Rictor

Summary

Gene Symbol: Rictor
Description: RPTOR independent companion of MTOR, complex 2
Alias: 4921505C17Rik, 6030405M08Rik, AVO3, AW492497, D530039E11Rik, rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR, AVO3 homolog, mAVO3, protein pianissimo, rictor
Species: mouse
Products:     Rictor

Top Publications

  1. Bentzinger C, Romanino K, Cloëtta D, Lin S, Mascarenhas J, Oliveri F, et al. Skeletal muscle-specific ablation of raptor, but not of rictor, causes metabolic changes and results in muscle dystrophy. Cell Metab. 2008;8:411-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, muscles lacking the mTORC2 component rictor are indistinguishable from wild-type controls...
  2. Lamming D, Ye L, Katajisto P, Goncalves M, Saitoh M, Stevens D, et al. Rapamycin-induced insulin resistance is mediated by mTORC2 loss and uncoupled from longevity. Science. 2012;335:1638-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, mTORC2 disruption is an important mediator of the effects of rapamycin in vivo. ..
  3. Ikenoue T, Inoki K, Yang Q, Zhou X, Guan K. Essential function of TORC2 in PKC and Akt turn motif phosphorylation, maturation and signalling. EMBO J. 2008;27:1919-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Ablation of mTORC2 components (Rictor, Sin1 or mTOR) abolished phosphorylation on the TM of both PKCalpha and Akt and HM of Akt and decreased HM ..
  4. Facchinetti V, Ouyang W, Wei H, Soto N, Lazorchak A, Gould C, et al. The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 controls folding and stability of Akt and protein kinase C. EMBO J. 2008;27:1932-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that mTOR, SIN1 and rictor, components of mammalian (m)TORC2, are required for phosphorylation of Akt and conventional protein kinase C (PKC) ..
  5. Tang F, Wu Q, Ikenoue T, Guan K, Liu Y, Zheng P. A critical role for Rictor in T lymphopoiesis. J Immunol. 2012;189:1850-7 pubmed publisher
    ..target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in cancer cells, we used mice with conditional deletion of either Raptor or Rictor genes to determine potential contribution of the mTOR complex I and II in T lymphopoiesis...
  6. Lee K, Heffington L, Jellusova J, Nam K, Raybuck A, Cho S, et al. Requirement for Rictor in homeostasis and function of mature B lymphoid cells. Blood. 2013;122:2369-79 pubmed publisher
    ..mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is defined by a core subunit Raptor, whereas mTORC2 lacks Raptor and, instead, has Rictor and SIN1 as distinct essential components. We now show that homeostasis and function of B cells require Rictor...
  7. Yuan M, Pino E, Wu L, Kacergis M, Soukas A. Identification of Akt-independent regulation of hepatic lipogenesis by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 2. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:29579-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that mice lacking the essential mTORC2 component rictor in liver (Lrictor(KO)) are unable to respond normally to insulin...
  8. Kalaitzidis D, Sykes S, Wang Z, Punt N, Tang Y, Ragu C, et al. mTOR complex 1 plays critical roles in hematopoiesis and Pten-loss-evoked leukemogenesis. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;11:429-39 pubmed publisher
    ..required for HSC regeneration, and plays largely nonredundant roles with rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR (Rictor) in these processes...
  9. Shiota C, Woo J, Lindner J, Shelton K, Magnuson M. Multiallelic disruption of the rictor gene in mice reveals that mTOR complex 2 is essential for fetal growth and viability. Dev Cell. 2006;11:583-9 pubmed
    ..To explore this possibility further in a mammalian model system, we disrupted the expression of rictor, a specific component of mTORC2, in mice by using a multiallelic gene targeting strategy...

More Information

Publications78

  1. Lee K, Nam K, Cho S, Gudapati P, Hwang Y, Park D, et al. Vital roles of mTOR complex 2 in Notch-driven thymocyte differentiation and leukemia. J Exp Med. 2012;209:713-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Conditional deletion of Rictor, an essential component of mTORC2, impaired Notch-driven proliferation and differentiation of pre-T cells...
