Gene Symbol: Rock2
Description: Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2
Alias: B230113H15Rik, ROKalpha, Rho-kinase, Rock-II, Rock2m, mKIAA0619, rho-associated protein kinase 2, Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinage 2, p164 ROCK-2, rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 2, rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase II
Species: mouse
Products:     Rock2

Top Publications

  1. Causeret F, Hidalgo Sanchez M, Fort P, Backer S, Popoff M, Gauthier Rouvière C, et al. Distinct roles of Rac1/Cdc42 and Rho/Rock for axon outgrowth and nucleokinesis of precerebellar neurons toward netrin 1. Development. 2004;131:2841-52 pubmed
  2. Nuno D, Korovkina V, England S, Lamping K. RhoA activation contributes to sex differences in vascular contractions. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:1934-40 pubmed
    ..compared with females, but this was not related to greater expression of RhoA or Rho-kinase isoforms (ROCK1 and ROCK2). The sex difference in aortic contractions to serotonin was abolished by an inhibitor of Rho-kinase, Y27632...
  3. Dangi Garimella S, Redig A, Shields M, Siddiqui M, Munshi H. Rho-ROCK-myosin signaling mediates membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase-induced cellular aggregation of keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:28363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that expression of MT1-MMP may be anti-tumorigenic in keratinocytes by promoting cellular aggregation. ..
  4. Wei L, Roberts W, Wang L, Yamada M, Zhang S, Zhao Z, et al. Rho kinases play an obligatory role in vertebrate embryonic organogenesis. Development. 2001;128:2953-62 pubmed
    ..We observed that Rho kinase transcripts were enriched in cardiac mesoderm, lateral plate mesoderm and the neural plate...
  5. Spencer C, Montalvo J, McLaughlin S, Bryan B. Small molecule inhibition of cytoskeletal dynamics in melanoma tumors results in altered transcriptional expression patterns of key genes involved in tumor initiation and progression. Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2011;8:77-85 pubmed
    b>Rho kinase signaling plays an important role in the oncogenic process largely through its regulation of F-actin dynamics, and inhibition of this pathway results in reduction in tumor volume and metastasis across a number of tumor types...
  6. Harb N, Archer T, Sato N. The Rho-Rock-Myosin signaling axis determines cell-cell integrity of self-renewing pluripotent stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3001 pubmed publisher
  7. Ehrenreiter K, Piazzolla D, Velamoor V, Sobczak I, Small J, Takeda J, et al. Raf-1 regulates Rho signaling and cell migration. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:955-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, Raf-1 plays an essential, kinase-independent function as a spatial regulator of Rho downstream signaling during migration. ..
  8. Chun K, Araki K, Jee Y, Lee D, Oh B, Huang H, et al. Regulation of glucose transport by ROCK1 differs from that of ROCK2 and is controlled by actin polymerization. Endocrinology. 2012;153:1649-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike ROCK2, ROCK1 binding to insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 was not detected by immunoprecipitation, although cell ..
  9. Furukawa N, Ongusaha P, Jahng W, Araki K, Choi C, Kim H, et al. Role of Rho-kinase in regulation of insulin action and glucose homeostasis. Cell Metab. 2005;2:119-29 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that ROK regulates insulin-stimulated glucose transport in vitro and in vivo. Thus, ROK is an important regulator of insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. ..

More Information


  1. Nakagawa O, Fujisawa K, Ishizaki T, Saito Y, Nakao K, Narumiya S. ROCK-I and ROCK-II, two isoforms of Rho-associated coiled-coil forming protein serine/threonine kinase in mice. FEBS Lett. 1996;392:189-93 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that at least two ROCK isoforms are present in a single species and play distinct roles in Rho-mediated signalling pathways. ..
  2. Mong P, Wang Q. Activation of Rho kinase isoforms in lung endothelial cells during inflammation. J Immunol. 2009;182:2385-94 pubmed publisher
    b>Rho kinase (ROCK) is a downstream effector of Rho family GTPases, and two highly homologous isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, are similarly inhibited by the widely used pharmacologic inhibitors...
