Gene Symbol: Rhoa
Description: ras homolog family member A
Alias: Arha, Arha1, Arha2, transforming protein RhoA, aplysia ras-related homolog A, ras homolog gene family, member A
Species: mouse
Products:     Rhoa

Top Publications

  1. Watanabe N, Kato T, Fujita A, Ishizaki T, Narumiya S. Cooperation between mDia1 and ROCK in Rho-induced actin reorganization. Nat Cell Biol. 1999;1:136-43 pubmed
    ..Thus Rho may induce the formation of different actin structures affected by the balance between mDia1 and ROCK signalling. ..
  2. Sabbatini M, Bi Y, Ji B, Ernst S, Williams J. CCK activates RhoA and Rac1 differentially through Galpha13 and Galphaq in mouse pancreatic acini. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;298:C592-601 pubmed publisher
    Cholecystokinin (CCK) has been shown to activate RhoA and Rac1, as well as reorganize the actin cytoskeleton and, thereby, modify acinar morphology and amylase secretion in mouse pancreatic acini...
  3. Pacary E, Heng J, Azzarelli R, Riou P, Castro D, Lebel Potter M, et al. Proneural transcription factors regulate different steps of cortical neuron migration through Rnd-mediated inhibition of RhoA signaling. Neuron. 2011;69:1069-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Both Rnd2 and Rnd3 promote neuronal migration by inhibiting RhoA signaling, but they control distinct steps of the migratory process, multipolar to bipolar transition in the ..
  4. Tao H, Inoue K, Kiyonari H, Bassuk A, Axelrod J, Sasaki H, et al. Nuclear localization of Prickle2 is required to establish cell polarity during early mouse embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 2012;364:138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we found GTP-bound active form of nuclear RhoA was decreased in Pk2(-/-) embryos during compaction...
  5. Chauhan B, Lou M, Zheng Y, Lang R. Balanced Rac1 and RhoA activities regulate cell shape and drive invagination morphogenesis in epithelia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18289-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that mutual antagonism by the small Rho GTPases Rac1 and RhoA determines cell shape, tissue curvature, and invagination activity in the model epithelium of the developing mouse ..
  6. Jiang X, Wassif C, Backlund P, Song L, Holtzclaw L, Li Z, et al. Activation of Rho GTPases in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: pathophysiological and clinical implications. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:1347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Pull-down assays were used to demonstrate increased activation of RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 in Dhcr7(Delta3-5/Delta3-5) brains...
  7. Hatzoglou A, Ader I, Splingard A, Flanders J, Saade E, Leroy I, et al. Gem associates with Ezrin and acts via the Rho-GAP protein Gmip to down-regulate the Rho pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:1242-52 pubmed
    ..We show that endogenous Gem down-regulates the level of active RhoA and actin stress fibers. The effects of Gem downstream of Rho, i.e...
  8. Melendez J, Stengel K, Zhou X, Chauhan B, Debidda M, ANDREASSEN P, et al. RhoA GTPase is dispensable for actomyosin regulation but is essential for mitosis in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:15132-7 pubmed publisher
    b>RhoA, the founding member of mammalian Rho GTPase family, is thought to be essential for actomyosin regulation. To date, the physiologic function of RhoA in mammalian cell regulation has yet to be determined genetically...
  9. Saci A, Carpenter C. RhoA GTPase regulates B cell receptor signaling. Mol Cell. 2005;17:205-14 pubmed
    The RhoA GTPase controls many cellular functions, including gene transcription and actin polymerization...

More Information


  1. Negishi Koga T, Shinohara M, Komatsu N, Bito H, Kodama T, Friedel R, et al. Suppression of bone formation by osteoclastic expression of semaphorin 4D. Nat Med. 2011;17:1473-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The binding of Sema4D to its receptor Plexin-B1 on osteoblasts resulted in the activation of the small GTPase RhoA, which inhibits bone formation by suppressing insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling and by modulating ..
