Gene Symbol: RIG I
Description: DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 58
Alias: 6430573D20Rik, C330021E21, RIG-I, RLR-1, DEAD box protein 58, DEAD/H box polypeptide RIG-I, RIG-1, RIG-I-like receptor 1, retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 protein, retinoic acid-inducible gene I protein, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I
Species: mouse
Products:     RIG I

Top Publications

  1. Ma B, Dela Cruz C, Hartl D, Kang M, Takyar S, Homer R, et al. RIG-like helicase innate immunity inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor tissue responses via a type I IFN-dependent mechanism. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183:1322-35 pubmed publisher
    ..They define a novel link between VEGF and antiviral and RLH innate immune responses and a novel pathway that regulates pulmonary VEGF activity. ..
  2. Ablasser A, Bauernfeind F, Hartmann G, Latz E, Fitzgerald K, Hornung V. RIG-I-dependent sensing of poly(dA:dT) through the induction of an RNA polymerase III-transcribed RNA intermediate. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:1065-72 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway was important in the sensing of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs, which were transcribed by RNA polymerase III and then triggered RIG-I activation. Thus, RNA polymerase III and RIG-I are pivotal in sensing viral DNA. ..
  3. Rothenfusser S, Goutagny N, DiPerna G, Gong M, Monks B, Schoenemeyer A, et al. The RNA helicase Lgp2 inhibits TLR-independent sensing of viral replication by retinoic acid-inducible gene-I. J Immunol. 2005;175:5260-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that Lgp2 acts as a negative feedback regulator of antiviral signaling by sequestering dsRNA from RIG-I. ..
  4. Monroe K, McWhirter S, Vance R. Identification of host cytosolic sensors and bacterial factors regulating the type I interferon response to Legionella pneumophila. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000665 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which an intracellular bacterial pathogen activates and also represses innate immune responses. ..
  5. Kato H, Takeuchi O, Sato S, Yoneyama M, Yamamoto M, Matsui K, et al. Differential roles of MDA5 and RIG-I helicases in the recognition of RNA viruses. Nature. 2006;441:101-5 pubmed
    ..Together, our data show that RIG-I and MDA5 distinguish different RNA viruses and are critical for host antiviral responses. ..
  6. Satoh T, Kato H, Kumagai Y, Yoneyama M, Sato S, Matsushita K, et al. LGP2 is a positive regulator of RIG-I- and MDA5-mediated antiviral responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1512-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the present data suggest that LGP2 facilitates viral RNA recognition by RIG-I and MDA5 through its ATPase domain. ..
  7. Kato H, Takeuchi O, Mikamo Satoh E, Hirai R, Kawai T, Matsushita K, et al. Length-dependent recognition of double-stranded ribonucleic acids by retinoic acid-inducible gene-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1601-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, RIG-I detects dsRNAs without a 5'-triphosphate end, and RIG-I and MDA5 selectively recognize short and long dsRNAs, respectively. ..
  8. Kato H, Sato S, Yoneyama M, Yamamoto M, Uematsu S, Matsui K, et al. Cell type-specific involvement of RIG-I in antiviral response. Immunity. 2005;23:19-28 pubmed
    ..In contrast, plasmacytoid DCs, which produce large amounts of IFN-alpha, use the TLR system rather than RIG-I for viral detection. Taken together, RIG-I and the TLR system exert antiviral responses in a cell type-specific manner...
  9. Saito T, Owen D, Jiang F, Marcotrigiano J, Gale M. Innate immunity induced by composition-dependent RIG-I recognition of hepatitis C virus RNA. Nature. 2008;454:523-7 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Fredericksen B, Keller B, Fornek J, Katze M, Gale M. Establishment and maintenance of the innate antiviral response to West Nile Virus involves both RIG-I and MDA5 signaling through IPS-1. J Virol. 2008;82:609-16 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which RIG-I and MDA5 operate cooperatively to establish an antiviral state and mediate an IFN amplification loop that supports immune effector gene expression during WNV infection. ..