  3. Ybot Gonzalez P, Savery D, Gerrelli D, Signore M, Mitchell C, Faux C, et al. Convergent extension, planar-cell-polarity signalling and initiation of mouse neural tube closure. Development. 2007;134:789-99 pubmed
    ..Inhibitor studies in whole-embryo culture demonstrated a requirement for signalling via RhoA-Rho kinase, but not jun N-terminal kinase, in convergent extension and the onset of neural tube closure...
  4. Shi J, Wu X, Surma M, Vemula S, Zhang L, Yang Y, et al. Distinct roles for ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the regulation of cell detachment. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e483 pubmed publisher
    This study, using mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells derived from ROCK1(-/-) and ROCK2(-/-) mice, is designed to dissect roles for ROCK1 and ROCK2 in regulating actin cytoskeleton reorganization induced by doxorubicin, a ..
  5. Leong S, Faux C, Turbic A, Dixon K, Turnley A. The Rho kinase pathway regulates mouse adult neural precursor cell migration. Stem Cells. 2011;29:332-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Both isoforms of ROCK were involved. Using siRNA, knockdown of both ROCK1 and ROCK2 was required to promote NPC migration and morphological changes; knockdown of ROCK2 alone was partially effective, ..
  6. Ma Z, Kanai M, Kawamura K, Kaibuchi K, Ye K, Fukasawa K. Interaction between ROCK II and nucleophosmin/B23 in the regulation of centrosome duplication. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:9016-34 pubmed
    ..Here, we identified ROCK II kinase, an effector of Rho small GTPase, as a protein that localizes to centrosomes and physically interacts with ..
  7. Ehrenreiter K, Kern F, Velamoor V, Meissl K, Galabova Kovacs G, Sibilia M, et al. Raf-1 addiction in Ras-induced skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Cell. 2009;16:149-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These data link the Raf-1:Rok-alpha complex to STAT3/Myc activation and delineate a pathway crucial for cell fate decision in Ras-induced tumorigenesis. ..
  8. Niault T, Sobczak I, Meissl K, Weitsman G, Piazzolla D, Maurer G, et al. From autoinhibition to inhibition in trans: the Raf-1 regulatory domain inhibits Rok-alpha kinase activity. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:335-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Downstream of Ras and Rho, the Raf-1-Rok-alpha interaction represents a novel paradigm of pathway cross talk that contributes to tumorigenesis and cell motility. ..
  9. Shimizu Y, Thumkeo D, Keel J, Ishizaki T, Oshima H, Oshima M, et al. ROCK-I regulates closure of the eyelids and ventral body wall by inducing assembly of actomyosin bundles. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:941-53 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ROCK-I regulates closure of the eyelids and ventral body wall through organization of actomyosin bundles. ..
  10. Piazzolla D, Meissl K, Kucerova L, Rubiolo C, Baccarini M. Raf-1 sets the threshold of Fas sensitivity by modulating Rok-alpha signaling. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:1013-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, Raf-1 has an essential function in regulating Fas expression and setting the threshold of Fas sensitivity during embryonic life. ..
  11. Nuno D, Harrod J, Lamping K. Sex-dependent differences in Rho activation contribute to contractile dysfunction in type 2 diabetic mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;297:H1469-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Vascular reactivity, expression, and activation of rhoA and rho kinase were measured in aorta from male and female nondiabetic C57BLKS/J and diabetic BKS...
  12. Shi J, Wei L. Rho kinase in the regulation of cell death and survival. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2007;55:61-75 pubmed
    b>Rho kinase (ROCK) belongs to a family of serine/threonine kinases that are activated via interaction with Rho GTPases...
