq N, Teletin M, Pasquali J, Metzger D, Chambon P. Retinoid X receptor ablation in adult mouse keratinocytes generates an atopic dermatitis triggered by thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:14795-800 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that thymic stromal lymphopoietin, whose expression is rapidly and strongly induced in RXRalphabeta-ablated keratinocytes, plays a key role in initiating the skin and systemic AD-like pathologies. ..
  16. Gyamfi M, Tanaka Y, He L, Klaassen C, Wan Y. Hepatic effects of a methionine-choline-deficient diet in hepatocyte RXRalpha-null mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;234:166-78 pubmed publisher
    ..9-fold) only in the H-RXRalpha-null mice. In conclusion, these data suggest a critical role for RXRalpha in hepatic fatty acid homeostasis and protection against MCD-induced hepatocyte injury. ..
  17. Chambon P. A decade of molecular biology of retinoic acid receptors. FASEB J. 1996;10:940-54 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on recent developments, particularly in the area of structure-function relationships. ..
  18. Kastner P, Mark M, Ghyselinck N, Krezel W, Dupé V, Grondona J, et al. Genetic evidence that the retinoid signal is transduced by heterodimeric RXR/RAR functional units during mouse development. Development. 1997;124:313-26 pubmed
    ..The significance of these observations is discussed with respect to the problem of functional specificity and redundancy among retinoid receptors in vivo. ..
  19. Imai T, Jiang M, Chambon P, Metzger D. Impaired adipogenesis and lipolysis in the mouse upon selective ablation of the retinoid X receptor alpha mediated by a tamoxifen-inducible chimeric Cre recombinase (Cre-ERT2) in adipocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:224-8 pubmed
  20. Tontonoz P, Graves R, Budavari A, Erdjument Bromage H, Lui M, Hu E, et al. Adipocyte-specific transcription factor ARF6 is a heterodimeric complex of two nuclear hormone receptors, PPAR gamma and RXR alpha. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:5628-34 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PPAR gamma 2 serves a unique function among PPAR family members as an important regulator of adipocyte-specific gene expression. ..
  21. Subbarayan V, Mark M, Messadeq N, Rustin P, Chambon P, Kastner P. RXRalpha overexpression in cardiomyocytes causes dilated cardiomyopathy but fails to rescue myocardial hypoplasia in RXRalpha-null fetuses. J Clin Invest. 2000;105:387-94 pubmed
  22. Stephensen C, Borowsky A, Lloyd K. Disruption of Rxra gene in thymocytes and T lymphocytes modestly alters lymphocyte frequencies, proliferation, survival and T helper type 1/type 2 balance. Immunology. 2007;121:484-98 pubmed
    ..To examine the in vivo role of RXR-alpha in T-lymphocyte development and function, we disrupted the Rxra gene in thymocytes and T lymphocytes using cyclization recombinase (Cre)-loxP-mediated excision of Rxra exon 4...
  23. Valledor A, Hsu L, Ogawa S, Sawka Verhelle D, Karin M, Glass C. Activation of liver X receptors and retinoid X receptors prevents bacterial-induced macrophage apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:17813-8 pubmed
  24. Mathur M, Tucker P, Samuels H. PSF is a novel corepressor that mediates its effect through Sin3A and the DNA binding domain of nuclear hormone receptors. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:2298-311 pubmed
  25. Bertolino E, Wildt S, Richards G, Clerc R. Expression of a novel murine homeobox gene in the developing cerebellar external granular layer during its proliferation. Dev Dyn. 1996;205:410-20 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the TGIF gene regulates target genes involved in the proliferation, migration, and/or differentiation of particular neuronal cell lineages in the developing brain. ..
  26. Sun J, Narayanasamy S, Curley R, Harrison E. β-Apo-13-carotenone regulates retinoid X receptor transcriptional activity through tetramerization of the receptor. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:33118-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that β-apo-13-carotenone regulates RXRα transcriptional activity by inducing the formation of the "transcriptionally silent" RXRα tetramer. ..