  2. Loo Y, Fornek J, Crochet N, Bajwa G, Perwitasari O, Martinez Sobrido L, et al. Distinct RIG-I and MDA5 signaling by RNA viruses in innate immunity. J Virol. 2008;82:335-45 pubmed
  3. Venkataraman T, Valdes M, Elsby R, Kakuta S, Caceres G, Saijo S, et al. Loss of DExD/H box RNA helicase LGP2 manifests disparate antiviral responses. J Immunol. 2007;178:6444-55 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our data indicate a disparate regulatory role for LGP2 in the triggering of innate immune signaling pathways following RNA virus infection. ..
  4. Ishii K, Coban C, Kato H, Takahashi K, Torii Y, Takeshita F, et al. A Toll-like receptor-independent antiviral response induced by double-stranded B-form DNA. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:40-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that both TBK1 and IKKi are required for innate immune activation by B-DNA, which might be important in antiviral innate immunity and other DNA-associated immune disorders. ..
  5. Yoneyama M, Kikuchi M, Matsumoto K, Imaizumi T, Miyagishi M, Taira K, et al. Shared and unique functions of the DExD/H-box helicases RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2 in antiviral innate immunity. J Immunol. 2005;175:2851-8 pubmed
    ..These results highlight ingenious mechanisms for initiating antiviral innate immune responses and the action of virus-encoded inhibitors. ..
  6. Suthar M, Ma D, Thomas S, Lund J, Zhang N, Daffis S, et al. IPS-1 is essential for the control of West Nile virus infection and immunity. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000757 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data define an innate/adaptive immune interface mediated through IPS-1-dependent RLR signaling that regulates the quantity, quality, and balance of the immune response to WNV infection. ..
  7. Rajsbaum R, Albrecht R, Wang M, Maharaj N, Versteeg G, Nistal Villán E, et al. Species-specific inhibition of RIG-I ubiquitination and IFN induction by the influenza A virus NS1 protein. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1003059 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results indicate that influenza NS1 protein targets TRIM25 and Riplet ubiquitin E3 ligases in a species-specific manner for the inhibition of RIG-I ubiquitination and antiviral IFN production...
  8. Jehl S, Nogueira C, Zhang X, Starnbach M. IFN? inhibits the cytosolic replication of Shigella flexneri via the cytoplasmic RNA sensor RIG-I. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002809 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, these findings expand our understanding of how IFN? recognizes, and ultimately restricts, bacterial pathogens within host cells. ..
  9. Liu F, Wu S, Ren H, Gu J. Klotho suppresses RIG-I-mediated senescence-associated inflammation. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:254-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study uncovers a mechanism in which klotho functions as an anti-ageing factor through the suppression of RIG-I-mediated inflammation. ..
  10. Ellermeier J, Wei J, Duewell P, Hoves S, Stieg M, Adunka T, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of bifunctional siRNA combining TGF-?1 silencing with RIG-I activation in pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res. 2013;73:1709-20 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, combing TGF-? gene silencing with RIG-I signaling confers potent antitumor efficacy against pancreatic cancer by breaking tumor-induced CD8(+) T cell suppression. ..
  11. Chiang H, Zhao Y, Song J, Liu S, Wang N, Terhorst C, et al. GEF-H1 controls microtubule-dependent sensing of nucleic acids for antiviral host defenses. Nat Immunol. 2014;15:63-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Microtubule networks sequester GEF-H1 that upon activation is released to enable antiviral signaling by intracellular nucleic acid detection pathways. ..
  12. Li X, Jiang L, Chen L, Ding M, Guo H, Zhang W, et al. RIG-I modulates Src-mediated AKT activation to restrain leukemic stemness. Mol Cell. 2014;53:407-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggest an antileukemia activity of RIG-I via competitively inhibiting Src/AKT association. ..
  13. Zhang H, Liu Z, Sun Y, Zhu J, Lu S, Liu X, et al. Rig-I regulates NF-?B activity through binding to Nf-?b1 3'-UTR mRNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:6459-64 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) senses viral RNAs and triggers innate antiviral responses through induction of type I IFNs and inflammatory cytokines. However, whether RIG-I interacts with host cellular RNA remains undetermined...
  14. Fan Y, Mao R, Yu Y, Liu S, Shi Z, Cheng J, et al. USP21 negatively regulates antiviral response by acting as a RIG-I deubiquitinase. J Exp Med. 2014;211:313-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies identify a previously unrecognized role for USP21 in the negative regulation of antiviral response through deubiquitinating RIG-I. ..
