Gene Symbol: Rock1
Description: Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1
Alias: 1110055K06Rik, Rock-I, rho-associated protein kinase 1, Rho-associated coiled-coil forming kinase 1, p160 ROCK-1, p160ROCK, rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1, rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase I
Species: mouse
Products:     Rock1

Top Publications

  1. Lee D, Shi J, Jeoung N, Kim M, Zabolotny J, Lee S, et al. Targeted disruption of ROCK1 causes insulin resistance in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:11776-80 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the physiological role of ROCK1 in the regulation of whole body glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in vivo, we studied mice with global ..
  2. Nakagawa O, Fujisawa K, Ishizaki T, Saito Y, Nakao K, Narumiya S. ROCK-I and ROCK-II, two isoforms of Rho-associated coiled-coil forming protein serine/threonine kinase in mice. FEBS Lett. 1996;392:189-93 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that at least two ROCK isoforms are present in a single species and play distinct roles in Rho-mediated signalling pathways. ..
  3. Riento K, Guasch R, Garg R, Jin B, Ridley A. RhoE binds to ROCK I and inhibits downstream signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:4219-29 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that RhoE binds ROCK I but none of the other RhoA targets tested...
  4. Wei L, Roberts W, Wang L, Yamada M, Zhang S, Zhao Z, et al. Rho kinases play an obligatory role in vertebrate embryonic organogenesis. Development. 2001;128:2953-62 pubmed
    ..Thus, our study reveals new biological functions for Rho kinases in regulating major morphogenetic events during early chick and mouse development. ..
  5. Okamoto R, Li Y, Noma K, Hiroi Y, Liu P, Taniguchi M, et al. FHL2 prevents cardiac hypertrophy in mice with cardiac-specific deletion of ROCK2. FASEB J. 2013;27:1439-49 pubmed publisher
    The Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases, ROCK1 and ROCK2, are important regulators of cell shape, migration, and proliferation through effects on the actin cytoskeleton...
  6. Harb N, Archer T, Sato N. The Rho-Rock-Myosin signaling axis determines cell-cell integrity of self-renewing pluripotent stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3001 pubmed publisher
  7. Zhang Y, Bo J, Taffet G, Chang J, Shi J, Reddy A, et al. Targeted deletion of ROCK1 protects the heart against pressure overload by inhibiting reactive fibrosis. FASEB J. 2006;20:916-25 pubmed
    ..The Rho kinase family, consisting of ROCK1 and ROCK2, has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy and ventricular remodeling...
  8. Spencer C, Montalvo J, McLaughlin S, Bryan B. Small molecule inhibition of cytoskeletal dynamics in melanoma tumors results in altered transcriptional expression patterns of key genes involved in tumor initiation and progression. Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2011;8:77-85 pubmed
    ..In addition to regulating tumorigenesis through modulation of the phosphoproteome, Rho kinase signaling also contributes to the regulation of the tumor transcriptome. ..
  9. Rikitake Y, Oyama N, Wang C, Noma K, Satoh M, Kim H, et al. Decreased perivascular fibrosis but not cardiac hypertrophy in ROCK1+/- haploinsufficient mice. Circulation. 2005;112:2959-65 pubmed
    ..pharmacological inhibitors of ROCK are not entirely specific, nor can they discriminate between the ROCK isoforms ROCK1 and ROCK2...

More Information


  1. Furukawa N, Ongusaha P, Jahng W, Araki K, Choi C, Kim H, et al. Role of Rho-kinase in regulation of insulin action and glucose homeostasis. Cell Metab. 2005;2:119-29 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that ROK regulates insulin-stimulated glucose transport in vitro and in vivo. Thus, ROK is an important regulator of insulin signaling and glucose metabolism. ..
  2. Daley W, Gervais E, Centanni S, Gulfo K, Nelson D, Larsen M. ROCK1-directed basement membrane positioning coordinates epithelial tissue polarity. Development. 2012;139:411-22 pubmed publisher
    ..of salivary epithelial cells on exogenous basement membrane rescues epithelial organization in the presence of ROCK1 or PAR-1b inhibition, and this basement membrane-mediated rescue requires functional integrin ?1 to maintain ..