  13. Hattori T, Shimokawa H, Higashi M, Hiroki J, Mukai Y, Tsutsui H, et al. Long-term inhibition of Rho-kinase suppresses left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in mice. Circulation. 2004;109:2234-9 pubmed
  14. Noma K, Rikitake Y, Oyama N, Yan G, Alcaide P, Liu P, et al. ROCK1 mediates leukocyte recruitment and neointima formation following vascular injury. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1632-44 pubmed publisher
    ..To address the role of ROCKs in this process, we generated haploinsufficient Rock1 (Rock1(+/-)) and Rock2 (Rock2(+/-)) mice and performed carotid artery ligations...
  15. Noguchi M, Hosoda K, Fujikura J, Fujimoto M, Iwakura H, Tomita T, et al. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Rho-associated kinase II enhances adipogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29574-83 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, inhibition of ROCK-II, not ROCK-I, enhances adipogenesis accompanied by the up-regulation of adipogenic transcription factors. Augmentation of insulin signaling may contribute to the enhancement of adipogenesis. ..
  16. Thumkeo D, Keel J, Ishizaki T, Hirose M, Nonomura K, Oshima H, et al. Targeted disruption of the mouse rho-associated kinase 2 gene results in intrauterine growth retardation and fetal death. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5043-55 pubmed
  17. Pritchard C, Hayes L, Wojnowski L, Zimmer A, Marais R, Norman J. B-Raf acts via the ROCKII/LIMK/cofilin pathway to maintain actin stress fibers in fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5937-52 pubmed
    ..They suggest that B-Raf is involved in invasiveness by regulating the proper assembly of actin stress fibers and contractility through a ROCKII/LIMK/cofilin signaling pathway. ..
  18. Phillips H, Papoutsi T, Soenen H, Ybot Gonzalez P, Henderson D, Chaudhry B. Neural crest cell survival is dependent on Rho kinase and is required for development of the mid face in mouse embryos. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37685 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we show that conditional expression of a dominant-negative (DN) form of Rho kinase (Rock) in mouse NCC results in severe hypoplasia of the frontonasal processes and first pharyngeal arch, ..
  19. Pelosi M, Marampon F, Zani B, Prudente S, Perlas E, Caputo V, et al. ROCK2 and its alternatively spliced isoform ROCK2m positively control the maturation of the myogenic program. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6163-76 pubmed
    ..We identify a novel and evolutionarily conserved ROCK2 splicing variant, ROCK2m, that is preferentially expressed in skeletal muscle and strongly up-regulated during in vivo and in vitro ..
  20. Thumkeo D, Shimizu Y, Sakamoto S, Yamada S, Narumiya S. ROCK-I and ROCK-II cooperatively regulate closure of eyelid and ventral body wall in mouse embryo. Genes Cells. 2005;10:825-34 pubmed
    ..Consistently, ROCK-I(+/-)ROCK-II(+/-) double heterozygous mice also show the EOB and omphalocele phenotype...
  21. Mizuno Y, Isotani E, Huang J, Ding H, Stull J, Kamm K. Myosin light chain kinase activation and calcium sensitization in smooth muscle in vivo. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C358-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the onset of agonist-induced contraction in phasic smooth muscle results from the rapid and coordinated activation of MLCK with hierarchical inhibition of MLCP by CPI-17 and MYPT1 phosphorylation. ..
  22. Iizuka M, Kimura K, Wang S, Kato K, Amano M, Kaibuchi K, et al. Distinct distribution and localization of Rho-kinase in mouse epithelial, muscle and neural tissues. Cell Struct Funct. 2012;37:155-75 pubmed
    ..Rho-kinase is a key effector protein of Rho, which is composed of two isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2. To clarify the site of action of ROCK1 and ROCK2, we performed immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopic ..
  23. Huang G, Wang Y, Su J, Zhou P, Li B, Yin L, et al. Up-regulation of Rho-associated kinase 1/2 by glucocorticoids promotes migration, invasion and metastasis of melanoma. Cancer Lett. 2017;410:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings provide new data to understand the possible promoting roles and mechanisms of GCs in melanoma metastasis. ..