  27. Helledie T, Grøntved L, Jensen S, Kiilerich P, Rietveld L, Albrektsen T, et al. The gene encoding the Acyl-CoA-binding protein is activated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma through an intronic response element functionally conserved between humans and rodents. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:26821-30 pubmed
    ..Thus, the PPRE in intron 1 of the ACBP gene is a bona fide PPARgamma-response element. ..
  28. Song K, Kim T, Kim H, Kim J, Kim H, Kwon H, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel inhibitor of apoptosis protein from Xenopus laevis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;301:236-42 pubmed
    ..These results strongly support the fact that survivin is evolutionarily conserved in structure and SIX is likely to be the Xenopus counterpart of human and mouse survivin. ..
  29. Chiang P, Wang S, Smithivas P, Song W, Crombez E, Akhtar A, et al. Isolation and characterization of the human and mouse homologues (SUPT4H and Supt4h) of the yeast SPT4 gene. Genomics. 1996;34:368-75 pubmed
    ..g., such as most histones), in all fetal and adult tissues that we examined. ..
  30. Kastner P, Messaddeq N, Mark M, Wendling O, Grondona J, Ward S, et al. Vitamin A deficiency and mutations of RXRalpha, RXRbeta and RARalpha lead to early differentiation of embryonic ventricular cardiomyocytes. Development. 1997;124:4749-58 pubmed
  31. Lee L, Leung M, Kwok R, Leung Y, Wang C, McCaffery P, et al. Perturbation of Retinoid Homeostasis Increases Malformation Risk in Embryos Exposed to Pregestational Diabetes. Diabetes. 2017;66:1041-1051 pubmed publisher
  32. Feil R, Brocard J, Mascrez B, LeMeur M, Metzger D, Chambon P. Ligand-activated site-specific recombination in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10887-90 pubmed
    ..This conditional site-specific recombination system should allow the analysis of knockout phenotypes that cannot be addressed by conventional gene targeting. ..
  33. Nam K, Mounier A, Fitz N, Wolfe C, Schug J, Lefterov I, et al. RXR controlled regulatory networks identified in mouse brain counteract deleterious effects of A? oligomers. Sci Rep. 2016;6:24048 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that the disruption of actin cytoskeleton induced by A?42 in vitro was inhibited by bexarotene treatment. Our results suggest a mechanism to establish RXR therapeutic targets with significance in neurodegeneration. ..
  34. Chen T, Chang T, Kang J, Choudhary B, Makita T, Tran C, et al. Epicardial induction of fetal cardiomyocyte proliferation via a retinoic acid-inducible trophic factor. Dev Biol. 2002;250:198-207 pubmed
  35. Nomoto M, Takeda Y, Uchida S, Mitsuda K, Enomoto H, Saito K, et al. Dysfunction of the RAR/RXR signaling pathway in the forebrain impairs hippocampal memory and synaptic plasticity. Mol Brain. 2012;5:8 pubmed publisher
    ..From these observations, we concluded that the RAR/RXR signaling pathway greatly contributes to learning and memory, and LTP in the hippocampus in the adult brain. ..
  36. Metzger D, Imai T, Jiang M, Takukawa R, Desvergne B, Wahli W, et al. Functional role of RXRs and PPARgamma in mature adipocytes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005;73:51-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, in adipocytes, RXRalpha is essential for lipogenesis, but RXRgamma can functionally replace RXRalpha for the adipocyte vital functions exerted by PPARgamma/RXR heterodimers. ..
  37. Clugston R, Zhang W, Alvarez S, de Lera A, Greer J. Understanding abnormal retinoid signaling as a causative mechanism in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;42:276-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also yielded a novel experimental model that should prove particularly useful for further studies of CDH. ..
  38. Sehayek E, Duncan E, Lutjohann D, von Bergmann K, Ono J, Batta A, et al. Loci on chromosomes 14 and 2, distinct from ABCG5/ABCG8, regulate plasma plant sterol levels in a C57BL/6J x CASA/Rk intercross. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:16215-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, other genes besides ABCG5ABCG8 influence plasma plant sterol levels and now become candidates to explain differences in plasma plant sterol levels between humans...