  3. Wang W, Wang Y, Long J, Wang J, Haudek S, OVERBEEK P, et al. Mitochondrial fission triggered by hyperglycemia is mediated by ROCK1 activation in podocytes and endothelial cells. Cell Metab. 2012;15:186-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we examined the role of Rho-associated coiled coil-containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) on mitochondrial dynamics by generating two diabetic mouse models with targeted deletions of ROCK1 and an ..
  4. Mali R, Ramdas B, Ma P, Shi J, Munugalavadla V, Sims E, et al. Rho kinase regulates the survival and transformation of cells bearing oncogenic forms of KIT, FLT3, and BCR-ABL. Cancer Cell. 2011;20:357-69 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary we describe a pathway involving PI3K/Rho/ROCK/MLC that may contribute to myeloproliferative disease and/or acute myeloid leukemia in humans. ..
  5. Chun K, Araki K, Jee Y, Lee D, Oh B, Huang H, et al. Regulation of glucose transport by ROCK1 differs from that of ROCK2 and is controlled by actin polymerization. Endocrinology. 2012;153:1649-62 pubmed publisher
    ..However, cell-autonomous effects of ROCK1 on insulin-dependent glucose transport in adipocytes and muscle cells have not been elucidated...
  6. Leong S, Faux C, Turbic A, Dixon K, Turnley A. The Rho kinase pathway regulates mouse adult neural precursor cell migration. Stem Cells. 2011;29:332-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Both isoforms of ROCK were involved. Using siRNA, knockdown of both ROCK1 and ROCK2 was required to promote NPC migration and morphological changes; knockdown of ROCK2 alone was partially ..
  7. Kobayashi K, Takahashi M, Matsushita N, Miyazaki J, Koike M, Yaginuma H, et al. Survival of developing motor neurons mediated by Rho GTPase signaling pathway through Rho-kinase. J Neurosci. 2004;24:3480-8 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the Rho signaling pathway, primarily through Rho-kinase, plays a crucial role in survival of spinal MNs during embryogenesis, particularly at the early developmental stages. ..
  8. Huang H, Kong D, Byun K, Ye C, Koda S, Lee D, et al. Rho-kinase regulates energy balance by targeting hypothalamic leptin receptor signaling. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:1391-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Rho-kinase 1 (ROCK1) regulates leptin action on body weight homeostasis by activating JAK2, an initial trigger of leptin receptor ..
  9. Vemula S, Shi J, Hanneman P, Wei L, Kapur R. ROCK1 functions as a suppressor of inflammatory cell migration by regulating PTEN phosphorylation and stability. Blood. 2010;115:1785-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that deficiency of ROCK1 results in increased recruitment and migration of macrophages and neutrophils in vitro and in vivo...
  10. Shi J, Wu X, Surma M, Vemula S, Zhang L, Yang Y, et al. Distinct roles for ROCK1 and ROCK2 in the regulation of cell detachment. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e483 pubmed publisher
    This study, using mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells derived from ROCK1(-/-) and ROCK2(-/-) mice, is designed to dissect roles for ROCK1 and ROCK2 in regulating actin cytoskeleton reorganization induced by doxorubicin, a ..
  11. Mong P, Wang Q. Activation of Rho kinase isoforms in lung endothelial cells during inflammation. J Immunol. 2009;182:2385-94 pubmed publisher
    Rho kinase (ROCK) is a downstream effector of Rho family GTPases, and two highly homologous isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, are similarly inhibited by the widely used pharmacologic inhibitors...
  12. Haudek S, Gupta D, Dewald O, Schwartz R, Wei L, Trial J, et al. Rho kinase-1 mediates cardiac fibrosis by regulating fibroblast precursor cell differentiation. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;83:511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data implicate an important role for ROCK-1 in the differentiation, but not in the TEM of monocytes that mature into cardiac fibroblasts. These cells mediate non-adaptive fibrosis. ..
  13. Shi J, Wei L. Rho kinase in the regulation of cell death and survival. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2007;55:61-75 pubmed
    ..Two ROCK isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, are assumed to be function redundant, this based largely on kinase construct overexpression and ..
  14. Taylor J, Chung K, Figueroa C, Zurawski J, Dickson H, Brace E, et al. The scaffold protein POSH regulates axon outgrowth. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:5181-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that the molecular scaffold protein POSH assembles an inhibitory complex that links to the actin-myosin network to regulate neuronal process outgrowth. ..