  24. Kroll J, Epting D, Kern K, Dietz C, Feng Y, Hammes H, et al. Inhibition of Rho-dependent kinases ROCK I/II activates VEGF-driven retinal neovascularization and sprouting angiogenesis. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H893-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus our data identify that the inhibition of Rho-dependent kinases ROCK I/II activates angiogenesis both, in vitro and in vivo. ..
  25. Wilhelm K, Roan E, Ghosh M, Parthasarathi K, Waters C. Hyperoxia increases the elastic modulus of alveolar epithelial cells through Rho kinase. FEBS J. 2014;281:957-69 pubmed publisher
    ..cells to be stiffer due to increased filamentous actin (f-actin) formation via the GTPase RhoA and its effecter Rho kinase (ROCK)...
  26. Gaikwad J, Cavender A, D Souza R. Identification of tooth-specific downstream targets of Runx2. Gene. 2001;279:91-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we have successfully generated a library enriched in genes expressed in Runx2(+/+) molar tooth organs and performed preliminary studies to assess the role of Zfp in tooth development. ..
  27. Flynn R, Paz K, Du J, Reichenbach D, Taylor P, Panoskaltsis Mortari A, et al. Targeted Rho-associated kinase 2 inhibition suppresses murine and human chronic GVHD through a Stat3-dependent mechanism. Blood. 2016;127:2144-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Rho-associated kinase 2 (ROCK2) recently was shown to be implicated in regulation of interleukin-21 (IL-21) and IL-17 secretion in mice and ..
  28. Wang C, Song S, Zhang Y, Ge Y, Fang X, Huang T, et al. Inhibition of the Rho/Rho kinase pathway prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced hyperalgesia and the release of TNF-α and IL-1β in the mouse spinal cord. Sci Rep. 2015;5:14553 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we sought to elucidate the role of the Rho/Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway in the release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) ..
  29. Meyer Schwesinger C, Dehde S, Sachs M, Mathey S, Arefi K, Gatzemeier S, et al. Rho-kinase inhibition prevents proteinuria in immune-complex-mediated antipodocyte nephritis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;303:F1015-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that increased Rho-kinase activity in the podocyte may be a mechanism for in vivo podocyte foot process retraction...
  30. Samuel M, Munro J, Bryson S, Forrow S, Stevenson D, Olson M. Tissue selective expression of conditionally-regulated ROCK by gene targeting to a defined locus. Genesis. 2009;47:440-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We generated mice expressing 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4HT)-regulated human ROCK II (ROCKII:mER) under the transcriptional control of the cytokeratin14 (K14) promoter...
  31. Meriane M, Duhamel S, Lejeune L, Galipeau J, Annabi B. Cooperation of matrix metalloproteinases with the RhoA/Rho kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways is required for the sphingosine-1-phosphate-induced mobilization of marrow-derive. Stem Cells. 2006;24:2557-65 pubmed
    ..morphological changes of MSCs in vitro require the activities of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Rho kinase (ROCK), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) signaling molecules...
  32. Croft D, Olson M. The Rho GTPase effector ROCK regulates cyclin A, cyclin D1, and p27Kip1 levels by distinct mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:4612-27 pubmed
    ..proteins regulate numerous effector proteins, with a central and vital signaling role mediated by the ROCK I and ROCK II serine/threonine kinases...
  33. Nishimura T, Takeichi M. Shroom3-mediated recruitment of Rho kinases to the apical cell junctions regulates epithelial and neuroepithelial planar remodeling. Development. 2008;135:1493-502 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the Shroom3-ROCK interaction is crucial for the regulation of epithelial and neuroepithelial cell arrangement and remodeling. ..
  34. Beckers C, Knezevic N, Valent E, Tauseef M, Krishnan R, Rajendran K, et al. ROCK2 primes the endothelium for vascular hyperpermeability responses by raising baseline junctional tension. Vascul Pharmacol. 2015;70:45-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Rho kinase mediates the effects of inflammatory permeability factors by increasing actomyosin-generated traction forces on endothelial adherens junctions, resulting in disassembly of intercellular junctions and increased vascular leakage...