  2. Holinstat M, Knezevic N, Broman M, Samarel A, Malik A, Mehta D. Suppression of RhoA activity by focal adhesion kinase-induced activation of p190RhoGAP: role in regulation of endothelial permeability. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2296-305 pubmed
    ..We tested the hypothesis that FAK activates p190RhoGAP and, thus, negatively regulates RhoA activity and promotes endothelial barrier restoration in response to the permeability-increasing mediator thrombin...
  3. Chiba Y, Tanabe M, Goto K, Sakai H, Misawa M. Down-regulation of miR-133a contributes to up-regulation of Rhoa in bronchial smooth muscle cells. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;180:713-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The protein RhoA and its downstream pathways have now been proposed as a new target for asthma therapy...
  4. Katayama K, Leslie J, Lang R, Zheng Y, Yoshida Y. Left-right locomotor circuitry depends on RhoA-driven organization of the neuroepithelium in the developing spinal cord. J Neurosci. 2012;32:10396-407 pubmed publisher
    b>RhoA is a key regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics with a variety of effects on cellular processes...
  5. Ogata T, Ueyama T, Isodono K, Tagawa M, Takehara N, Kawashima T, et al. MURC, a muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein that modulates the Rho/ROCK pathway, induces cardiac dysfunction and conduction disturbance. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:3424-36 pubmed publisher
    ..MURC induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway, which modulated serum response factor-mediated atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) expression and ..
  6. Ridley A, Hall A. The small GTP-binding protein rho regulates the assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers in response to growth factors. Cell. 1992;70:389-99 pubmed
    ..These data imply that rho is essential specifically for the coordinated assembly of focal adhesions and stress fibers induced by growth factors. ..
  7. Causeret F, Hidalgo Sanchez M, Fort P, Backer S, Popoff M, Gauthier Rouvière C, et al. Distinct roles of Rac1/Cdc42 and Rho/Rock for axon outgrowth and nucleokinesis of precerebellar neurons toward netrin 1. Development. 2004;131:2841-52 pubmed
  8. Maddala R, Peng Y, Rao P. Selective expression of the small GTPase RhoB in the early developing mouse lens. Dev Dyn. 2001;222:534-7 pubmed
  9. Pertz O, Hodgson L, Klemke R, Hahn K. Spatiotemporal dynamics of RhoA activity in migrating cells. Nature. 2006;440:1069-72 pubmed
    ..Current models postulate that Rac promotes membrane protrusion at the leading edge and that RhoA regulates contractility in the cell body. However, there is evidence that RhoA also regulates membrane protrusion...
  10. Tumbarello D, Turner C. Hic-5 contributes to epithelial-mesenchymal transformation through a RhoA/ROCK-dependent pathway. J Cell Physiol. 2007;211:736-47 pubmed
    ..In addition, Hic-5 siRNA treatment led to the suppression of TGFbeta1 induction of RhoA activation. In contrast, forced expression of Hic-5 led to the formation of ROCK-dependent actin stress fibers...
  11. Mammoto T, Parikh S, Mammoto A, Gallagher D, Chan B, Mostoslavsky G, et al. Angiopoietin-1 requires p190 RhoGAP to protect against vascular leakage in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:23910-8 pubmed
    ..This induces activation of one endogenous GTPase, Rac1, and inhibition of another, RhoA. Loss of either part of this dual effect abrogates the cytoskeletal and anti-permeability actions of Ang-1, ..
  12. VandenBerg A, Sassoon D. Non-canonical Wnt signaling regulates cell polarity in female reproductive tract development via van gogh-like 2. Development. 2009;136:1559-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity through non-canonical Wnt signaling are required for FRT development. ..
  13. Rose R, Weyand M, Lammers M, Ishizaki T, Ahmadian M, Wittinghofer A. Structural and mechanistic insights into the interaction between Rho and mammalian Dia. Nature. 2005;435:513-8 pubmed
    ..On the basis of our results, we propose a structural model for the regulation of mDia1 by Rho and DAD. ..