  15. Shimizu Y, Thumkeo D, Keel J, Ishizaki T, Oshima H, Oshima M, et al. ROCK-I regulates closure of the eyelids and ventral body wall by inducing assembly of actomyosin bundles. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:941-53 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ROCK-I regulates closure of the eyelids and ventral body wall through organization of actomyosin bundles. ..
  16. Vemula S, Shi J, Mali R, Ma P, Liu Y, Hanneman P, et al. ROCK1 functions as a critical regulator of stress erythropoiesis and survival by regulating p53. Blood. 2012;120:2868-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Rho kinases (ROCKs) belong to a family of serine/threonine kinases. Using gene-targeted ROCK1-deficient mice, we show that lack of ROCK1 in phenylhydrazine-induced oxidative stress model results in enhanced ..
  17. Ongusaha P, Qi H, Raj L, Kim Y, Aaronson S, Davis R, et al. Identification of ROCK1 as an upstream activator of the JIP-3 to JNK signaling axis in response to UVB damage. Sci Signal. 2008;1:ra14 pubmed publisher
    ..of the JNK-interacting protein 3 (JIP-3) scaffolding protein as an interacting partner of Rho-associated kinase 1 (ROCK1), as determined by tandem affinity protein purification...
  18. Shi J, Surma M, Zhang L, Wei L. Dissecting the roles of ROCK isoforms in stress-induced cell detachment. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:1492-500 pubmed publisher
    The homologous Rho kinases, ROCK1 and ROCK2, are involved in stress fiber assembly and cell adhesion and are assumed to be functionally redundant...
  19. Pelosi M, Marampon F, Zani B, Prudente S, Perlas E, Caputo V, et al. ROCK2 and its alternatively spliced isoform ROCK2m positively control the maturation of the myogenic program. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:6163-76 pubmed
  20. Noma K, Rikitake Y, Oyama N, Yan G, Alcaide P, Liu P, et al. ROCK1 mediates leukocyte recruitment and neointima formation following vascular injury. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1632-44 pubmed publisher
    ..To address the role of ROCKs in this process, we generated haploinsufficient Rock1 (Rock1(+/-)) and Rock2 (Rock2(+/-)) mice and performed carotid artery ligations...
  21. Phillips H, Papoutsi T, Soenen H, Ybot Gonzalez P, Henderson D, Chaudhry B. Neural crest cell survival is dependent on Rho kinase and is required for development of the mid face in mouse embryos. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37685 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that reduced NCC numbers in the frontonasal processes and first pharyngeal arch, resulting from exacerbated cell death, may be the common mechanism underlying frontonasal dysplasia. ..
  22. Noguchi M, Hosoda K, Fujikura J, Fujimoto M, Iwakura H, Tomita T, et al. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Rho-associated kinase II enhances adipogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29574-83 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, inhibition of ROCK-II, not ROCK-I, enhances adipogenesis accompanied by the up-regulation of adipogenic transcription factors. Augmentation of insulin signaling may contribute to the enhancement of adipogenesis. ..
  23. Castellani L, Salvati E, Alema S, Falcone G. Fine regulation of RhoA and Rock is required for skeletal muscle differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15249-57 pubmed
    ..Finally, we have reported that Rock acts independently from RhoA in preventing myoblast exit from the cell cycle and commitment to differentiation and may receive signaling inputs from Raf-1 kinase. ..
  24. Thumkeo D, Keel J, Ishizaki T, Hirose M, Nonomura K, Oshima H, et al. Targeted disruption of the mouse rho-associated kinase 2 gene results in intrauterine growth retardation and fetal death. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5043-55 pubmed
  25. Chang J, Xie M, Shah V, Schneider M, Entman M, Wei L, et al. Activation of Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase 1 (ROCK-1) by caspase-3 cleavage plays an essential role in cardiac myocyte apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:14495-500 pubmed
    ..These data suggest an obligatory role for ROCK-1 cleavage in promoting apoptotic signals in myocardial hypertrophy and/or failure. ..
  26. Riento K, Totty N, Villalonga P, Garg R, Guasch R, Ridley A. RhoE function is regulated by ROCK I-mediated phosphorylation. EMBO J. 2005;24:1170-80 pubmed
    The Rho GTPase family member RhoE regulates actin filaments partly by binding to and inhibiting ROCK I, a serine/threonine kinase that induces actomyosin contractility...