  35. Jiao X, Katiyar S, Liu M, Mueller S, Lisanti M, Li A, et al. Disruption of c-Jun reduces cellular migration and invasion through inhibition of c-Src and hyperactivation of ROCK II kinase. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:1378-90 pubmed publisher
    ..c-jun gene deletion reduced c-Src expression, hyperactivated ROCK II signaling, and reduced cellular polarity, migration, and invasiveness...
  36. Witzenrath M, Ahrens B, Schmeck B, Kube S, Hippenstiel S, Rosseau S, et al. Rho-kinase and contractile apparatus proteins in murine airway hyperresponsiveness. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2008;60:9-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Rho-kinase may play an important role in murine AHR, and the bronchodilating action of Rho-kinase inhibition may offer a new therapeutic perspective in obstructive airway disease. ..
  37. Saito T, Hirano M, Ide T, Ichiki T, Koibuchi N, Sunagawa K, et al. Pivotal role of Rho-associated kinase 2 in generating the intrinsic circadian rhythm of vascular contractility. Circulation. 2013;127:104-14 pubmed publisher
    ..4-hour cycle length. The pharmacological inhibition and knockdown of Rho-associated kinase 2 (ROCK2) abolished the circadian rhythm of myosin light chain phosphorylation...
  38. Woods A, Wang G, Beier F. RhoA/ROCK signaling regulates Sox9 expression and actin organization during chondrogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:11626-34 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest that RhoA/ROCK signaling suppresses chondrogenesis through the control of Sox9 expression and actin organization. ..
  39. Sfakianos M, Eisman A, Gourley S, Bradley W, Scheetz A, Settleman J, et al. Inhibition of Rho via Arg and p190RhoGAP in the postnatal mouse hippocampus regulates dendritic spine maturation, synapse and dendrite stability, and behavior. J Neurosci. 2007;27:10982-92 pubmed
    ..Together, these data indicate that signaling through Arg and p190RhoGAP acts late during synaptic refinement to promote dendritic spine maturation and synapse/dendrite stability by attenuating synaptic Rho activity. ..
  40. Escuin S, Vernay B, Savery D, Gurniak C, Witke W, Greene N, et al. Rho-kinase-dependent actin turnover and actomyosin disassembly are necessary for mouse spinal neural tube closure. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:2468-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, inhibiting Rho kinase (ROCK, for which there are two isoforms ROCK1 and ROCK2) or blocking F-actin disassembly prevented closure, with ..
  41. Varga A, Ehrenreiter K, Aschenbrenner B, Kocieniewski P, Kochanczyk M, Lipniacki T, et al. RAF1/BRAF dimerization integrates the signal from RAS to ERK and ROK?. Sci Signal. 2017;10: pubmed publisher
  42. Lee H, Tien S, Jou T, Chang Y, Jhong J, Chang Z. Src-dependent phosphorylation of ROCK participates in regulation of focal adhesion dynamics. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:3368-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data suggest that Src-dependent ROCKII phosphorylation provides a means of tuning contractility required for FAs dynamics when RhoA is active. ..
  43. Kaneko T, Maeda A, Takefuji M, Aoyama H, Nakayama M, Kawabata S, et al. Rho mediates endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor through phosphorylation of endophilin A1 by Rho-kinase. Genes Cells. 2005;10:973-87 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that Rho-kinase phosphorylates endophilin downstream of Rho and regulates EGF receptor endocytosis through the inhibition of binding between endophilin and CIN85. ..
  44. Jin Y, Han X, Taketo M, Yoon J. Wnt9b-dependent FGF signaling is crucial for outgrowth of the nasal and maxillary processes during upper jaw and lip development. Development. 2012;139:1821-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study has identified a previously unknown regulatory link between WNT9B and FGF signaling during lip and upper jaw development...
  45. Soliman H, Nyamandi V, Garcia Patino M, Varela J, Bankar G, Lin G, et al. Partial deletion of ROCK2 protects mice from high-fat diet-induced cardiac insulin resistance and contractile dysfunction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015;309:H70-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The RhoA-Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway has been reported to modulate insulin resistance, but whether it is implicated in obesity-induced ..