  2. Guertin D, Stevens D, Saitoh M, Kinkel S, Crosby K, Sheen J, et al. mTOR complex 2 is required for the development of prostate cancer induced by Pten loss in mice. Cancer Cell. 2009;15:148-59 pubmed publisher
    mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) contains the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase and the Rictor regulatory protein and phosphorylates Akt. Whether this function of mTORC2 is critical for cancer progression is unknown...
  3. Delgoffe G, Pollizzi K, Waickman A, Heikamp E, Meyers D, Horton M, et al. The kinase mTOR regulates the differentiation of helper T cells through the selective activation of signaling by mTORC1 and mTORC2. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:295-303 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings define a previously unknown paradigm that links T cell differentiation with selective metabolic signaling pathways. ..
  4. Magee J, Ikenoue T, Nakada D, Lee J, Guan K, Morrison S. Temporal changes in PTEN and mTORC2 regulation of hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and leukemia suppression. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;11:415-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that this reflects developmental changes in PI3-kinase pathway regulation. Here we show that Rictor deletion prevents leukemogenesis and HSC depletion after Pten deletion in adult mice, implicating mTORC2 ..
  5. Yang Q, Inoki K, Ikenoue T, Guan K. Identification of Sin1 as an essential TORC2 component required for complex formation and kinase activity. Genes Dev. 2006;20:2820-32 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that Sin1 is an essential component of TORC2 but not of TORC1, and functions similarly to Rictor, the defining member of TORC2, in complex formation and kinase activity...
  6. Gödel M, Hartleben B, Herbach N, Liu S, Zschiedrich S, Lu S, et al. Role of mTOR in podocyte function and diabetic nephropathy in humans and mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:2197-209 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the requirement for tightly balanced mTOR activity in podocyte homeostasis and suggest that mTOR inhibition can protect podocytes and prevent progressive diabetic nephropathy. ..
  7. Oh W, Wu C, Kim S, Facchinetti V, Julien L, Finlan M, et al. mTORC2 can associate with ribosomes to promote cotranslational phosphorylation and stability of nascent Akt polypeptide. EMBO J. 2010;29:3939-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, mTORC2 can function cotranslationally by phosphorylating residues in nascent chains that are critical to attain proper conformation. Our findings reveal that mTOR links protein production with quality control. ..
  8. Jacinto E, Facchinetti V, Liu D, Soto N, Wei S, Jung S, et al. SIN1/MIP1 maintains rictor-mTOR complex integrity and regulates Akt phosphorylation and substrate specificity. Cell. 2006;127:125-37 pubmed
    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls cell growth and proliferation via the raptor-mTOR (TORC1) and rictor-mTOR (TORC2) protein complexes...
  9. Gao D, Wan L, Inuzuka H, Berg A, Tseng A, Zhai B, et al. Rictor forms a complex with Cullin-1 to promote SGK1 ubiquitination and destruction. Mol Cell. 2010;39:797-808 pubmed publisher
    The Rictor/mTOR complex (also known as mTORC2) plays a critical role in cellular homeostasis by phosphorylating AGC kinases such as Akt and SGK at their hydrophobic motifs to activate downstream signaling...
  10. Guertin D, Stevens D, Thoreen C, Burds A, Kalaany N, Moffat J, et al. Ablation in mice of the mTORC components raptor, rictor, or mLST8 reveals that mTORC2 is required for signaling to Akt-FOXO and PKCalpha, but not S6K1. Dev Cell. 2006;11:859-71 pubmed
    ..mTOR and mLST8 are in both complexes, while raptor and rictor are part of only mTORC1 and mTORC2, respectively...
  11. Hagan G, Lin Y, Magnuson M, Avruch J, Czech M. A Rictor-Myo1c complex participates in dynamic cortical actin events in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4215-26 pubmed publisher
    ..kinase Akt through phosphorylation of its threonine 308 and serine 473 residues by the PDK1 protein kinase and the Rictor-mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC2), respectively...
  12. Thomanetz V, Angliker N, Cloëtta D, Lustenberger R, Schweighauser M, Oliveri F, et al. Ablation of the mTORC2 component rictor in brain or Purkinje cells affects size and neuron morphology. J Cell Biol. 2013;201:293-308 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe two mouse lines that are devoid of the mTORC2 component rictor in the entire central nervous system or in Purkinje cells...