  27. Thumkeo D, Shimizu Y, Sakamoto S, Yamada S, Narumiya S. ROCK-I and ROCK-II cooperatively regulate closure of eyelid and ventral body wall in mouse embryo. Genes Cells. 2005;10:825-34 pubmed
    ..Consistently, ROCK-I(+/-)ROCK-II(+/-) double heterozygous mice also show the EOB and omphalocele phenotype...
  28. Shi J, Zhang Y, Yang Y, Zhang L, Wei L. ROCK1 plays an essential role in the transition from cardiac hypertrophy to failure in mice. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;49:819-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We have recently reported that genetic deletion of Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) inhibited several pathological events including cardiomyocyte apoptosis in compensated hypertrophic hearts...
  29. Harrod J, Rada C, Pierce S, England S, Lamping K. Altered contribution of RhoA/Rho kinase signaling in contractile activity of myometrium in leptin receptor-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;301:E362-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, other signaling mechanisms appear to compensate when leptin signaling is reduced to maintain contractile function during pregnancy...
  30. Zhao Z, Rivkees S. Rho-associated kinases play an essential role in cardiac morphogenesis and cardiomyocyte proliferation. Dev Dyn. 2003;226:24-32 pubmed
    ..These observations show that ROCK kinases play a role in cardiac development and that ROCK kinases regulate cardiac cell proliferation and cell cycle protein expression. ..
  31. Rikitake Y, Liao J. Rho-kinase mediates hyperglycemia-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells. Circulation. 2005;111:3261-8 pubmed
    ..Hyperglycemia failed to stimulate Rho-kinase activity and PAI-1 expression in heterozygous ROCK I-knockout murine endothelial cells...
  32. Xia Y, Cai X, Fan J, Zhang L, Ren J, Chen J, et al. Rho Kinase Inhibitor Fasudil Suppresses the Vasculogenic Mimicry of B16 Mouse Melanoma Cells Both In Vitro and In Vivo. Mol Cancer Ther. 2015;14:1582-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Fasudil-treated tumors also displayed fewer VM channels. These results suggest that fasudil may be an emerging therapeutic option for targeting cancer VM. ..
  33. Herzog D, Loetscher P, van Hengel J, Knüsel S, Brakebusch C, Taylor V, et al. The small GTPase RhoA is required to maintain spinal cord neuroepithelium organization and the neural stem cell pool. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5120-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data show that RhoA signaling is necessary for AJ regulation and for the maintenance of mammalian neuroepithelium organization preventing precocious cell-cycle exit and differentiation. ..
  34. Kasahara D, Mathews J, Park C, Cho Y, Hunt G, Wurmbrand A, et al. ROCK insufficiency attenuates ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015;309:L736-46 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the contribution of the two ROCK isoforms ROCK1 and ROCK2 to ozone-induced AHR, we exposed wild-type, ROCK1(+/-), and ROCK2(+/-) mice to air or ozone (2 ppm for 3 ..
  35. Wang H, Liu P, Oyama N, Rikitake Y, Kitamoto S, Gitlin J, et al. Deficiency of ROCK1 in bone marrow-derived cells protects against atherosclerosis in LDLR-/- mice. FASEB J. 2008;22:3561-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Using homologous recombination, we generated mutant mice harboring alleles with homozygous deletion of ROCK1 (ROCK1(-/-)). Most ROCK1(-/-) mice die perinatally...
  36. Ishiuchi T, Takeichi M. Willin and Par3 cooperatively regulate epithelial apical constriction through aPKC-mediated ROCK phosphorylation. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:860-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we have uncovered a Willin/Par3-aPKC-ROCK pathway that controls epithelial apical morphology...
  37. Nobe K, Hashimoto T, Honda K. Two distinct dysfunctions in diabetic mouse mesenteric artery contraction are caused by changes in the Rho A-Rho kinase signaling pathway. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;683:217-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that inactivation of Rho A reduced contractibility under NG conditions, and the lack of glucose dependency is associated with reduced Rho kinase expression. ..