  46. Duan X, Chen K, Zhang Y, Cui X, Kim N, Sun S. ROCK inhibition prevents early mouse embryo development. Histochem Cell Biol. 2014;142:227-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results showed conserved roles for ROCK in this mammalian embryo model and indicated that a ROCK-LIMK1/2-actin pathway might regulate cleavage and blastocyst formation during early mouse embryo development. ..
  47. Zhao Z, Rivkees S. Rho-associated kinases play an essential role in cardiac morphogenesis and cardiomyocyte proliferation. Dev Dyn. 2003;226:24-32 pubmed
    ..These observations show that ROCK kinases play a role in cardiac development and that ROCK kinases regulate cardiac cell proliferation and cell cycle protein expression. ..
  48. Speich J, Southern J, Henderson S, Wilson C, Klausner A, Ratz P. Adjustable passive stiffness in mouse bladder: regulated by Rho kinase and elevated following partial bladder outlet obstruction. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;302:F967-76 pubmed publisher longer lengths compared with prior T(p) measurements at those lengths, and APS generation is inhibited by the Rho Kinase (ROCK) inhibitor H-1152. In the current study, mouse bladder strips exhibited both KCl- and CCh-induced APS...
  49. Wang Y, Jiang L, Mo X, Lan Y, Yang X, Liu X, et al. Megakaryocytic Smad4 Regulates Platelet Function through Syk and ROCK2 Expression. Mol Pharmacol. 2017;92:285-296 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these genes, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) were downregulated several times as confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and ..
  50. Ohsawa M, Ishikura K, Mutoh J, Hisa H. Involvement of inhibition of RhoA/Rho kinase signaling in simvastatin-induced amelioration of neuropathic pain. Neuroscience. 2016;333:204-13 pubmed publisher
    ..GFAP-immunoreactivity (ir), Iba-1-ir, and Rho kinase 2 (ROCK2-ir) was also increased in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn of nerve-ligated mice...
  51. Koike S, Keino Masu K, Ohto T, Sugiyama F, Takahashi S, Masu M. Autotaxin/lysophospholipase D-mediated lysophosphatidic acid signaling is required to form distinctive large lysosomes in the visceral endoderm cells of the mouse yolk sac. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33561-70 pubmed publisher
  52. Zhao Z, Rivkees S. Rho-associated kinases play a role in endocardial cell differentiation and migration. Dev Biol. 2004;275:183-91 pubmed
    ..Using reverse transcription (RT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), expression of the rock1 and rock2 genes was found in the endocardial cushions during development...
  53. Hildebrand J. Shroom regulates epithelial cell shape via the apical positioning of an actomyosin network. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:5191-203 pubmed
    ..Thus, Shroom likely facilitates neural tube closure by regulating cell shape changes via the apical positioning of an actomyosin network in the neurepithelium. ..
  54. Takase H, Yano S, Yamaguchi T, Kanazawa I, Hayashi K, Yamamoto M, et al. Parathyroid hormone upregulates BMP-2 mRNA expression through mevalonate kinase and Rho kinase inhibition in osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Horm Metab Res. 2009;41:861-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Short-term treatment of hPTH-(1-34) suppressed Rho kinase activity and mevalonate kinase mRNA levels...
  55. Lin Y, Yeckel M, Koleske A. Abl2/Arg controls dendritic spine and dendrite arbor stability via distinct cytoskeletal control pathways. J Neurosci. 2013;33:1846-57 pubmed publisher
  56. Chen S, Liu C, Huang S, Chiou S. Vascular hyperpermeability in response to inflammatory mustard oil is mediated by Rho kinase in mice systemically exposed to arsenic. Microvasc Res. 2011;82:182-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate whether RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK)-mediated vascular leakage (hyperpermeability) is induced by mustard oil in mice systemically exposed to ..