  13. Jacinto E, Loewith R, Schmidt A, Lin S, Ruegg M, Hall A, et al. Mammalian TOR complex 2 controls the actin cytoskeleton and is rapamycin insensitive. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:1122-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that a mammalian counterpart of TORC2 (mTORC2) also exists. mTORC2 contains mTOR, mLST8 and mAVO3, but not raptor...
  14. Risson V, Mazelin L, Roceri M, Sanchez H, Moncollin V, Corneloup C, et al. Muscle inactivation of mTOR causes metabolic and dystrophin defects leading to severe myopathy. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:859-74 pubmed publisher
    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of cell growth that associates with raptor and rictor to form the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2, respectively...
  15. Kumar A, Lawrence J, Jung D, Ko H, Keller S, Kim J, et al. Fat cell-specific ablation of rictor in mice impairs insulin-regulated fat cell and whole-body glucose and lipid metabolism. Diabetes. 2010;59:1397-406 pubmed publisher
    b>Rictor is an essential component of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex (mTORC) 2, a kinase that phosphorylates and activates Akt, an insulin signaling intermediary that regulates glucose and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, ..
  16. Lee K, Gudapati P, Dragovic S, Spencer C, Joyce S, Killeen N, et al. Mammalian target of rapamycin protein complex 2 regulates differentiation of Th1 and Th2 cell subsets via distinct signaling pathways. Immunity. 2010;32:743-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that conditional deletion of rictor, an essential subunit of mTORC2, impaired differentiation into T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells without diversion ..
  17. Shu L, Houghton P. The mTORC2 complex regulates terminal differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:4691-700 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that downregulation of rictor, a component of the mTORC2 complex, but not downregulation of raptor, a component of the mTORC1 complex, prevented ..
  18. García Martínez J, Alessi D. mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) controls hydrophobic motif phosphorylation and activation of serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase 1 (SGK1). Biochem J. 2008;416:375-85 pubmed publisher
    ..and activity is ablated in knockout fibroblasts possessing mTORC1 activity, but lacking the mTORC2 subunits rictor (rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR), Sin1 (stress-activated-protein-kinase-interacting protein 1) or mLST8 (..
  19. Xie X, Zhang D, Zhao B, Lu M, You M, Condorelli G, et al. IkappaB kinase epsilon and TANK-binding kinase 1 activate AKT by direct phosphorylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6474-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistently, we found that growth factors can induce AKT (S473) phosphorylation in Rictor(-/-) cells, and this effect is insensitive to mTOR inhibitor Torin1...
  20. Patursky Polischuk I, Stolovich Rain M, Hausner Hanochi M, Kasir J, Cybulski N, Avruch J, et al. The TSC-mTOR pathway mediates translational activation of TOP mRNAs by insulin largely in a raptor- or rictor-independent manner. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:640-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, knockout of the raptor or rictor gene has only a slight effect on the translation efficiency of these mRNAs, implying that mTOR exerts its effect ..
  21. Siuta M, Robertson S, KOCALIS H, Saunders C, Gresch P, Khatri V, et al. Dysregulation of the norepinephrine transporter sustains cortical hypodopaminergia and schizophrenia-like behaviors in neuronal rictor null mice. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000393 pubmed publisher
    ..We used conditional gene targeting in mice to eliminate the mTORC2 regulatory protein rictor in neurons, leading to impairments in neuronal Akt Ser473 phosphorylation...
  22. Hagiwara A, Cornu M, Cybulski N, Polak P, Betz C, Trapani F, et al. Hepatic mTORC2 activates glycolysis and lipogenesis through Akt, glucokinase, and SREBP1c. Cell Metab. 2012;15:725-38 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the role of hepatic mTORC2, we generated liver-specific rictor knockout (LiRiKO) mice...
  23. Cybulski N, Polak P, Auwerx J, Ruegg M, Hall M. mTOR complex 2 in adipose tissue negatively controls whole-body growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9902-7 pubmed publisher
    ..mTORC2, which consists of rictor, mSIN1, mLST8, and mTOR, is activated by insulin/IGF1 and phosphorylates Ser-473 in the hydrophobic motif of Akt/..