  39. Wang L, Tankersley L, Tang M, Potter J, Mezey E. Regulation of the murine alpha(2)(I) collagen promoter by retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;401:262-70 pubmed
    ..This study shows that the suppressive effect of retinoic acid on the promoter is maximal with a combination of RARbeta and RXRalpha and occurs at more than one RARE site. The effect of retinoic acid is not mediated by AP-2. ..
  40. He Y, Gong L, Fang Y, Zhan Q, Liu H, Lu Y, et al. The role of retinoic acid in hepatic lipid homeostasis defined by genomic binding and transcriptome profiling. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:575 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, RA reduced serum cholesterol, triglyceride, and bile acid levels in mice. We have characterized the role of hepatic RA for the first time. Hepatic RA mediated through RXR? and its partners regulates lipid homeostasis. ..
  41. Brown N, Smart A, Sharma V, Brinkmeier M, Greenlee L, Camper S, et al. Thyroid hormone resistance and increased metabolic rate in the RXR-gamma-deficient mouse. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:73-9 pubmed
  42. Coleman D, García G, Hyter S, Jang H, Chagani S, Liang X, et al. Retinoid-X-receptors (?/?) in melanocytes modulate innate immune responses and differentially regulate cell survival following UV irradiation. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004321 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results emphasize a novel immunomodulatory role of melanocytes in controlling survival of neighboring cell types besides controlling their own, and identifies RXRs as potential targets for therapy against UV induced melanoma. ..
  43. Bentinger M, Turunen M, Zhang X, Wan Y, Dallner G. Involvement of retinoid X receptor alpha in coenzyme Q metabolism. J Mol Biol. 2003;326:795-803 pubmed
    ..The receptor is not involved in the elevated CoQ biosynthesis during peroxisomal induction. ..
  44. Slezak M, Goritz C, Niemiec A, Frisen J, Chambon P, Metzger D, et al. Transgenic mice for conditional gene manipulation in astroglial cells. Glia. 2007;55:1565-76 pubmed
    ..These new mouse lines should help to further explore the relevance of astrocytes for brain function, as well as their contribution to pathological conditions because of aging, disease or injury. ..
  45. Abu Abed S, Beckett B, Chiba H, Chithalen J, Jones G, Metzger D, et al. Mouse P450RAI (CYP26) expression and retinoic acid-inducible retinoic acid metabolism in F9 cells are regulated by retinoic acid receptor gamma and retinoid X receptor alpha. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:2409-15 pubmed
    ..These experiments, as well as others using synthetic receptor subtype-specific retinoids, suggest that the RAR gamma and RXR alpha receptors mediate the effects of retinoic acid on the expression of the P450RAI gene. ..
  46. Coleman D, Chagani S, Hyter S, Sherman A, Löhr C, Liang X, et al. Loss of keratinocytic RXRα combined with activated CDK4 or oncogenic NRAS generates UVB-induced melanomas via loss of p53 and PTEN in the tumor microenvironment. Mol Cancer Res. 2015;13:186-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that RXRα may serve as a clinical diagnostic marker and therapeutic target in melanoma progression and metastasis. ..
  47. Taschner S, Koesters C, Platzer B, Jörgl A, Ellmeier W, Benesch T, et al. Down-regulation of RXRalpha expression is essential for neutrophil development from granulocyte/monocyte progenitors. Blood. 2007;109:971-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our data suggest that RXRalpha down-regulation is a critical requirement for the generation of neutrophil granulocytes. ..
  48. Lee K, Ma L, Yan X, Liu B, Zhang X, Cohen P. Rapid apoptosis induction by IGFBP-3 involves an insulin-like growth factor-independent nucleomitochondrial translocation of RXRalpha/Nur77. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:16942-8 pubmed
    ..This unique nongenotropic nuclear pathway supports an emerging role for IGFBP-3 as a novel, multicompartmental signaling molecule involved in induction of apoptosis in malignant cells. ..