  38. Whitlock N, Harrison B, Mixon T, Yu X, Wilson A, Gerhardt B, et al. Decreased intraocular pressure in mice following either pharmacological or genetic inhibition of ROCK. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2009;25:187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..if pharmacological or genetic inhibition of Rho-associated coiled coil containing protein kinases (known as ROCK1 and ROCK2) alters intraocular pressure (IOP) in mice...
  39. Huang H, Lee S, Ye C, Lima I, Oh B, Lowell B, et al. ROCK1 in AgRP neurons regulates energy expenditure and locomotor activity in male mice. Endocrinology. 2013;154:3660-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our recent work demonstrates that deletion of Rho-kinase 1 (ROCK1) in the AgRP neurons of mice increased body weight and adiposity...
  40. Kapur R, Shi J, Ghosh J, Munugalavadla V, Sims E, Martin H, et al. ROCK1 via LIM kinase regulates growth, maturation and actin based functions in mast cells. Oncotarget. 2016;7:16936-47 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rock1 deficiency results in delayed maturation of bone marrow derived mast cells (BMMCs) in response to IL-3 stimulation ..
  41. Ferron S, Marques Torrejon M, Mira H, Flores I, Taylor K, Blasco M, et al. Telomere shortening in neural stem cells disrupts neuronal differentiation and neuritogenesis. J Neurosci. 2009;29:14394-407 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanistically linked to its cooperation with the Notch pathway in the upregulation of small GTPase RhoA kinases, Rock1 and Rock2, suggesting a potential link between DNA damage and the Notch signaling pathway in the control of ..
  42. Santen S, Wang Y, Laschke M, Menger M, Jeppsson B, Thorlacius H. Rho-kinase signalling regulates CXC chemokine formation and leukocyte recruitment in colonic ischemia-reperfusion. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2010;25:1063-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, targeting Rho-kinase signalling may be a useful strategy in order to protect against pathological inflammation in the colon. ..
  43. Kato M, Blanton R, Wang G, Judson T, Abe Y, Myoishi M, et al. Direct binding and regulation of RhoA protein by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I?. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:41342-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results support that RhoA is a PKGI? target and that direct binding of activated PKGI? to RhoA is central to cGMP-mediated inhibition of the VSMC Rho kinase contractile pathway. ..
  44. Dyck S, Alizadeh A, Santhosh K, Proulx E, Wu C, Karimi Abdolrezaee S. Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans Negatively Modulate Spinal Cord Neural Precursor Cells by Signaling Through LAR and RPTPσ and Modulation of the Rho/ROCK Pathway. Stem Cells. 2015;33:2550-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work provide novel evidence uncovering how upregulation of CSPGs challenges the response of NPCs in their post-SCI niche and identifies new therapeutic targets for enhancing NPC-based therapies for SCI repair. ..
  45. Liu Y, Minze L, Mumma L, Li X, Ghobrial R, Kloc M. Mouse macrophage polarity and ROCK1 activity depend on RhoA and non-apoptotic Caspase 3. Exp Cell Res. 2016;341:225-36 pubmed publisher
    ..depend on actin cytoskeleton, which is under the control of small GTPase RhoA pathway and its downstream effector ROCK1. We generated RhoA-deleted macrophages and compared the effect of RhoA deletion on M0, M1 and M2 macrophage ..
  46. Barcia C, Ros C, Annese V, Carrillo de Sauvage M, Ros Bernal F, Gomez A, et al. ROCK/Cdc42-mediated microglial motility and gliapse formation lead to phagocytosis of degenerating dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Sci Rep. 2012;2:809 pubmed publisher
  47. Suprynowicz F, Upadhyay G, Krawczyk E, Kramer S, Hebert J, Liu X, et al. Conditionally reprogrammed cells represent a stem-like state of adult epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:20035-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities afforded by a method that can generate adult stem-like cells in vitro without genetic manipulation. ..
  48. Yang S, Kim H. The RhoA-ROCK-PTEN pathway as a molecular switch for anchorage dependent cell behavior. Biomaterials. 2012;33:2902-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In cells that are poorly attached to substrates, its inhibition is sufficient to restore cell proliferation without the need for physico-chemical modification of the material surface. ..
  49. Chang T, Chen Y, Yang M, Chen C, Hsing E, Ko B, et al. Rho kinases regulate the renewal and neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells in a cell plating density-dependent manner. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9187 pubmed publisher
    ..ROCK inhibition represents a new strategy for preparing large numbers of neural progenitor cells. ..