  24. Kumar A, Harris T, Keller S, Choi K, Magnuson M, Lawrence J. Muscle-specific deletion of rictor impairs insulin-stimulated glucose transport and enhances Basal glycogen synthase activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:61-70 pubmed
    b>Rictor is an essential component of mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) complex 2 (mTORC2), a kinase complex that phosphorylates Akt at Ser473 upon activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3 kinase)...
  25. Yang K, Neale G, Green D, He W, Chi H. The tumor suppressor Tsc1 enforces quiescence of naive T cells to promote immune homeostasis and function. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:888-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Tsc1-dependent control of mTOR is crucial in actively maintaining the quiescence of naive T cells to facilitate adaptive immune function. ..
  26. Gu Y, Lindner J, Kumar A, Yuan W, Magnuson M. Rictor/mTORC2 is essential for maintaining a balance between beta-cell proliferation and cell size. Diabetes. 2011;60:827-37 pubmed publisher
    We examined the role of Rictor/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2), a key component of the phosphotidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/mTORC2/AKT signaling pathway, in regulating both ?-cell mass and function...
  27. McGuire V, Gray A, Monk C, Santos S, Lee K, Aubareda A, et al. Cross talk between the Akt and p38? pathways in macrophages downstream of Toll-like receptor signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:4152-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These data describe a novel role for p38?-MK2/3 in regulating TLR-induced Akt activation in macrophages. ..
  28. Lamming D, Demirkan G, Boylan J, Mihaylova M, Peng T, Ferreira J, et al. Hepatic signaling by the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2). FASEB J. 2014;28:300-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice in which the mTORC2 component Rictor is deleted in liver [Rictor-knockout (RKO) mice], we used genomic and phosphoproteomic analyses to characterize ..
  29. Delgoffe G, Kole T, Cotter R, Powell J. Enhanced interaction between Hsp90 and raptor regulates mTOR signaling upon T cell activation. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:2694-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Associated Protein of TOR (raptor), and TORC2, which contains the Rapamycin-insensitive Companion of TOR (rictor)...
  30. Carr T, Feehan R, Hall M, Rüegg M, Shantz L. Conditional disruption of rictor demonstrates a direct requirement for mTORC2 in skin tumor development and continued growth of established tumors. Carcinogenesis. 2015;36:487-97 pubmed publisher
    ..that allow spatial and temporal control of mTORC2 in epidermis by conditional knockout of its essential component Rictor, we studied the effect of mTORC2 loss on both epidermal proliferation and chemical carcinogenesis...
  31. Lebrun Julien F, Bachmann L, Norrmen C, Trötzmüller M, Köfeler H, Ruegg M, et al. Balanced mTORC1 activity in oligodendrocytes is required for accurate CNS myelination. J Neurosci. 2014;34:8432-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These complexes are functionally dependent on their raptor (mTORC1) or rictor (mTORC2) subunits...
  32. KOCALIS H, Hagan S, George L, Turney M, Siuta M, Laryea G, et al. Rictor/mTORC2 facilitates central regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis. Mol Metab. 2014;3:394-407 pubmed publisher
    Insulin signaling in the central nervous system (CNS) regulates energy balance and peripheral glucose homeostasis. Rictor is a key regulatory/structural subunit of the mTORC2 complex and is required for hydrophobic motif site ..
  33. Limon J, So L, Jellbauer S, Chiu H, Corado J, Sykes S, et al. mTOR kinase inhibitors promote antibody class switching via mTORC2 inhibition. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E5076-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations emphasize the distinct actions of TOR-KIs compared with rapamycin and suggest that TOR-KIs might be useful to enhance production of class-switched antibodies following vaccination. ..
  34. Ou Y, Torres M, Ram R, Formstecher E, Roland C, Cheng T, et al. TBK1 directly engages Akt/PKB survival signaling to support oncogenic transformation. Mol Cell. 2011;41:458-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, AKT is a direct TBK1 substrate that connects TBK1 to prosurvival signaling. ..
  35. Julien L, Carriere A, Moreau J, Roux P. mTORC1-activated S6K1 phosphorylates Rictor on threonine 1135 and regulates mTORC2 signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:908-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that growth factors promote the phosphorylation of Rictor (rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR), an essential subunit of mTORC2...
