Gene Symbol: Rnf2
Description: ring finger protein 2
Alias: AI326319, AI450156, AU019207, Ring1B, dinG, E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase RING2, RING finger protein 1B, RING-type E3 ubiquitin transferase RING2
Species: mouse
Products:     Rnf2

Top Publications

  1. Schoorlemmer J, Marcos Gutierrez C, Were F, Martinez R, Garcia E, Satijn D, et al. Ring1A is a transcriptional repressor that interacts with the Polycomb-M33 protein and is expressed at rhombomere boundaries in the mouse hindbrain. EMBO J. 1997;16:5930-42 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we have identified two murine proteins, Ring1A and Ring1B, that interact directly with the repressor domain of M33...
  2. Puschendorf M, Terranova R, Boutsma E, Mao X, Isono K, Brykczynska U, et al. PRC1 and Suv39h specify parental asymmetry at constitutive heterochromatin in early mouse embryos. Nat Genet. 2008;40:411-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In Rnf2 maternally deficient zygotes, the PRC1 complex is disrupted, and levels of pericentric major satellite transcripts ..
  3. Czypionka A, de los Paños O, Mateu M, Barrera F, Hurtado Gómez E, Gomez J, et al. The isolated C-terminal domain of Ring1B is a dimer made of stable, well-structured monomers. Biochemistry. 2007;46:12764-76 pubmed
    The Ring1B is a core subunit protein of the PRC1 (polycomb repressive complex 1), which plays key roles in the regulation of the Homeobox gene expression, X-chromosome inactivation, stem cell self-renewal, and tumorigenesis...
  4. García Tuñón I, Guallar D, Alonso Martin S, Benito A, Benítez Lázaro A, Pérez Palacios R, et al. Association of Rex-1 to target genes supports its interaction with Polycomb function. Stem Cell Res. 2011;7:1-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Rex-1 might fine-tune pluripotency in ES cells by modulating Polycomb-mediated gene regulation. ..
  5. Neira J, Román Trufero M, Contreras L, Prieto J, Singh G, Barrera F, et al. The transcriptional repressor RYBP is a natively unfolded protein which folds upon binding to DNA. Biochemistry. 2009;48:1348-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, structural studies on its binding to the C-terminal region of the Polycomb protein Ring1B or to DNA show conformational changes in the complexed RYBP, consistent with the acquisition of a folded structure...
  6. Leeb M, Wutz A. Ring1B is crucial for the regulation of developmental control genes and PRC1 proteins but not X inactivation in embryonic cells. J Cell Biol. 2007;178:219-29 pubmed
    The Polycomb group (PcG) gene Ring1B has been implicated in the repression of developmental control genes and X inactivation and is essential for embryogenesis...
  7. Ren X, Kerppola T. REST interacts with Cbx proteins and regulates polycomb repressive complex 1 occupancy at RE1 elements. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:2100-10 pubmed publisher
    ..REST interacted with Cbx proteins in live cells and coprecipitated with endogenous Ring1b. Endogenous PRC1 subunits occupied all sites tested that were bound by REST in ES cells...
  8. Suzuki M, Mizutani Koseki Y, Fujimura Y, Miyagishima H, Kaneko T, Takada Y, et al. Involvement of the Polycomb-group gene Ring1B in the specification of the anterior-posterior axis in mice. Development. 2002;129:4171-83 pubmed
    ..We have identified Ring1B, the product of the Ring1B gene (Rnf2 - Mouse Genome Informatics), by means of its interaction with the Polycomb ..
  9. Miki J, Fujimura Y, Koseki H, Kamijo T. Polycomb complexes regulate cellular senescence by repression of ARF in cooperation with E2F3. Genes Cells. 2007;12:1371-82 pubmed
    ..MEFs undergo typical premature senescence accompanied by the up-regulation of ARF/p53/p16(INK4a) and decrease of Ring1b/Bmi1...

More Information


  1. Ren X, Vincenz C, Kerppola T. Changes in the distributions and dynamics of polycomb repressive complexes during embryonic stem cell differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:2884-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The deletion of the chromobox, which mediates interactions with RING1B, prevented the immobilization of CBX proteins...