  14. Vogt S, Grosse R, Schultz G, Offermanns S. Receptor-dependent RhoA activation in G12/G13-deficient cells: genetic evidence for an involvement of Gq/G11. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:28743-9 pubmed
    The small GTPase RhoA is involved in the regulation of various cellular functions like the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and the induction of transcriptional activity...
  15. Cappello S, Böhringer C, Bergami M, Conzelmann K, Ghanem A, Tomassy G, et al. A radial glia-specific role of RhoA in double cortex formation. Neuron. 2012;73:911-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that genetic deletion of the small GTPase RhoA in the developing cerebral cortex results in two migrational disorders: subcortical band heterotopia (SBH), a ..
  16. Prakash S, Paylor R, Jenna S, Lamarche Vane N, Armstrong D, Xu B, et al. Functional analysis of ARHGAP6, a novel GTPase-activating protein for RhoA. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:477-88 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that ARHGAP6 has two independent functions: one as a GAP with specificity for RhoA and the other as a cytoskeletal protein that promotes actin remodeling.
  17. Campos S, Ashworth S, Wean S, Hosford M, Sandoval R, Hallett M, et al. Cytokine-induced F-actin reorganization in endothelial cells involves RhoA activation. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;296:F487-95 pubmed publisher
    ..To explore the role of actin and the regulatory proteins RhoA and cofilin in this process, microvascular endothelial cells (MS1) were exposed to individual cytokines or a ..
  18. Troca Marín J, Alves Sampaio A, Tejedor F, Montesinos M. Local translation of dendritic RhoA revealed by an improved synaptoneurosome preparation. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;43:308-14 pubmed publisher
    ..b>RhoA, a member of this GTPase family, segregates to dendrites in differentiated neurons...
  19. Liu M, Horowitz A. A PDZ-binding motif as a critical determinant of Rho guanine exchange factor function and cell phenotype. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:1880-7 pubmed
    ..resonance energy transfer (FRET) imaging revealed similar differences between the spatial patterns of active RhoA in Syx1 versus Syx2-expressing cells...
  20. Kurokawa K, Matsuda M. Localized RhoA activation as a requirement for the induction of membrane ruffling. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:4294-303 pubmed
    We examined the spatio-temporal activity of RhoA in migrating cells and growth factor-stimulated cells by using probes based on the principle of fluorescence resonance energy transfer...
  21. Sawada N, Itoh H, Miyashita K, Tsujimoto H, Sone M, Yamahara K, et al. Cyclic GMP kinase and RhoA Ser188 phosphorylation integrate pro- and antifibrotic signals in blood vessels. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:6018-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that inhibition of RhoA through phosphorylation at Ser188, the site targeted by the NP effector cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase ..
  22. Watanabe N, Madaule P, Reid T, Ishizaki T, Watanabe G, Kakizuka A, et al. p140mDia, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila diaphanous, is a target protein for Rho small GTPase and is a ligand for profilin. EMBO J. 1997;16:3044-56 pubmed
    ..p140mDia binds selectively to the GTP-bound form of Rho and also binds to profilin. p140mDia, profilin and RhoA are co-localized in the spreading lamellae of cultured fibroblasts...
  23. Pleines I, Hagedorn I, Gupta S, May F, Chakarova L, van Hengel J, et al. Megakaryocyte-specific RhoA deficiency causes macrothrombocytopenia and defective platelet activation in hemostasis and thrombosis. Blood. 2012;119:1054-63 pubmed publisher
    ..are crucial for platelet shape change and secretion and are thought to involve activation of the small GTPase RhoA. In this study, we analyzed the in vitro and in vivo consequences of megakaryocyte- and platelet-specific RhoA gene ..
  24. Mangialardi G, Katare R, Oikawa A, Meloni M, Reni C, Emanueli C, et al. Diabetes causes bone marrow endothelial barrier dysfunction by activation of the RhoA-Rho-associated kinase signaling pathway. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:555-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Type-1 diabetic-BMECs displayed high reactive oxygen species levels, increased expression and activity of RhoA and its associated protein kinases Rho-associated kinase 1/Rho-associated kinase 2, and reduced Akt phosphorylation/..