  36. Treins C, Warne P, Magnuson M, Pende M, Downward J. Rictor is a novel target of p70 S6 kinase-1. Oncogene. 2010;29:1003-16 pubmed publisher
    The rapamycin-insensitive companion of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (Rictor) is a key member of mTOR complex-2 (mTORC2), which phosphorylates the AGC kinases Akt/PKB, PKC and SGK1 at a C-terminal hydrophobic motif...
  37. Zheng B, Wang J, Tang L, Tan C, Zhao Z, Xiao Y, et al. Involvement of Rictor/mTORC2 in cardiomyocyte differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells in vitro. Int J Biol Sci. 2017;13:110-121 pubmed publisher
    b>Rictor is a key regulatory/structural subunit of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) and is required for phosphorylation of Akt at serine 473...
  38. Nobs S, Schneider C, Dietrich M, Brocker T, Rolink A, Hirsch E, et al. PI3-Kinase-γ Has a Distinct and Essential Role in Lung-Specific Dendritic Cell Development. Immunity. 2015;43:674-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus we identified PI3Kγ as an essential organ-specific regulator of lung DC development and discovered a signaling network regulating tissue-specific DC development mediated by FLT3. ..
  39. Kroczynska B, Rafidi R, Majchrzak Kita B, Kościuczuk E, Blyth G, Jemielity J, et al. Interferon γ (IFNγ) Signaling via Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 2 (mTORC2) and Regulatory Effects in the Generation of Type II Interferon Biological Responses. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:2389-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies establish that Rictor is essential for the generation of type II IFN-dependent antiviral and antiproliferative responses and that it ..
  40. Yang J, Lin X, Pan Y, Wang J, Chen P, Huang H, et al. Critical roles of mTOR Complex 1 and 2 for T follicular helper cell differentiation and germinal center responses. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..mainly promotes CD4 T cell proliferation to reach the cell divisions necessary for Tfh differentiation, while Rictor/mTORC2 regulates Tfh differentiation by promoting Akt activation and TCF1 expression without grossly influencing T ..
  41. Lai P, Song Q, Yang C, Li Z, Liu S, Liu B, et al. Loss of Rictor with aging in osteoblasts promotes age-related bone loss. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2408 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rictor, a specific component of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) that controls cytoskeletal ..
  42. Lee D, Sykes S, Kalaitzidis D, Lane A, Kfoury Y, Raaijmakers M, et al. Transmembrane Inhibitor of RICTOR/mTORC2 in Hematopoietic Progenitors. Stem Cell Reports. 2014;3:832-40 pubmed publisher
    ..we report a transmembrane molecule in hematopoietic progenitor cells that physically interacts with and inhibits RICTOR, an essential component of mTORC2...
  43. Grahammer F, Haenisch N, Steinhardt F, Sandner L, Sander L, Roerden M, et al. mTORC1 maintains renal tubular homeostasis and is essential in response to ischemic stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:E2817-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify mTORC1 as an important regulator of tubular energy metabolism and as a crucial component of ischemic stress responses. ..
  44. Huang L, Zhang Y, Xu C, Gu X, Niu L, Wang J, et al. Rictor positively regulates B cell receptor signaling by modulating actin reorganization via ezrin. PLoS Biol. 2017;15:e2001750 pubmed publisher
    ..As an obligatory component of mTORC2, the role of Rictor in T cells is well established. However, the role of Rictor in B cells still remains elusive...
  45. Gulhati P, Cai Q, Li J, Liu J, Rychahou P, Qiu S, et al. Targeted inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling inhibits tumorigenesis of colorectal cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:7207-16 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the mTOR complex proteins mTOR, Raptor, and Rictor are overexpressed in CRC...
  46. Hasumi Y, Baba M, Ajima R, Hasumi H, Valera V, Klein M, et al. Homozygous loss of BHD causes early embryonic lethality and kidney tumor development with activation of mTORC1 and mTORC2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18722-7 pubmed publisher
  47. Byles V, Covarrubias A, Ben Sahra I, Lamming D, Sabatini D, Manning B, et al. The TSC-mTOR pathway regulates macrophage polarization. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2834 pubmed publisher
  48. Mills J, Hippo Y, Robert F, Chen S, Malina A, Lin C, et al. mTORC1 promotes survival through translational control of Mcl-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:10853-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the extent by which rapamycin can modulate expression of Mcl-1 is an important feature of the rapamycin response. ..