  2. van der Stoop P, Boutsma E, Hulsman D, Noback S, Heimerikx M, Kerkhoven R, et al. Ubiquitin E3 ligase Ring1b/Rnf2 of polycomb repressive complex 1 contributes to stable maintenance of mouse embryonic stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2235 pubmed publisher
    Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) core member Ring1b/Rnf2, with ubiquitin E3 ligase activity towards histone H2A at lysine 119, is essential for early embryogenesis...
  3. Endoh M, Endo T, Endoh T, Fujimura Y, Ohara O, Toyoda T, et al. Polycomb group proteins Ring1A/B are functionally linked to the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry to maintain ES cell identity. Development. 2008;135:1513-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that Ring1A/B-mediated Polycomb silencing functions downstream of the core transcriptional regulatory circuitry to maintain ES cell identity. ..
  4. Stock J, Giadrossi S, Casanova M, Brookes E, Vidal M, Koseki H, et al. Ring1-mediated ubiquitination of H2A restrains poised RNA polymerase II at bivalent genes in mouse ES cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:1428-35 pubmed
    ..enforced by Polycomb Repressor Complex (PRC)-mediated ubiquitination of H2A, as conditional deletion of Ring1A and Ring1B leads to the sequential loss of ubiquitination of H2A, release of poised RNAP, and subsequent gene de-repression...
  5. Arrigoni R, Alam S, Wamstad J, Bardwell V, Sundquist W, Schreiber Agus N. The Polycomb-associated protein Rybp is a ubiquitin binding protein. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:6233-41 pubmed
    ..The Rybp interacting PcG protein Ring1B, a known ubiquitin E3 ligase, promotes Rybp ubiquitination...
  6. del Mar Lorente M, Marcos Gutierrez C, Perez C, Schoorlemmer J, Ramirez A, Magin T, et al. Loss- and gain-of-function mutations show a polycomb group function for Ring1A in mice. Development. 2000;127:5093-100 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results provide genetic evidence for a PcG function of the mouse Ring1A gene. ..
  7. Garcia E, Marcos Gutierrez C, del Mar Lorente M, Moreno J, Vidal M. RYBP, a new repressor protein that interacts with components of the mammalian Polycomb complex, and with the transcription factor YY1. EMBO J. 1999;18:3404-18 pubmed
    ..We have identified a new Zn finger protein, RYBP, which interacts directly with both Ring1 proteins (Ring1A and Ring1B) and with M33, two mutually interacting sets of proteins of the mammalian Polycomb complex...
  8. Isono K, Mizutani Koseki Y, Komori T, Schmidt Zachmann M, Koseki H. Mammalian polycomb-mediated repression of Hox genes requires the essential spliceosomal protein Sf3b1. Genes Dev. 2005;19:536-41 pubmed
    ..of the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (U2 snRNP), including Sf3b1 and PcG proteins Zfp144 and Rnf2; and (2) that Sf3b1 heterozygous mice exhibit skeletal transformations concomitant with ectopic Hox expressions...
  9. Calés C, Román Trufero M, Pavón L, Serrano I, Melgar T, Endoh M, et al. Inactivation of the polycomb group protein Ring1B unveils an antiproliferative role in hematopoietic cell expansion and cooperation with tumorigenesis associated with Ink4a deletion. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1018-28 pubmed
    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins act as positive regulators of cell proliferation. Ring1B is a PcG gene essential for embryonic development, but its contribution to cell turnover in regenerating tissues in not known...
  10. Eskeland R, Leeb M, Grimes G, Kress C, Boyle S, Sproul D, et al. Ring1B compacts chromatin structure and represses gene expression independent of histone ubiquitination. Mol Cell. 2010;38:452-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This is due to a PRC1-like complex, since decompaction occurs in Ring1B null cells that still have PRC2-mediated H3K27 methylation...
  11. Alder O, Lavial F, Helness A, Brookes E, Pinho S, Chandrashekran A, et al. Ring1B and Suv39h1 delineate distinct chromatin states at bivalent genes during early mouse lineage commitment. Development. 2010;137:2483-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This stably repressed state is linked with a loss of gene priming for transcription through the exclusion of PRC1 (Ring1B) and RNA polymerase II complexes at bivalent, lineage-inappropriate genes upon trophoblast lineage commitment...