  57. Montalvo J, Spencer C, Hackathorn A, Masterjohn K, Perkins A, Doty C, et al. ROCK1 & 2 perform overlapping and unique roles in angiogenesis and angiosarcoma tumor progression. Curr Mol Med. 2013;13:205-19 pubmed alterations in cytoskeletal dynamics due to ROCK1 & 2-mediated reductions in actin isoform expression, and ROCK2-specific reduction in myosin phosphatase and cofilin phosphorylation...
  58. Herskowitz J, Feng Y, Mattheyses A, Hales C, Higginbotham L, Duong D, et al. Pharmacologic inhibition of ROCK2 suppresses amyloid-? production in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. J Neurosci. 2013;33:19086-98 pubmed publisher the principal downstream effectors of RhoA, Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) 1 and ROCK2, modulate A? generation...
  59. Riento K, Totty N, Villalonga P, Garg R, Guasch R, Ridley A. RhoE function is regulated by ROCK I-mediated phosphorylation. EMBO J. 2005;24:1170-80 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration of an endogenous Rho family member being phosphorylated in vivo and indicates that phosphorylation is an important mechanism to control the stability and function of this GTPase-deficient Rho protein...
  60. Nozaki Y, Kinoshita K, Hino S, Yano T, Niki K, Hirooka Y, et al. Signaling Rho-kinase mediates inflammation and apoptosis in T cells and renal tubules in cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2015;308:F899-909 pubmed publisher
    ..As Rho-kinase plays an important role in promoting cisplatin nephrotoxicity, inhibiting Rho-kinase may be a therapeutic strategy for preventing cisplatin-induced AKI. ..
  61. Toque H, Nunes K, Yao L, Liao J, Webb R, Caldwell R, et al. Activated Rho kinase mediates diabetes-induced elevation of vascular arginase activation and contributes to impaired corpora cavernosa relaxation: possible involvement of p38 MAPK activation. J Sex Med. 2013;10:1502-15 pubmed publisher
    Activated RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) has been implicated in diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction. Earlier studies have demonstrated involvement of ROCK pathway in the activation of arginase in endothelial cells...
  62. Duffy P, Schmandke A, Schmandke A, Sigworth J, Narumiya S, Cafferty W, et al. Rho-associated kinase II (ROCKII) limits axonal growth after trauma within the adult mouse spinal cord. J Neurosci. 2009;29:15266-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings demonstrate that the ROCKII gene product limits axonal growth after CNS trauma. ..
  63. Biswas P, Gupta S, Chang E, Bhagat G, Pernis A. Aberrant ROCK activation promotes the development of type I diabetes in NOD mice. Cell Immunol. 2011;266:111-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently found that the serine-threonine kinase ROCK2 phosphorylates IRF4 and regulates its ability to control IL-17 and IL-21 production...
  64. Shimizu T, Fukumoto Y, Tanaka S, Satoh K, Ikeda S, Shimokawa H. Crucial role of ROCK2 in vascular smooth muscle cells for hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:2780-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Rho-kinase has 2 isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, with different functions in different cells; ROCK1 for circulating inflammatory cells and ROCK2 for the ..
  65. Chen C, Yu J, Zhang Q, Zhao Y, Liu C, Li Y, et al. Role of Rho Kinase and Fasudil on Synaptic Plasticity in Multiple Sclerosis. Neuromolecular Med. 2015;17:454-65 pubmed publisher
    ..A series of studies have demonstrated that Rho kinase (ROCK) is involved in synaptic plasticity of neurons...
  66. Takeshita N, Hasegawa M, Sasaki K, Seki D, Seiryu M, Miyashita S, et al. In vivo expression and regulation of genes associated with vascularization during early response of sutures to tensile force. J Bone Miner Metab. 2017;35:40-51 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf) and Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 (Rock2) was also upregulated by tensile force...