  50. Kim H, Kim J, Moon M, Park S, Park J. I?B kinase ?/nuclear factor-?B-essential modulator (IKK?/NEMO) facilitates RhoA GTPase activation, which, in turn, activates Rho-associated KINASE (ROCK) to phosphorylate IKK? in response to transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:1429-40 pubmed publisher
  51. Vega F, Fruhwirth G, Ng T, Ridley A. RhoA and RhoC have distinct roles in migration and invasion by acting through different targets. J Cell Biol. 2011;193:655-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These phenotypes were caused by combined but distinct effects of the Rho-regulated kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2...
  52. Ichida M, Yui Y, Yoshioka K, Tanaka T, Wakamatsu T, Yoshikawa H, et al. Changes in cell migration of mesenchymal cells during osteogenic differentiation. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:4018-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a new insight into the link between cell migration and osteogenic differentiation. ..
  53. Hammar E, Tomas A, Bosco D, Halban P. Role of the Rho-ROCK (Rho-associated kinase) signaling pathway in the regulation of pancreatic beta-cell function. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2072-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they indicate that inhibition of this pathway might be one of the mechanisms by which the extracellular matrix exerts its beneficial effects on pancreatic beta-cell function. ..
  54. Qi C, Zhao X, Ma D, Ma X, Zhou G, Huang G. Downregulation of Rho associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase 1 in the process of delayed myocardialization of cardiac proximal outflow tract septum in connexin 43 knockout mice embryo. Chin Med J (Engl). 2011;124:2021-7 pubmed
    ..Rho associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), is a recently found key molecule to regulate the myocardialization of OFT, but its spatiotemporal expression ..
  55. Hildebrand J. Shroom regulates epithelial cell shape via the apical positioning of an actomyosin network. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:5191-203 pubmed
    ..Thus, Shroom likely facilitates neural tube closure by regulating cell shape changes via the apical positioning of an actomyosin network in the neurepithelium. ..
  56. Zhang S, Rahman M, Zhang S, Herwald H, Qi Z, Jeppsson B, et al. Streptococcal M1 protein-provoked CXC chemokine formation, neutrophil recruitment and lung damage are regulated by Rho-kinase signaling. J Innate Immun. 2012;4:399-408 pubmed publisher
  57. Peng H, Li Y, Wang C, Zhang J, Chen Y, Chen W, et al. ROCK1 Induces Endothelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Glomeruli to Aggravate Albuminuria in Diabetic Nephropathy. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20304 pubmed publisher
    ..In glomeruli of db/db mice, there was an increased ROCK1 expression in the endothelium plus a decreased CD31-positive cells...
  58. Sun J, Yang T, Wang P, Ma S, Zhu Z, Pu Y, et al. Activation of cold-sensing transient receptor potential melastatin subtype 8 antagonizes vasoconstriction and hypertension through attenuating RhoA/Rho kinase pathway. Hypertension. 2014;63:1354-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings add to the evidence that long-term dietary menthol treatment had favorable effects on hypertension treatment. ..
  59. Palandri A, Salvador V, Wojnacki J, Vivinetto A, Schnaar R, Lopez P. Myelin-associated glycoprotein modulates apoptosis of motoneurons during early postnatal development via NgR/p75(NTR) receptor-mediated activation of RhoA signaling pathways. Cell Death Dis. 2015;6:e1876 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, our results highlight the relevance of the nurture/protective effects of myelin on neurons. ..
  60. Park J, Baik S, Han S, Cho H, Choi H, Kim H, et al. Annexin A1 restores A?1-42 -induced blood-brain barrier disruption through the inhibition of RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway. Aging Cell. 2017;16:149-161 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that ANXA1 restores A?42-induced BBB disruption through inhibition of RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway and we propose ANXA1 as a therapeutic reagent, protecting against the breakdown of the BBB in AD. ..