  12. Cao R, Tsukada Y, Zhang Y. Role of Bmi-1 and Ring1A in H2A ubiquitylation and Hox gene silencing. Mol Cell. 2005;20:845-54 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that EZH2-mediated H3-K27 methylation functions upstream of PRC1 and establishes a critical role for Bmi-1 and Ring1A in H2A ubiquitylation and Hox gene silencing. ..
  13. Boyer L, Plath K, Zeitlinger J, Brambrink T, Medeiros L, Lee T, et al. Polycomb complexes repress developmental regulators in murine embryonic stem cells. Nature. 2006;441:349-53 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that dynamic repression of developmental pathways by Polycomb complexes may be required for maintaining ES cell pluripotency and plasticity during embryonic development. ..
  14. Fujimura Y, Isono K, Vidal M, Endoh M, Kajita H, Mizutani Koseki Y, et al. Distinct roles of Polycomb group gene products in transcriptionally repressed and active domains of Hoxb8. Development. 2006;133:2371-81 pubmed
    ..Functional analyses, using mutant alleles impairing the PcG class 2 component Rnf2 or the Suz12 mutation decreasing H3-K27 trimethylation, revealed that interactions between class 1 and class 2 PcG ..
  15. de Napoles M, Mermoud J, Wakao R, Tang Y, Endoh M, Appanah R, et al. Polycomb group proteins Ring1A/B link ubiquitylation of histone H2A to heritable gene silencing and X inactivation. Dev Cell. 2004;7:663-76 pubmed
    ..Based on our observations, we tested the role of the PRC1 protein Ring1B and its closely related homolog Ring1A in H2A ubiquitylation...
  16. Fang J, Chen T, Chadwick B, Li E, Zhang Y. Ring1b-mediated H2A ubiquitination associates with inactive X chromosomes and is involved in initiation of X inactivation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:52812-5 pubmed
    ..We found that the H2A-K119 ubiquitin E3 ligase Ring1b, a Polycomb group protein, is enriched on Xi in female trophoblast stem (TS) cells as well as differentiating ..
  17. Buchwald G, van der Stoop P, Weichenrieder O, Perrakis A, Van Lohuizen M, Sixma T. Structure and E3-ligase activity of the Ring-Ring complex of polycomb proteins Bmi1 and Ring1b. EMBO J. 2006;25:2465-74 pubmed
    Polycomb group proteins Ring1b and Bmi1 (B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukaemia virus integration site 1) are critical components of the chromatin modulating PRC1 complex...
  18. Voncken J, Roelen B, Roefs M, de Vries S, Verhoeven E, Marino S, et al. Rnf2 (Ring1b) deficiency causes gastrulation arrest and cell cycle inhibition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:2468-73 pubmed
    The highly homologous Rnf2 (Ring1b) and Ring1 (Ring1a) proteins were identified as in vivo interactors of the Polycomb Group (PcG) protein Bmi1...
  19. Ohtsubo M, Yasunaga S, Ohno Y, Tsumura M, Okada S, Ishikawa N, et al. Polycomb-group complex 1 acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase for Geminin to sustain hematopoietic stem cell activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10396-401 pubmed publisher
  20. Aguado Llera D, Doménech R, Marenchino M, Vidal M, Neira J. Non-canonical residues of the marginally stable monomeric ubiquitin conjugase from goldfish are involved in binding to the C terminus of Ring 1B. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1824:991-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..Binding of E2-C(ca) to the C terminus of murine Ring 1B (C-Ring1B), which does not contain the RING finger of the whole Ring1B, occurred with an affinity of ~400nM, as shown by ..
  21. Sakamoto Y, Watanabe S, Ichimura T, Kawasuji M, Koseki H, Baba H, et al. Overlapping roles of the methylated DNA-binding protein MBD1 and polycomb group proteins in transcriptional repression of HOXA genes and heterochromatin foci formation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:16391-400 pubmed
    ..We report that the DNA methylation-mediated repressor MBD1 interacts with Ring1b and hPc2, the major components of Polycomb repressive complex 1...
  22. Yu Z, Kong Q, Kone B. Physical and functional interaction of Rnf2 with Af9 regulates basal and aldosterone-stimulated transcription of the ?-ENaC gene in a renal collecting duct cell line. Biosci Rep. 2013;33: pubmed publisher
    The physical and functional interaction of Rnf2 (RING finger protein 2), a central component of the PRC (Polycomb repressive complex) 1 and Af9 (ALL1-fused gene from chromosome 9 protein), an aldosterone-sensitive transcription factor, in ..