  15. Fan X, Dong S, Li Y, Ding S, Wang M. RIG-I-dependent antiviral immunity is effective against an RNA virus encoding a potent suppressor of RNAi. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;460:1035-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that RIG-I directs a typical IFN-dependent antiviral response against an RNA virus capable of suppressing the RNAi response. ..
  16. Jounai N, Takeshita F, Kobiyama K, Sawano A, Miyawaki A, Xin K, et al. The Atg5 Atg12 conjugate associates with innate antiviral immune responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14050-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, in contrast to its role in promoting the bactericidal process, a component of the autophagic machinery appears to block innate antiviral immune responses, thereby contributing to RNA virus replication in host cells. ..
  17. Papon L, Oteiza A, Imaizumi T, Kato H, Brocchi E, Lawson T, et al. The viral RNA recognition sensor RIG-I is degraded during encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection. Virology. 2009;393:311-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data strongly suggest that during evolution RIG-I has been involved for triggering innate immune response to picornavirus infections. ..
  18. Nikonov A, Mölder T, Sikut R, Kiiver K, Männik A, Toots U, et al. RIG-I and MDA-5 detection of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity restricts positive-strand RNA virus replication. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003610 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that host cells can restrict RNA virus replication by detecting the products of unspecific viral replicase RdRp activity. ..
  19. Wu W, Zhang W, More S, Booth J, Duggan E, Liu L, et al. Cigarette smoke attenuates the RIG-I-initiated innate antiviral response to influenza infection in two murine models. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;307:L848-58 pubmed publisher
  20. Schilte C, Couderc T, Chretien F, Sourisseau M, Gangneux N, Guivel Benhassine F, et al. Type I IFN controls chikungunya virus via its action on nonhematopoietic cells. J Exp Med. 2010;207:429-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This study defines an essential role for type I IFN, produced via cooperation between multiple host sensors and acting directly on nonhematopoietic cells, in the control of CHIKV...
  21. St John A, Rathore A, Yap H, Ng M, Metcalfe D, Vasudevan S, et al. Immune surveillance by mast cells during dengue infection promotes natural killer (NK) and NKT-cell recruitment and viral clearance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9190-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support expanding the defined role of immunosurveillance by MCs to include viral pathogens. ..
  22. Hou J, Zhou Y, Zheng Y, Fan J, Zhou W, Ng I, et al. Hepatic RIG-I predicts survival and interferon-? therapeutic response in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Cell. 2014;25:49-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that RIG-I deficiency promotes HCC carcinogenesis and that hepatic RIG-I expression is lower in men than in women. RIG-I may therefore be a tumor suppressor in HCC and contribute to HCC gender disparity. ..
  23. Yang S, Deng P, Zhu Z, Zhu J, Wang G, Zhang L, et al. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 limits RIG-I RNA detection and suppresses IFN production responding to viral and endogenous RNAs. J Immunol. 2014;193:3436-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results explain why loss of ADARA1 causes IFN induction and also indicates a mechanism for the involvement of ADAR1 in autoimmune diseases such as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. ..
  24. Schnell G, Loo Y, Marcotrigiano J, Gale M. Uridine composition of the poly-U/UC tract of HCV RNA defines non-self recognition by RIG-I. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002839 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies define a basis of non-self discrimination by RIG-I and offer insights into the antiviral therapeutic potential of targeted RIG-I signaling activation. ..
  25. Abe Y, Fujii K, Nagata N, Takeuchi O, Akira S, Oshiumi H, et al. The toll-like receptor 3-mediated antiviral response is important for protection against poliovirus infection in poliovirus receptor transgenic mice. J Virol. 2012;86:185-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that multiple pathways are involved in the antiviral response in mice and that the TLR3-TRIF-mediated signaling pathway plays an essential role in the antiviral response against PV infection. ..
  26. Fischer J, Bscheider M, Eisenkolb G, Lin C, Wintges A, Otten V, et al. RIG-I/MAVS and STING signaling promote gut integrity during irradiation- and immune-mediated tissue injury. Sci Transl Med. 2017;9: pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting these pathways may help to prevent acute intestinal injury and GVHD during allogeneic transplantation. ..