  67. Phillips H, Mahendran P, Singh E, Anderson R, Chaudhry B, Henderson D. Neural crest cells are required for correct positioning of the developing outflow cushions and pattern the arterial valve leaflets. Cardiovasc Res. 2013;99:452-60 pubmed publisher
  68. Singh R, Xia Z, Bland C, Kalsotra A, Scavuzzo M, Curk T, et al. Rbfox2-coordinated alternative splicing of Mef2d and Rock2 controls myoblast fusion during myogenesis. Mol Cell. 2014;55:592-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Integration of Rbfox2-dependent splicing outcomes from RNA-seq with Rbfox2 iCLIP data identified Mef2d and Rock2 as Rbfox2 splicing targets...
  69. Vega F, Fruhwirth G, Ng T, Ridley A. RhoA and RhoC have distinct roles in migration and invasion by acting through different targets. J Cell Biol. 2011;193:655-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These phenotypes were caused by combined but distinct effects of the Rho-regulated kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2. Depletion of ROCK2 induced multiple delocalized protrusions and reduced migratory polarity, whereas ROCK1 ..
  70. Sun S, Zhang M, Lin J, Hu J, Zhang R, Li C, et al. Lin28a protects against diabetic cardiomyopathy via the PKA/ROCK2 pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;469:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..RhoA-expression and ROCK2-expression were decreased in vivo after Lin28a overexpression, while Lin28a knockdown increased the expression ..
  71. Johnson H, Hanson L, Chen Y, Bieber A, Buono R, Ferraro T, et al. Quantitative trait loci analysis reveals candidate genes implicated in regulating functional deficit and CNS vascular permeability in CD8 T cell-initiated blood-brain barrier disruption. BMC Genomics. 2013;14:678 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes encode for factors that may be potential targets for therapeutic approaches to treat disorders characterized by CD8 T cell-mediated BBB disruption. ..
  72. Weng C, Gupta S, Geraghty P, Foronjy R, Pernis A. Cigarette smoke inhibits ROCK2 activation in T cells and modulates IL-22 production. Mol Immunol. 2016;71:115-122 pubmed publisher
    ..The production of IL-17 and IL-21 by IRF4 can be augmented by its phosphorylation by the serine-threonine kinase ROCK2. Given that CS has been reported to increase ROCK activity in endothelial cells, here we investigated the effects ..
  73. Depoy L, Noble B, Allen A, Gourley S. Developmentally divergent effects of Rho-kinase inhibition on cocaine- and BDNF-induced behavioral plasticity. Behav Brain Res. 2013;243:171-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, early-life Rho-kinase inhibition confers cocaine vulnerability, but may actually protect against pathological reward-seeking - particularly in cases of diminished neurotrophic support - in adulthood. ..
  74. Ferrer I, Mohan P, Chen H, Castellsagué J, Gómez Baldó L, Carmona M, et al. Tubers from patients with tuberous sclerosis complex are characterized by changes in microtubule biology through ROCK2 signalling. J Pathol. 2014;233:247-57 pubmed publisher
    ..four of them diagnosed with TSC2 germline mutations), we show that alteration of microtubule biology through ROCK2 signalling contributes to TSC neuropathology...
  75. Tanaka T, Nishimura D, Wu R, Amano M, Iso T, Kedes L, et al. Nuclear Rho kinase, ROCK2, targets p300 acetyltransferase. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15320-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that ROCK2 is localized in the nucleus and associates with p300 acetyltransferase both in vitro and in cells...
  76. Hammar E, Tomas A, Bosco D, Halban P. Role of the Rho-ROCK (Rho-associated kinase) signaling pathway in the regulation of pancreatic beta-cell function. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2072-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they indicate that inhibition of this pathway might be one of the mechanisms by which the extracellular matrix exerts its beneficial effects on pancreatic beta-cell function. ..
  77. Kamijo H, Matsumura Y, Thumkeo D, Koike S, Masu M, Shimizu Y, et al. Impaired vascular remodeling in the yolk sac of embryos deficient in ROCK-I and ROCK-II. Genes Cells. 2011;16:1012-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ROCK isoforms function redundantly during embryogenesis and play a critical role in vascular development. ..