  23. Kim S, Paylor S, Magnuson T, Schumacher A. Juxtaposed Polycomb complexes co-regulate vertebral identity. Development. 2006;133:4957-68 pubmed
    ..Whereas EED and BMI1 formed separate biochemical entities with EzH2 and Ring1B, respectively, in mid-gestation embryos, YY1 engaged in both Polycomb complexes...
  24. Yokobayashi S, Liang C, Kohler H, Nestorov P, Liu Z, Vidal M, et al. PRC1 coordinates timing of sexual differentiation of female primordial germ cells. Nature. 2013;495:236-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify gene-dosage-dependent roles in PGC development for Ring1 and Rnf2, two central components of the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1)...
  25. Terranova R, Yokobayashi S, Stadler M, Otte A, Van Lohuizen M, Orkin S, et al. Polycomb group proteins Ezh2 and Rnf2 direct genomic contraction and imprinted repression in early mouse embryos. Dev Cell. 2008;15:668-79 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo the PcG proteins Ezh2 and Rnf2 are independently required for genomic contraction and imprinted silencing...
  26. Arai S, Miyazaki T. Impaired maturation of myeloid progenitors in mice lacking novel Polycomb group protein MBT-1. EMBO J. 2005;24:1863-73 pubmed
    ..We have identified a putative PcG protein, termed MBT-1, that is associated with Rnf2, an in vivo interactor of PcG proteins...
  27. Kondo T, Isono K, Kondo K, Endo T, Itohara S, Vidal M, et al. Polycomb potentiates meis2 activation in midbrain by mediating interaction of the promoter with a tissue-specific enhancer. Dev Cell. 2014;28:94-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Meis2 repression in early development depends on binding of RING1B, an essential E3 component of PcG, to its promoter, coupled with its association with another RING1B-binding site (..
  28. Vidal M. Role of polycomb proteins Ring1A and Ring1B in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Int J Dev Biol. 2009;53:355-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In murine embryonic stem cells, Ring1A and Ring1B-dependent ubiquitylation of H2A is linked to repression of transcriptional initiation...
  29. Kaneko T, Miyagishima H, Hasegawa T, Mizutani Koseki Y, Isono K, Koseki H. The mouse YAF2 gene generates two distinct transcripts and is expressed in pre-and postimplantation embryos. Gene. 2003;315:183-92 pubmed
    ..We isolated mouse YAF2 as a protein that interacts with Ring1B, a known constituent of mammalian PcG complexes...
  30. Schoenfelder S, Sugar R, Dimond A, Javierre B, Armstrong H, Mifsud B, et al. Polycomb repressive complex PRC1 spatially constrains the mouse embryonic stem cell genome. Nat Genet. 2015;47:1179-1186 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the selective release of genes from this spatial network underlies cell fate specification during early embryonic development. ..
  31. Qi L, Cao J, Hu Y, Yang J, Ji Y, Huang J, et al. The dynamics of polycomb group proteins in early embryonic nervous system in mouse and human. Int J Dev Neurosci. 2013;31:487-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we analyzed the expression pattern of PRC1 complex members (BMI-1 and RING1B) and PRC2 complex members (EED, SUZ12 and EZH2) in early embryonic nervous system in mouse and human by Western ..
  32. Pitulescu M, Teichmann M, Luo L, Kessel M. TIPT2 and geminin interact with basal transcription factors to synergize in transcriptional regulation. BMC Biochem. 2009;10:16 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our study introduces a novel transcriptional regulator and its function in cooperation with chromatin associated factors and the basal transcription machinery. ..
  33. Fukuda T, Tokunaga A, Sakamoto R, Yoshida N. Fbxl10/Kdm2b deficiency accelerates neural progenitor cell death and leads to exencephaly. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2011;46:614-24 pubmed publisher
    ..5 brain. Our findings suggest that the Fbxl10 gene makes important contributions to embryonic neural development by regulating cell proliferation and cell death in mice. ..