  27. Wang J, Wu S, Jin X, Li M, Chen S, Teeling J, et al. Retinoic acid-inducible gene-I mediates late phase induction of TNF-alpha by lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol. 2008;180:8011-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, RIG-I plays a key role in the expression of TNF-alpha in macrophages in response to LPS stimulation, mainly for the late phase LPS-induced expression of TNF-alpha. ..
  28. Zhu H, Lou F, Yin Q, Gao Y, Sun Y, Bai J, et al. RIG-I antiviral signaling drives interleukin-23 production and psoriasis-like skin disease. EMBO Mol Med. 2017;9:589-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data suggest that the dysregulation in the antiviral immune responses of hosts through the innate pattern recognition receptors may trigger the skin inflammatory conditions in the pathophysiology of psoriasis. ..
  29. Choi M, Wang Z, Ban T, Yanai H, Lu Y, Koshiba R, et al. A selective contribution of the RIG-I-like receptor pathway to type I interferon responses activated by cytosolic DNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17870-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study may provide insights into the complexity of host defense mechanisms that thwart immune evasion by DNA-containing pathogens. ..
  30. Lee H, Komano J, Saitoh Y, Yamaoka S, Kozaki T, Misawa T, et al. Zinc-finger antiviral protein mediates retinoic acid inducible gene I-like receptor-independent antiviral response to murine leukemia virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:12379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 detect various ..
  31. Mikkelsen S, Jensen S, Chiliveru S, Melchjorsen J, Julkunen I, Gaestel M, et al. RIG-I-mediated activation of p38 MAPK is essential for viral induction of interferon and activation of dendritic cells: dependence on TRAF2 and TAK1. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:10774-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, activation of p38 MAPK by RIG-I proceeds via a TRAF2-TAK1-dependent pathway, where the enzymatic activity of the kinase plays an essential role. The p38 MAPK in turn stimulates important processes in the innate antiviral response. ..
  32. Hausmann S, Marq J, Tapparel C, Kolakofsky D, Garcin D. RIG-I and dsRNA-induced IFNbeta activation. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3965 pubmed publisher
    ..e., poly-I/C has the unique ability to stimulate the helicase ATPase of RIG-I variants which lack the C-terminal regulatory domain. ..
  33. Li J, Liu Y, Zhang X. Murine coronavirus induces type I interferon in oligodendrocytes through recognition by RIG-I and MDA5. J Virol. 2010;84:6472-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that activation of the NF-kappaB pathway might not play a critical role in IFN-alpha/beta induction by MHV infection in oligodendrocytes. ..
  34. Errett J, Suthar M, McMillan A, Diamond M, Gale M. The essential, nonredundant roles of RIG-I and MDA5 in detecting and controlling West Nile virus infection. J Virol. 2013;87:11416-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these experiments highlight the necessity and function of multiple related, cytoplasmic host sensors in orchestrating an effective immune response against an acute viral infection. ..
  35. Sato S, Li K, Kameyama T, Hayashi T, Ishida Y, Murakami S, et al. The RNA sensor RIG-I dually functions as an innate sensor and direct antiviral factor for hepatitis B virus. Immunity. 2015;42:123-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify an innate-recognition mechanism by which RIG-I dually functions as an HBV sensor activating innate signaling and to counteract viral polymerase in human hepatocytes. ..
  36. Fukuda M, Ushio H, Kawasaki J, Niyonsaba F, Takeuchi M, Baba T, et al. Expression and functional characterization of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors of mast cells in response to viral infection. J Innate Immun. 2013;5:163-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide additional novel information that improves our understanding of antiviral innate responses that involve mast cells. ..
  37. MacNair L, Xiao S, Miletic D, Ghani M, Julien J, Keith J, et al. MTHFSD and DDX58 are novel RNA-binding proteins abnormally regulated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Brain. 2016;139:86-100 pubmed publisher
    ..This discovery-based approach has for the first time revealed translational changes in motor neurons of a TDP-43 mouse model, identifying DDX58 and MTHFSD as two TDP-43 targets that are misregulated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. ..
  38. Lin L, Liu Q, Bérubé N, Detmer S, Zhou Y. 5'-Triphosphate-short interfering RNA: potent inhibition of influenza A virus infection by gene silencing and RIG-I activation. J Virol. 2012;86:10359-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of such dual functional RNA molecules will greatly contribute to the arsenal of tools to combat not only influenza viruses but also other important viral pathogens. ..