  49. Sciarretta S, Zhai P, Maejima Y, Del Re D, Nagarajan N, Yee D, et al. mTORC2 regulates cardiac response to stress by inhibiting MST1. Cell Rep. 2015;11:125-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Rictor/mTORC2 preserves cardiac structure and function by restraining the activity of MST1 kinase...
  50. Najafov A, Shpiro N, Alessi D. Akt is efficiently activated by PIF-pocket- and PtdIns(3,4,5)P3-dependent mechanisms leading to resistance to PDK1 inhibitors. Biochem J. 2012;448:285-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest further work is warranted to explore the utility of combining PDK1 and mTOR inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy for treatment of cancers that harbour mutations elevating Akt activity. ..
  51. Dong H, Chen Z, Wang C, Xiong Z, Zhao W, Jia C, et al. Rictor Regulates Spermatogenesis by Controlling Sertoli Cell Cytoskeletal Organization and Cell Polarity in the Mouse Testis. Endocrinology. 2015;156:4244-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that rapamycin-insensitive component of target of rapamycin (TOR) (Rictor), a core component of mechanistic TOR complex 2 (mTORC2), was expressed in the seminiferous epithelium during ..
  52. Wang S, Amato K, Song W, Youngblood V, Lee K, Boothby M, et al. Regulation of endothelial cell proliferation and vascular assembly through distinct mTORC2 signaling pathways. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:1299-313 pubmed publisher
    ..whose activities and substrate specificities are regulated by complex specific cofactors, including Raptor and Rictor, respectively...
  53. Bercury K, Dai J, Sachs H, Ahrendsen J, Wood T, Macklin W. Conditional ablation of raptor or rictor has differential impact on oligodendrocyte differentiation and CNS myelination. J Neurosci. 2014;34:4466-80 pubmed publisher
    ..mTOR functions through two distinct complexes, mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2, by binding to either Raptor or Rictor, respectively...
  54. Sun W, Shi Y, Lee W, Lee S, Long F. Rictor is required for optimal bone accrual in response to anti-sclerostin therapy in the mouse. Bone. 2016;85:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Because we have previously shown that Rictor-dependent mTORC2 activity contributes to Wnt signaling, we test here whether Rictor is required for Scl-Ab to ..
  55. Xie Y, Cui C, Nie A, Wang Y, Ni Q, Liu Y, et al. The mTORC2/PKC pathway sustains compensatory insulin secretion of pancreatic ? cells in response to metabolic stress. Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017;1861:2039-2047 pubmed publisher
    ..We challenged four-week-old ?-cell-specific Rictor (a key component of mTORC2)-knockout mice with a high fat diet (HFD) for 4weeks and measured metabolic and ..
  56. Ma S, Venkatesh A, Langellotto F, Le Y, Hall M, Rüegg M, et al. Loss of mTOR signaling affects cone function, cone structure and expression of cone specific proteins without affecting cone survival. Exp Eye Res. 2015;135:1-13 pubmed publisher
    ..two distinct complexes (mTORC1 & mTORC2) that are characterized by their unique accessory proteins RAPTOR and RICTOR respectively...
  57. Pearce L, Sommer E, Sakamoto K, Wullschleger S, Alessi D. Protor-1 is required for efficient mTORC2-mediated activation of SGK1 in the kidney. Biochem J. 2011;436:169-79 pubmed publisher
    ..protein of mTOR) and mLST8 (mammalian lethal with SEC13 protein 8) and complex 2 (mTORC2) consisting of mTOR, Rictor (rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR), Sin1 (stress-activated protein kinase-interacting protein 1), mLST8 and ..
  58. Tassone B, Saoncella S, Neri F, Ala U, Brusa D, Magnuson M, et al. Rictor/mTORC2 deficiency enhances keratinocyte stress tolerance via mitohormesis. Cell Death Differ. 2017;24:731-746 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rictor is an adaptor protein essential for mTORC2 activity...