  34. Wu X, Johansen J, Helin K. Fbxl10/Kdm2b recruits polycomb repressive complex 1 to CpG islands and regulates H2A ubiquitylation. Mol Cell. 2013;49:1134-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Fbxl10 interacts with Ring1B and Nspc1, forming a noncanonical PRC1 that is required for H2AK119ub1 in mouse ESCs...
  35. Lorente M, Perez C, Sanchez C, Donohoe M, Shi Y, Vidal M. Homeotic transformations of the axial skeleton of YY1 mutant mice and genetic interaction with the Polycomb group gene Ring1/Ring1A. Mech Dev. 2006;123:312-20 pubmed
    ..In addition, YY1 forms complexes with Ring1 and other class II PcG proteins such as Rnf2 and Bmi1 in GST pull down experiments in transfected cells...
  36. Negishi M, Saraya A, Mochizuki S, Helin K, Koseki H, Iwama A. A novel zinc finger protein Zfp277 mediates transcriptional repression of the Ink4a/arf locus through polycomb repressive complex 1. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12373 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings also highlight dynamic regulation of both Zfp277 and PcG proteins by the oxidative stress pathways. ..
  37. Koike H, Ueno Y, Naito T, Shiina T, Nakata S, Ouchi R, et al. Ring1B promotes hepatic stem/progenitor cell expansion through simultaneous suppression of Cdkn1a and Cdkn2a in mice. Hepatology. 2014;60:323-33 pubmed publisher
    ..However, little is known about the PcG target genes in tissue stem cells. We found that the PcG protein, Ring1B, which regulates expression of various genes through monoubiquitination of histone H2AK119, is essential for ..
  38. Ikawa T, Masuda K, Endo T, Endo M, Isono K, Koseki Y, et al. Conversion of T cells to B cells by inactivation of polycomb-mediated epigenetic suppression of the B-lineage program. Genes Dev. 2016;30:2475-2485 pubmed
    ..We further demonstrated that the arrest was almost completely canceled by additional deletion of Pax5 These results indicate that the maintenance of T-cell fate critically requires epigenetic suppression of the B-lineage gene program. ..
  39. Sajedi E, Gaston Massuet C, Andoniadou C, Signore M, Hurd P, Dattani M, et al. DNMT1 interacts with the developmental transcriptional repressor HESX1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1783:131-43 pubmed
    ..The HESX1-DNMT1 complexes can be immunoprecipitated in cells and co-localise in the nucleus. These results establish a link between HESX1 and DNMT1 and suggest a novel mechanism for the repressing properties of HESX1. ..
  40. Hasegawa K, Sin H, Maezawa S, Broering T, Kartashov A, Alavattam K, et al. SCML2 establishes the male germline epigenome through regulation of histone H2A ubiquitination. Dev Cell. 2015;32:574-88 pubmed publisher
    ..SCML2 works with PRC1 and promotes RNF2-dependent ubiquitination of H2A, thereby marking somatic/progenitor genes on autosomes for repression...
  41. Lavial F, Bessonnard S, Ohnishi Y, Tsumura A, Chandrashekran A, Fenwick M, et al. Bmi1 facilitates primitive endoderm formation by stabilizing Gata6 during early mouse development. Genes Dev. 2012;26:1445-58 pubmed publisher
    ..We thus propose a novel regulatory pathway by which Bmi1 action on Gata6 stability could alter the balance between Gata6 and Nanog protein levels to introduce a bias toward a PrE identity in a cell-autonomous manner...
  42. Xia P, Wang S, Huang G, Du Y, Zhu P, Li M, et al. RNF2 is recruited by WASH to ubiquitinate AMBRA1 leading to downregulation of autophagy. Cell Res. 2014;24:943-58 pubmed publisher
    ..However, how AMBRA1 is regulated during autophagy remains elusive. Here, we found that RNF2 associates with AMBRA1 to act as an E3 ligase to ubiquitinate AMBRA1 via K48 linkage...
  43. van Arensbergen J, García Hurtado J, Maestro M, Correa Tapia M, Rutter G, Vidal M, et al. Ring1b bookmarks genes in pancreatic embryonic progenitors for repression in adult β cells. Genes Dev. 2013;27:52-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we inactivated Ring1b, encoding a polycomb-repressive complex 1 subunit, in pancreatic multipotent progenitors (Ring1b(progKO))...