  39. Sharma S, Deoliveira R, Kalantari P, Parroche P, Goutagny N, Jiang Z, et al. Innate immune recognition of an AT-rich stem-loop DNA motif in the Plasmodium falciparum genome. Immunity. 2011;35:194-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these observations implicate AT-rich DNA sensing via STING, TBK1 and IRF3-IRF7 in P. falciparum malaria. ..
  40. Goubau D, Schlee M, Deddouche S, Pruijssers A, Zillinger T, Goldeck M, et al. Antiviral immunity via RIG-I-mediated recognition of RNA bearing 5'-diphosphates. Nature. 2014;514:372-375 pubmed publisher
    ..Such RNAs are found in some viruses but not in uninfected cells, indicating that recognition of 5'pp-RNA, like that of 5'ppp-RNA, acts as a powerful means of self/non-self discrimination by the innate immune system. ..
  41. Berg R, Melchjorsen J, Rintahaka J, Diget E, Søby S, Horan K, et al. Genomic HIV RNA induces innate immune responses through RIG-I-dependent sensing of secondary-structured RNA. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29291 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish RIG-I as an innate immune sensor of cytosolic HIV genomic RNA with secondary structure, thereby expanding current knowledge on HIV molecules capable of stimulating the innate immune system. ..
  42. Oh S, Onomoto K, Wakimoto M, Onoguchi K, Ishidate F, Fujiwara T, et al. Leader-Containing Uncapped Viral Transcript Activates RIG-I in Antiviral Stress Granules. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12:e1005444 pubmed publisher
    ..These results highlight how viral infections stimulate host stress responses, thereby selectively recruiting uncapped vRNA to avSG, in which RIG-I and other components cooperate in an efficient antiviral program. ..
  43. Abdullah Z, Schlee M, Roth S, Mraheil M, Barchet W, Böttcher J, et al. RIG-I detects infection with live Listeria by sensing secreted bacterial nucleic acids. EMBO J. 2012;31:4153-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, cytosolic recognition of secreted bacterial nucleic acids by RIG-I provides a mechanistic explanation for efficient induction of immunity by live bacteria...
  44. Poeck H, Besch R, Maihoefer C, Renn M, Tormo D, Morskaya S, et al. 5'-Triphosphate-siRNA: turning gene silencing and Rig-I activation against melanoma. Nat Med. 2008;14:1256-63 pubmed publisher
  45. Faul E, Wanjalla C, Suthar M, Gale M, Wirblich C, Schnell M. Rabies virus infection induces type I interferon production in an IPS-1 dependent manner while dendritic cell activation relies on IFNAR signaling. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001016 pubmed publisher
    ..We see that IPS-1-/- mice are more susceptible to infection than IPS-1+/+ mice and have a significantly increased incident of limb paralysis. ..
  46. Moser J, Heeringa P, Jongman R, Zwiers P, Niemarkt A, Yan R, et al. Intracellular RIG-I Signaling Regulates TLR4-Independent Endothelial Inflammatory Responses to Endotoxin. J Immunol. 2016;196:4681-91 pubmed publisher
  47. Chen W, Han C, Xie B, Hu X, Yu Q, Shi L, et al. Induction of Siglec-G by RNA viruses inhibits the innate immune response by promoting RIG-I degradation. Cell. 2013;152:467-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings also provide insights into the functions and crosstalk of Siglec-G, a known adaptive response regulator, in innate immunity...
  48. Masatani T, Ito N, Shimizu K, Ito Y, Nakagawa K, Abe M, et al. Amino acids at positions 273 and 394 in rabies virus nucleoprotein are important for both evasion of host RIG-I-mediated antiviral response and pathogenicity. Virus Res. 2011;155:168-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This correlation reinforces the relation between evasion of host RIG-I-mediated innate immunity and pathogenicity of rabies virus...
  49. Miyashita M, Oshiumi H, Matsumoto M, Seya T. DDX60, a DEXD/H box helicase, is a novel antiviral factor promoting RIG-I-like receptor-mediated signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3802-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of DDX60 promotes the binding of RIG-I to double-stranded RNA. Taken together, our analyses indicate that DDX60 is a novel antiviral helicase promoting RIG-I-like receptor-mediated signaling. ..