  61. Koike S, Keino Masu K, Ohto T, Sugiyama F, Takahashi S, Masu M. Autotaxin/lysophospholipase D-mediated lysophosphatidic acid signaling is required to form distinctive large lysosomes in the visceral endoderm cells of the mouse yolk sac. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33561-70 pubmed publisher
  62. Zhao Z, Rivkees S. Rho-associated kinases play a role in endocardial cell differentiation and migration. Dev Biol. 2004;275:183-91 pubmed
    ..Using reverse transcription (RT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), expression of the rock1 and rock2 genes was found in the endocardial cushions during development...
  63. Dangi Garimella S, Redig A, Shields M, Siddiqui M, Munshi H. Rho-ROCK-myosin signaling mediates membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase-induced cellular aggregation of keratinocytes. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:28363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..As ROCK1/2 can regulate cell-cell and cell-ECM interaction, we examined its role in mediating MT1-MMP-induced phenotypic ..
  64. Tsai N, Wei L. RhoA/ROCK1 signaling regulates stress granule formation and apoptosis. Cell Signal. 2010;22:668-75 pubmed publisher
    ..gene family member A (RhoA), and its downstream kinase, Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1), in SG, and found that their stress-induced activities were important for SG formation and subsequent global ..
  65. Tumbarello D, Turner C. Hic-5 contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transformation through a RhoA/ROCK-dependent pathway. J Cell Physiol. 2007;211:736-47 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the induction of Hic-5 expression in response to TGFbeta1 was shown to be a RhoA/ROCK I-dependent process...
  66. Janssen R, Kim P, Mier J, Morrison D. Overexpression of kinase suppressor of Ras upregulates the high-molecular-weight tropomyosin isoforms in ras-transformed NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:1786-97 pubmed
    ..Finally, all of the KSR1-induced effects were mediated by the C-terminal domain of KSR1 and were dependent on the KSR-MEK interaction. ..
  67. Yang X, Li Q, Lin X, Ma Y, Yue X, Tao Z, et al. Mechanism of fibrotic cardiomyopathy in mice expressing truncated Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase 1. FASEB J. 2012;26:2105-16 pubmed publisher
    We have previously found that in failing human hearts, Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) is processed by caspase-3 into an active isoform, ROCK?1...
  68. Ma X, Adelstein R. A point mutation in Myh10 causes major defects in heart development and body wall closure. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2014;7:257-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, impaired NMII-B motor activity inhibits outflow tract myocardialization, leading to mislocalization of the aorta. ..
  69. Szczepaniak W, Pitt B, McVerry B. S1P2 receptor-dependent Rho-kinase activation mediates vasoconstriction in the murine pulmonary circulation induced by sphingosine 1-phosphate. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;299:L137-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that S1P is capable of altering pulmonary vascular tone in vivo and may play an important role in the modulation of pulmonary vascular tone both in the normal lung and under pathological conditions. ..
  70. Causeret F, Hidalgo Sanchez M, Fort P, Backer S, Popoff M, Gauthier Rouvière C, et al. Distinct roles of Rac1/Cdc42 and Rho/Rock for axon outgrowth and nucleokinesis of precerebellar neurons toward netrin 1. Development. 2004;131:2841-52 pubmed
  71. Bhowmick N, Ghiassi M, Aakre M, Brown K, Singh V, Moses H. TGF-beta-induced RhoA and p160ROCK activation is involved in the inhibition of Cdc25A with resultant cell-cycle arrest. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15548-53 pubmed
    ..In this article, we report that the absence of RhoA and p160ROCK activity in fibroblastic NIH 3T3 cells and its presence in epithelial NMuMG cells can at least partially explain ..
  72. Wang G, Huang Y, Wang L, Zhang Y, Xu J, Zhou Y, et al. MicroRNA-146a suppresses ROCK1 allowing hyperphosphorylation of tau in Alzheimer's disease. Sci Rep. 2016;6:26697 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1) is a target of microRNA-146a in neural cells...
  73. Montalvo J, Spencer C, Hackathorn A, Masterjohn K, Perkins A, Doty C, et al. ROCK1 & 2 perform overlapping and unique roles in angiogenesis and angiosarcoma tumor progression. Curr Mol Med. 2013;13:205-19 pubmed
    The serine/threonine protein kinase paralogs ROCK1 & 2 have been implicated as essential modulators of angiogenesis; however their paralog-specific roles in endothelial function are unknown...
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    ..Thus, the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway is involved in insulin release through the up-regulation of Cx36 expression in 3D-cultured MIN6 cells. ..