  44. Casanova M, Pasternak M, el Marjou F, Le Baccon P, Probst A, Almouzni G. Heterochromatin reorganization during early mouse development requires a single-stranded noncoding transcript. Cell Rep. 2013;4:1156-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, our discovery that only reverse pericentric transcripts are required for both the nuclear reorganization of PHC and development beyond the two-cell stage challenges current views on heterochromatin organization...
  45. Suzuki A, Iwamura C, Shinoda K, Tumes D, Kimura M, Hosokawa H, et al. Polycomb group gene product Ring1B regulates Th2-driven airway inflammation through the inhibition of Bim-mediated apoptosis of effector Th2 cells in the lung. J Immunol. 2010;184:4510-20 pubmed publisher
    ..to the regulation of in vivo Th2 responses, especially allergic airway inflammation, by using conditional Ring1B-deficient mice with a CD4 T cell-specific deletion of the Ring1B gene (Ring1B(-/-) mice)...
  46. Liu S, Jiang M, Wang W, Liu W, Song X, Ma Z, et al. Nuclear RNF2 inhibits interferon function by promoting K33-linked STAT1 disassociation from DNA. Nat Immunol. 2018;19:41-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Through high-content screening of 115 mouse RING-domain E3 ligases, we identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF2 as a potent inhibitor of interferon-dependent antiviral responses...
  47. Maezawa S, Hasegawa K, Yukawa M, Sakashita A, Alavattam K, Andreassen P, et al. Polycomb directs timely activation of germline genes in spermatogenesis. Genes Dev. 2017;31:1693-1703 pubmed publisher
    ..In the stem cell population, RNF2, the dominant catalytic subunit of PRC1, activates transcription of Sall4, which codes for a transcription ..
  48. Morimoto Suzki N, Hirabayashi Y, Tyssowski K, Shinga J, Vidal M, Koseki H, et al. The polycomb component Ring1B regulates the timed termination of subcerebral projection neuron production during mouse neocortical development. Development. 2014;141:4343-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that epigenetic regulation through Ring1B, an essential component of polycomb group (PcG) complex proteins, plays a key role in terminating NPC-mediated ..
  49. Frangini A, Sjoberg M, Román Trufero M, Dharmalingam G, Haberle V, Bartke T, et al. The aurora B kinase and the polycomb protein ring1B combine to regulate active promoters in quiescent lymphocytes. Mol Cell. 2013;51:647-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the Aurora B kinase and the polycomb protein Ring1B have essential roles in regulating transcriptionally active genes in quiescent lymphocytes...
  50. Hisada K, Sanchez C, Endo T, Endoh M, Román Trufero M, Sharif J, et al. RYBP represses endogenous retroviruses and preimplantation- and germ line-specific genes in mouse embryonic stem cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:1139-49 pubmed publisher
    ..RYBP binds Polycomb H2A monoubiquitin ligases Ring1A and Ring1B and has been suggested to assist PRC localization to their targets...
  51. Isono K, Fujimura Y, Shinga J, Yamaki M, O Wang J, Takihara Y, et al. Mammalian polyhomeotic homologues Phc2 and Phc1 act in synergy to mediate polycomb repression of Hox genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6694-706 pubmed
    ..Functional redundancy between Phc2 and Phc1 leads us to hypothesize that the overall level of polyhomeotic orthologues in nuclei is a parameter that is critical in enabling the class II PcG complexes to exert their molecular functions. ..
  52. Li H, Lai P, Jia J, Song Y, Xia Q, Huang K, et al. RNA Helicase DDX5 Inhibits Reprogramming to Pluripotency by miRNA-Based Repression of RYBP and its PRC1-Dependent and -Independent Functions. Cell Stem Cell. 2017;20:462-477.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results reveal important functions of DDX5 in regulating reprogramming and highlight the importance of a Ddx5-miR125b-Rybp axis in controlling cell fate. ..
  53. Yasunaga S, Ohtsubo M, Ohno Y, Saeki K, Kurogi T, Tanaka Okamoto M, et al. Scmh1 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity for geminin and histone H2A and regulates geminin stability directly or indirectly via transcriptional repression of Hoxa9 and Hoxb4. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:644-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that PcG and a subset of Hox genes compose a homeostatic regulatory system for determining expression level of geminin. ..