  50. Kong L, Sun L, Zhang H, Liu Q, Liu Y, Qin L, et al. An essential role for RIG-I in toll-like receptor-stimulated phagocytosis. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;6:150-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the regulatory functions of RIG-I are strikingly broad, including a role not only in antiviral responses but in antibacterial responses as well. ..
  51. Lu H, Liao F. Melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 senses hepatitis B virus and activates innate immune signaling to suppress virus replication. J Immunol. 2013;191:3264-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our in vitro and in vivo studies both support a critical role for MDA5 in the innate immune response against HBV infection. ..
  52. Sayed N, Ospino F, Himmati F, Lee J, Chanda P, Mocarski E, et al. Retinoic Acid Inducible Gene 1 Protein (RIG1)-Like Receptor Pathway Is Required for Efficient Nuclear Reprogramming. Stem Cells. 2017;35:1197-1207 pubmed publisher
    ..To conclude, innate immune signaling mediated by RLR plays a critical role in nuclear reprogramming. Manipulation of innate immune signaling may facilitate nuclear reprogramming to achieve pluripotency. Stem Cells 2017;35:1197-1207. ..
  53. Tzeng H, Tsai H, Chyuan I, Liao H, Chen C, Chen P, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced by hepatitis B virus core mediating the immune response for hepatitis B viral clearance in mice model. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e103008 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidences for TNF-? mediated innate immune mechanisms in HBV clearance and explain the mechanism of HBV reactivation during therapy with TNF blockage agents. ..
  54. Pham A, Santa Maria F, Lahiri T, Friedman E, Marié I, Levy D. PKR Transduces MDA5-Dependent Signals for Type I IFN Induction. PLoS Pathog. 2016;12:e1005489 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data describe a critical and non-redundant role for PKR following MDA5, but not RIG-I, activation to mediate MAVS-dependent induction of type I IFN through a kinase-dependent mechanism. ..
  55. Wies E, Wang M, Maharaj N, Chen K, Zhou S, Finberg R, et al. Dephosphorylation of the RNA sensors RIG-I and MDA5 by the phosphatase PP1 is essential for innate immune signaling. Immunity. 2013;38:437-49 pubmed publisher
    ..This work identifies PP1? and PP1? as regulators of antiviral innate immune responses to various RNA viruses, including influenza virus, paramyxovirus, dengue virus, and picornavirus. ..
  56. Pang I, Pillai P, Iwasaki A. Efficient influenza A virus replication in the respiratory tract requires signals from TLR7 and RIG-I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:13910-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that IAV uses physiological levels of inflammatory responses for its replicative advantage and highlight the complex interplay between viruses and the host innate-immune responses. ..
  57. Pestal K, Funk C, Snyder J, Price N, Treuting P, Stetson D. Isoforms of RNA-Editing Enzyme ADAR1 Independently Control Nucleic Acid Sensor MDA5-Driven Autoimmunity and Multi-organ Development. Immunity. 2015;43:933-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings delineate genetically separable roles for both ADAR1 isoforms in vivo, with implications for the human diseases caused by ADAR mutations. ..
  58. Zhang N, Shen S, Jiang L, Zhang W, Zhang H, Sun Y, et al. RIG-I plays a critical role in negatively regulating granulocytic proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10553-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study reveals a critical regulatory role of Rig-I in modulating the generation and differentiation of granulocytes. ..
  59. Poeck H, Bscheider M, Gross O, Finger K, Roth S, Rebsamen M, et al. Recognition of RNA virus by RIG-I results in activation of CARD9 and inflammasome signaling for interleukin 1 beta production. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:63-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify the CARD9-Bcl-10 module as an essential component of the RIG-I-dependent proinflammatory response and establish RIG-I as a sensor able to activate the inflammasome in response to certain RNA viruses. ..
  60. Wang W, Jiang M, Liu S, Zhang S, Liu W, Ma Y, et al. RNF122 suppresses antiviral type I interferon production by targeting RIG-I CARDs to mediate RIG-I degradation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:9581-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study outlines a way for E3 ligase to regulate innate sensor RIG-I for the control of antiviral innate immunity. ..