  49. Ziouzenkova O, Orasanu G, Sukhova G, Lau E, Berger J, Tang G, et al. Asymmetric cleavage of beta-carotene yields a transcriptional repressor of retinoid X receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor responses. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:77-88 pubmed
    ..These results also suggest a novel model of molecular endocrinology in which metabolism of a parent compound, beta-carotene, may alternatively activate (9-cisRA) or inhibit (apo14) specific nuclear receptor responses. ..
  50. Núñez V, Alameda D, Rico D, Mota R, Gonzalo P, Cedenilla M, et al. Retinoid X receptor alpha controls innate inflammatory responses through the up-regulation of chemokine expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10626-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that macrophage RXRalpha plays key roles in the regulation of innate immunity and represents a potential target for immunotherapy of sepsis. ..
  51. Mascrez B, Mark M, Krezel W, Dupé V, LeMeur M, Ghyselinck N, et al. Differential contributions of AF-1 and AF-2 activities to the developmental functions of RXR alpha. Development. 2001;128:2049-62 pubmed
    ..However, AF-2 of RXR alpha, but not AF-1, is required for differentiation of labyrinthine trophoblast cells, a late step in the formation of the placental barrier. ..
  52. Chen H, Ma F, Hu X, Jin T, Xiong C, Teng X. Elevated COX2 expression and PGE2 production by downregulation of RXR? in senescent macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;440:157-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study not only has outlined a mechanism of elevated NF-?B activity and PGE2 production in senescent macrophages, but also provides RXR? as a potential therapeutic target for treating the age-related diseases. ..
  53. Feng X, Peng Z, Di W, Li X, Rochette Egly C, Chambon P, et al. Suprabasal expression of a dominant-negative RXR alpha mutant in transgenic mouse epidermis impairs regulation of gene transcription and basal keratinocyte proliferation by RAR-selective retinoids. Genes Dev. 1997;11:59-71 pubmed
  54. Zolfaghari R, Ross A. An essential set of basic DNA response elements is required for receptor-dependent transcription of the lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (Lrat) gene. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2009;489:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Nuclear extracts from RA-treated cells exhibited enhanced binding. Therefore, this proximal region together with basal transcription factors may be sufficient to drive Lrat expression. ..
  55. Li J, Chanrion M, Sawey E, Wang T, Chow E, Tward A, et al. Reciprocal interaction of Wnt and RXR-α pathways in hepatocyte development and hepatocellular carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0118480 pubmed publisher
  56. Klein F, Atkinson R, Potier N, Moras D, Cavarelli J. Biochemical and NMR mapping of the interface between CREB-binding protein and ligand binding domains of nuclear receptor: beyond the LXXLL motif. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:5682-92 pubmed
    ..Interactions of p300/CBP coactivators with the LBDs of nuclear receptors are not limited to the canonical LXXLL motifs, involving both a longer contiguous segment around the motif and, for certain domains, an additional zone. ..
  57. Shalom Barak T, Nicholas J, Wang Y, Zhang X, Ong E, Young T, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma controls Muc1 transcription in trophoblasts. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:10661-9 pubmed
  58. Niu H, Fujiwara H, di Martino O, Hadwiger G, Frederick T, Menéndez Gutiérrez M, et al. Endogenous retinoid X receptor ligands in mouse hematopoietic cells. Sci Signal. 2017;10: pubmed publisher
    The retinoid X receptor ? (RXRA) has been implicated in diverse hematological processes...
  59. Ribot J, Felipe F, Bonet M, Palou A. Retinoic acid administration and vitamin A status modulate retinoid X receptor alpha and retinoic acid receptor alpha levels in mouse brown adipose tissue. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004;266:25-30 pubmed
    ..RA modulates the expression of cognate receptors in BAT, suggesting auto regulation of the retinoid effect on the thermogenic system. ..