  54. Onoguchi M, Hirabayashi Y, Koseki H, Gotoh Y. A noncoding RNA regulates the neurogenin1 gene locus during mouse neocortical development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:16939-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus suggest that a noncoding RNA transcribed from an enhancer element positively regulates transcription at the Neurog1 locus. ..
  55. Endoh M, Endo T, Endoh T, Isono K, Sharif J, Ohara O, et al. Histone H2A mono-ubiquitination is a crucial step to mediate PRC1-dependent repression of developmental genes to maintain ES cell identity. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002774 pubmed publisher
    ..Utilization of these diverse effector mechanisms might provide a means to maintain a repressive state that is robust yet highly responsive to developmental cues during ES cell self-renewal and differentiation. ..
  56. Tavares L, Dimitrova E, Oxley D, Webster J, Poot R, Demmers J, et al. RYBP-PRC1 complexes mediate H2A ubiquitylation at polycomb target sites independently of PRC2 and H3K27me3. Cell. 2012;148:664-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly we find that RING1B, the catalytic subunit of PRC1, and associated monoubiquitylation of histone H2A are targeted to closely ..
  57. Schwermann J, Rathinam C, Schubert M, Schumacher S, Noyan F, Koseki H, et al. MAPKAP kinase MK2 maintains self-renewal capacity of haematopoietic stem cells. EMBO J. 2009;28:1392-406 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, MK2 emerges as a regulator of HSC homeostasis, which could act through chromatin remodelling by the PcG complex. ..
  58. Yakushiji Kaminatsui N, Kondo T, Endo T, Koseki Y, Kondo K, Ohara O, et al. RING1 proteins contribute to early proximal-distal specification of the forelimb bud by restricting Meis2 expression. Development. 2016;143:276-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of the RING1 proteins RING1A (RING1) and RING1B (RNF2), which are essential components of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), led to severe defects in forelimb ..
  59. Akasaka T, Takahashi N, Suzuki M, Koseki H, Bodmer R, Koga H. MBLR, a new RING finger protein resembling mammalian Polycomb gene products, is regulated by cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation. Genes Cells. 2002;7:835-50 pubmed
    ..PcG proteins: in vitro biochemical data support the idea of a direct interaction of MBLR's RING finger domain with Ring1B, which is highly homologous to one of the mammalian PcG genes, Ring1A...
  60. Hemenway C, Halligan B, Levy L. The Bmi-1 oncoprotein interacts with dinG and MPh2: the role of RING finger domains. Oncogene. 1998;16:2541-7 pubmed
    ..Bmi-1 interacts directly with the RING finger protein dinG/RING1B. Heterodimerization of the two proteins requires the intact RING finger structures of both Bmi-1 and dinG...
  61. Isono K, Endo T, Ku M, Yamada D, Suzuki R, Sharif J, et al. SAM domain polymerization links subnuclear clustering of PRC1 to gene silencing. Dev Cell. 2013;26:565-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a regulatory mechanism mediated by SAM domain polymerization for PcG-mediated repression of developmental loci that enables a robust yet reversible gene repression program during development. ..
  62. Zaaroor Regev D, de Bie P, Scheffner M, Noy T, Shemer R, Heled M, et al. Regulation of the polycomb protein Ring1B by self-ubiquitination or by E6-AP may have implications to the pathogenesis of Angelman syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:6788-93 pubmed publisher
    The polycomb repressive complex (PRC) 1 protein Ring1B is an ubiquitin ligase that modifies nucleosomal histone H2A, a modification which plays a critical role in regulation of gene expression...
  63. Dennis D, Wilkinson G, Li S, Dixit R, Adnani L, Balakrishnan A, et al. Neurog2 and Ascl1 together regulate a postmitotic derepression circuit to govern laminar fate specification in the murine neocortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:E4934-E4943 pubmed publisher
    ..Proneural genes thus act in a context-dependent fashion as early determinants, promoting deep-layer neurogenesis in early cortical progenitors via input into the derepression circuit while also influencing other temporal regulators. ..
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    ..To test these ideas, we determined the expression of PRC1 complex proteins (Bmi1 and Ring1b) during pancreatic development and in pancreatic tissue from mouse models of disease: acute and chronic pancreatic ..