  61. Foronjy R, Taggart C, Dabo A, Weldon S, Cummins N, Geraghty P. Type-I interferons induce lung protease responses following respiratory syncytial virus infection via RIG-I-like receptors. Mucosal Immunol. 2015;8:161-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The significance of RIG-1 protease induction was demonstrated by the fact that inhibiting proteases with batimastat, E64 or ribavirin prevented airway hyperresponsiveness and enhanced viral clearance in RSV-infected mice. ..
  62. Hayashi Y, Onomoto K, Narita R, Yoneyama M, Kato H, Nakagawa T, et al. Virus-induced expression of retinoic acid inducible gene-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 in the cochlear sensory epithelium. Microbes Infect. 2013;15:592-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggest that RIG-I and MDA5 participate in innate antiviral responses in cochlear tissue. ..
  63. Li Y, Chen R, Zhou Q, Xu Z, Li C, Wang S, et al. LSm14A is a processing body-associated sensor of viral nucleic acids that initiates cellular antiviral response in the early phase of viral infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:11770-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that LSm14A is a sensor for both viral RNA and DNA and plays an important role in initiating IFN-? induction in the early phase of viral infection. ..
  64. D Cruz A, Kershaw N, Chiang J, Wang M, Nicola N, Babon J, et al. Crystal structure of the TRIM25 B30.2 (PRYSPRY) domain: a key component of antiviral signalling. Biochem J. 2013;456:231-40 pubmed publisher
    ..This was supported by mutagenesis and functional analyses, which identified two key residues (Asp(488) and Trp(621)) in the TRIM25 B30.2 domain as being critical for binding to the RIG-I CARDs. ..
  65. Yan K, Zhu W, Yu L, Li N, Zhang X, Liu P, et al. Toll-like receptor 3 and RIG-I-like receptor activation induces innate antiviral responses in mouse ovarian granulosa cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;372:73-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Data suggest that TLR3, MDA5 and RIG-I cooperate in mediating innate antiviral responses in granulosa cells, which may contribute to the defense of the ovary against viral infections. ..
  66. Berke I, Modis Y. MDA5 cooperatively forms dimers and ATP-sensitive filaments upon binding double-stranded RNA. EMBO J. 2012;31:1714-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a signalling model in which the CARDs on MDA5-RNA filaments nucleate the assembly of MAVS filaments with the same polymeric geometry. ..
  67. Asdonk T, Motz I, Werner N, Coch C, Barchet W, Hartmann G, et al. Endothelial RIG-I activation impairs endothelial function. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;420:66-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we analyzed the impact of endothelial retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) activation upon vascular endothelial biology...
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    ..While Thr-170 phosphorylation keeps RIG-I latent, Lys-172 ubiquitination enables RIG-I to form a stable complex with MAVS, thereby inducing IFN signal transduction. ..
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    ..Together, our results show that the liver has sensor mechanisms for Plasmodium that mediate a functional antiparasite response driven by type I IFN. ..
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    ..In addition, MDA5-based immunotherapy led to effective tumor control of established pancreatic tumors. In summary, RLH ligands induce a highly immunogenic form of tumor cell death linking innate and adaptive immunity. ..
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    ..They provide further information as to how tyrosine kinases such as STKs play a role in the regulation of antiviral immunity. ..
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    ..IKKalpha complex downstream of RIG-I.MAVS. This pathway may be a potential target for RSV treatment. ..
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    ..Thus, we show in this study for the first time that activation of a RIG-I-like helicase on Treg cells blocks their suppressive function. ..
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    ..Furthermore, the implications of a cell surface receptor capable of recognizing extracellular RNA may exceed beyond viral immunity to mediating other important innate immune functions. ..
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    ..We also provide evidence that local injection of poly(I:C) induces antiviral response in the testis of TLR3(-/-) mice. These data provide novel insights into the mechanisms underlying testicular antiviral response. ..
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    ..Our findings suggest that Smurf2 is an important nonredundant negative regulator of virus-triggered type I IFN signaling by targeting VISA for K48-linked ubiquitination and degradation. ..
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    ..Overall, our results indicate that the activation of RIG-I occurs through an RNA- and ATP-driven structural switch in the SF2 domain. ..
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