  60. Ohoka Y, Yokota Nakatsuma A, Maeda N, Takeuchi H, Iwata M. Retinoic acid and GM-CSF coordinately induce retinal dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2) expression through cooperation between the RAR/RXR complex and Sp1 in dendritic cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e96512 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that GM-CSF/RA-induced RALDH2 expression in DCs requires cooperative binding of Sp1 and the RAR/RXR complex to the Aldh1a2 promoter, and can be regulated by a DNA methylation-independent mechanism. ..
  61. Imai T. Functional genetic dissection of nuclear receptor signalling in obesity, diabetes and liver regeneration using spatiotemporally controlled somatic mutagenesis in the mouse. Keio J Med. 2003;52:198-203 pubmed
    ..Therefore an adipocyte-specific temporally controlled somatic mutagenesis system was established and analysed. Furthermore, the functional roles of NRs to control liver regeneration were also studied with similar system in hepatocytes. ..
  62. Alric S, Froeschlé A, Piquemal D, Carnac G, Bonnieu A. Functional specificity of the two retinoic acid receptor RAR and RXR families in myogenesis. Oncogene. 1998;16:273-82 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate a critical role for RA-receptors in RA-control of C2 myogenesis and provide tools for studying the function of RA and its receptors during vertebrate development. ..
  63. Zetterström R, Solomin L, Mitsiadis T, Olson L, Perlmann T. Retinoid X receptor heterodimerization and developmental expression distinguish the orphan nuclear receptors NGFI-B, Nurr1, and Nor1. Mol Endocrinol. 1996;10:1656-66 pubmed
    ..These data may indicate redundancy between members of the NGFI-B/Nurr1/Nor1 subfamily and could explain why no phenotypic disturbances have yet been found in mice in which the NGFI-B gene has been inactivated. ..
  64. Martin L, Tremblay J. Nuclear receptors in Leydig cell gene expression and function. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:3-14 pubmed publisher
    ..g., NR2F2 and NR5A1) have been shown to play essential roles in Leydig cells, whereas for others (e.g., NR2B1 and NR4A1), the assessment of their function has been precluded by the early embryonic lethality associated with ..
  65. Tran C, Sucov H. The RXRalpha gene functions in a non-cell-autonomous manner during mouse cardiac morphogenesis. Development. 1998;125:1951-6 pubmed
    ..We further show that RXRalpha is not epistatic to N-myc, and that RXRalpha and N-myc regulate convergent obligate pathways of cardiomyocyte maturation. ..
  66. Jonk L, de Jonge M, Pals C, Wissink S, Vervaart J, Schoorlemmer J, et al. Cloning and expression during development of three murine members of the COUP family of nuclear orphan receptors. Mech Dev. 1994;47:81-97 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, strong ARP-1 expression was detected in lung and kidney. Our data strongly suggest an important role for the members of the COUP-family in the hormonal control of gene expression regulating embryogenesis. ..
  67. van Neerven S, Regen T, Wolf D, Nemes A, Johann S, Beyer C, et al. Inflammatory chemokine release of astrocytes in vitro is reduced by all-trans retinoic acid. J Neurochem. 2010;114:1511-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that retinoids should be further investigated as candidates for the treatment of neuroinflammation. ..
  68. Billas I, Moulinier L, Rochel N, Moras D. Crystal structure of the ligand-binding domain of the ultraspiracle protein USP, the ortholog of retinoid X receptors in insects. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:7465-74 pubmed
    ..The structure of this receptor provides the template for designing inhibitors, which could be utilized as a novel type of environmentally safe insecticides. ..
  69. Naltner A, Wert S, Whitsett J, Yan C. Temporal/spatial expression of nuclear receptor coactivators in the mouse lung. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2000;279:L1066-74 pubmed
    ..These findings support a role for retinoic acid receptor and nuclear receptor coactivators in the regulation of SP-B gene expression in the respiratory epithelium...