  59. Singh Y, Garden O, Lang F, Cobb B. MicroRNA-15b/16 Enhances the Induction of Regulatory T Cells by Regulating the Expression of Rictor and mTOR. J Immunol. 2015;195:5667-77 pubmed publisher
    ..of mTOR signaling is essential for induction of iTregs from naive CD4(+) T cells, and the mTORC2 component, Rictor, contained a functional target site for miR-15b/16...
  60. Chou P, Oh W, Wu C, Moloughney J, Ruegg M, Hall M, et al. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 modulates ??TCR processing and surface expression during thymocyte development. J Immunol. 2014;193:1162-70 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that deletion of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC) 2 component rictor at early stages of T cell development led to aberrant maturation and increased proteasomal degradation of nascent ..
  61. Tang Y, Wallace M, Sanchez Gurmaches J, Hsiao W, Li H, Lee P, et al. Adipose tissue mTORC2 regulates ChREBP-driven de novo lipogenesis and hepatic glucose metabolism. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11365 pubmed publisher
    ..Conditionally deleting the essential mTORC2 subunit Rictor in mature adipocytes decreases ChREBP? expression, which reduces DNL in WAT, and impairs hepatic insulin ..
  62. Morrison Joly M, Hicks D, Jones B, Sanchez V, Estrada M, Young C, et al. Rictor/mTORC2 Drives Progression and Therapeutic Resistance of HER2-Amplified Breast Cancers. Cancer Res. 2016;76:4752-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that the mTORC2 obligate cofactor Rictor is enriched in HER2-amplified samples, correlating with increased phosphorylation at S473 on Akt...
  63. Romanino K, Mazelin L, Albert V, Conjard Duplany A, Lin S, Bentzinger C, et al. Myopathy caused by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) inactivation is not reversed by restoring mitochondrial function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20808-13 pubmed publisher
    ..However, our data also show that the impairment of mitochondria does not lead directly to the lethal myopathy. ..
  64. Le Bacquer O, Queniat G, Gmyr V, Kerr Conte J, Lefebvre B, Pattou F. mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate insulin secretion through Akt in INS-1 cells. J Endocrinol. 2013;216:21-9 pubmed publisher
    Regulated associated protein of mTOR (Raptor) and rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR (rictor) are two proteins that delineate two different mTOR complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2 respectively...
  65. Albert V, Svensson K, Shimobayashi M, Colombi M, Muñoz S, Jimenez V, et al. mTORC2 sustains thermogenesis via Akt-induced glucose uptake and glycolysis in brown adipose tissue. EMBO Mol Med. 2016;8:232-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, mTORC2 in BAT mediates temperature homeostasis via regulation of cold-induced glucose uptake. Our findings demonstrate the importance of glucose metabolism in temperature regulation. ..
  66. Zhang C, Cooper D, Grevengoed T, Li L, Klett E, Eaton J, et al. Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase-4-deficient mice are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance by the enhanced association of mTOR and rictor. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014;307:E305-15 pubmed publisher
    ..GPAT4 overexpression inhibited rictor's association with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) activity...
  67. Prevot N, Pyaram K, Bischoff E, Sen J, Powell J, Chang C. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 regulates invariant NKT cell development and function independent of promyelocytic leukemia zinc-finger. J Immunol. 2015;194:223-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice deficient in mTORC2 signaling because of the conditional deletion of the Rictor gene, iNKT cell numbers were reduced in the thymus and periphery...
  68. Lamming D, Mihaylova M, Katajisto P, Baar E, Yilmaz O, Hutchins A, et al. Depletion of Rictor, an essential protein component of mTORC2, decreases male lifespan. Aging Cell. 2014;13:911-7 pubmed publisher
    ..b>RICTOR is a protein component of mTORC2 that is essential for its activity...
  69. Festuccia W, Pouliot P, Bakan I, Sabatini D, Laplante M. Myeloid-specific Rictor deletion induces M1 macrophage polarization and potentiates in vivo pro-inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e95432 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the role of mTORC2 in the regulation of inflammation in vivo, we have generated a mouse model lacking Rictor, an essential mTORC2 component, in myeloid cells...