  70. Oka S, Zhai P, Yamamoto T, Ikeda Y, Byun J, Hsu C, et al. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-α Association With Silent Information Regulator 1 Suppresses Cardiac Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Failing Heart. Circ Heart Fail. 2015;8:1123-32 pubmed publisher
    ..A change in the heterodimeric partner of PPARα from RXRα to Sirt1 is responsible for the impaired FA metabolism and cardiac dysfunction in the failing heart. ..
  71. Masuda N, Yasumo H, Furusawa T, Tsukamoto T, Sadano H, Osumi T. Nuclear receptor binding factor-1 (NRBF-1), a protein interacting with a wide spectrum of nuclear hormone receptors. Gene. 1998;221:225-33 pubmed
    ..NRBF-1 has a significant homology to the yeast protein MRF1, a putative transcription factor regulating the expression of mitochondrial respiratory proteins. NRBF-1 might be another type of nuclear receptor co-operator. ..
  72. Barros A, Erway L, Krezel W, Curran T, Kastner P, Chambon P, et al. Absence of thyroid hormone receptor beta-retinoid X receptor interactions in auditory function and in the pituitary-thyroid axis. Neuroreport. 1998;9:2933-7 pubmed
    ..This suggests that, contrary to in vitro models, RXRs may be dispensable and that TRbeta may function in vivo by an RXR-independent mechanism in the auditory system and pituitary-thyroid axis. ..
  73. Li M, Chiba H, Warot X, Messaddeq N, Gerard C, Chambon P, et al. RXR-alpha ablation in skin keratinocytes results in alopecia and epidermal alterations. Development. 2001;128:675-88 pubmed
  74. Knackstedt R, Shaoli S, Moseley V, Wargovich M. The importance of the retinoid X receptor alpha in modulating inflammatory signaling in acute murine colitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2014;59:753-9 pubmed publisher
  75. Jenkins S, Hutson D, Kubalak S. Analysis of the proepicardium-epicardium transition during the malformation of the RXRalpha-/- epicardium. Dev Dyn. 2005;233:1091-101 pubmed
    ..We propose that these events contribute to a developmental delay in the formation of the epicardium, which leads to an abnormal epicardium and ultimately contributes to the cardiac malformations seen in the RXRalpha-/-. ..
  76. Vernet N, Dennefeld C, Klopfenstein M, Ruiz A, Bok D, Ghyselinck N, et al. Retinoid X receptor beta (RXRB) expression in Sertoli cells controls cholesterol homeostasis and spermiation. Reproduction. 2008;136:619-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these findings support the conclusion that RXRB heterodimerized with a RA-liganded RARA transduces signals required in SC for spermatid release...
  77. Indra A, Li M, Brocard J, Warot X, Bornert J, Gerard C, et al. Targeted somatic mutagenesis in mouse epidermis. Horm Res. 2000;54:296-300 pubmed
    ..These two transgenic lines should be very useful to analyse the functional role of a number of genes expressed in keratinocytes. ..
  78. Krezel W, Dupé V, Mark M, Dierich A, Kastner P, Chambon P. RXR gamma null mice are apparently normal and compound RXR alpha +/-/RXR beta -/-/RXR gamma -/- mutant mice are viable. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:9010-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, it appears that RXR gamma does not exert any essential function that cannot be performed by RXR alpha or RXR beta, and one copy of RXR alpha is sufficient to perform most of the functions of the RXRs. ..
  79. Ricote M, Snyder C, Leung H, Chen J, Chien K, Glass C. Normal hematopoiesis after conditional targeting of RXRalpha in murine hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;80:850-61 pubmed
  80. Chapellier B, Mark M, Messaddeq N, Calléja C, Warot X, Brocard J, et al. Physiological and retinoid-induced proliferations of epidermis basal keratinocytes are differently controlled. EMBO J. 2002;21:3402-13 pubmed
  81. Ganti K, Mukherji A, Surjit M, Li M, Chambon P. Similarities and differences in the transcriptional control of expression of the mouse TSLP gene in skin epidermis and intestinal epithelium. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E951-E960 pubmed publisher