  25. Kong W, Yang H, He L, Zhao J, Coppola D, Dalton W, et al. MicroRNA-155 is regulated by the transforming growth factor beta/Smad pathway and contributes to epithelial cell plasticity by targeting RhoA. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6773-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, the ectopic expression of miR-155 reduced RhoA protein and disrupted tight junction formation...
  26. Hall A. Rho GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton. Science. 1998;279:509-14 pubmed
  27. Ge W, He F, Kim K, Blanchi B, Coskun V, Nguyen L, et al. Coupling of cell migration with neurogenesis by proneural bHLH factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:1319-24 pubmed
    ..bHLH factors regulate the expression of genes critically involved in migration, including down-regulation of RhoA small GTPase and up-regulation of doublecortin and p35, which, in turn, modulate the actin and microtubule ..
  28. Katayama K, Melendez J, Baumann J, Leslie J, Chauhan B, Nemkul N, et al. Loss of RhoA in neural progenitor cells causes the disruption of adherens junctions and hyperproliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:7607-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas RhoA, a founding member of the small Rho GTPase family, has been shown to play important roles in epithelial adherens ..
  29. Mohseni M, Chishti A. The headpiece domain of dematin regulates cell shape, motility, and wound healing by modulating RhoA activation. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4712-8 pubmed publisher
    b>RhoA is known to participate in cytoskeletal remodeling events through several signaling pathways, yet the precise mechanism of its activation remains unknown...
  30. Heng J, Nguyen L, Castro D, Zimmer C, Wildner H, Armant O, et al. Neurogenin 2 controls cortical neuron migration through regulation of Rnd2. Nature. 2008;455:114-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a proneural protein controls the complex cellular behaviour of cell migration through a remarkably direct pathway involving the transcriptional activation of a small GTP-binding protein. ..
  31. Jackson B, Peyrollier K, Pedersen E, Basse A, Karlsson R, Wang Z, et al. RhoA is dispensable for skin development, but crucial for contraction and directed migration of keratinocytes. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:593-605 pubmed publisher
    b>RhoA is a small guanosine-5'-triphosphatase (GTPase) suggested to be essential for cytokinesis, stress fiber formation, and epithelial cell-cell contacts. In skin, loss of RhoA was suggested to underlie pemphigus skin blistering...
  32. Vielkind S, Gallagher Gambarelli M, Gomez M, Hinton H, Cantrell D. Integrin regulation by RhoA in thymocytes. J Immunol. 2005;175:350-7 pubmed
    ..To explore the mechanisms used by RhoA to control thymocyte biology, the role of this GTPase in the regulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion was ..
  33. Ernkvist M, Luna Persson N, Audebert S, Lecine P, Sinha I, Liu M, et al. The Amot/Patj/Syx signaling complex spatially controls RhoA GTPase activity in migrating endothelial cells. Blood. 2009;113:244-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that Amot and its related proteins bind to the RhoA GTPase exchange factor (RhoGEF) protein Syx...
  34. Zhang G, Lehmann H, Manoharan S, Hashmi M, Shim S, Ming G, et al. Anti-ganglioside antibody-mediated activation of RhoA induces inhibition of neurite outgrowth. J Neurosci. 2011;31:1664-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of small GTPase RhoA and its key downstream effector Rho kinase (ROCK) are critical mediators of growth cone and neurite outgrowth ..
  35. Leung T, Ching Y, Yam J, Wong C, Yau T, Jin D, et al. Deleted in liver cancer 2 (DLC2) suppresses cell transformation by means of inhibition of RhoA activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:15207-12 pubmed
    ..DLC2 encodes a unique RhoGTPase-activating protein (RhoGAP) specific for small RhoGTPases, RhoA, and Cdc42...
  36. Machacek M, Hodgson L, Welch C, Elliott H, Pertz O, Nalbant P, et al. Coordination of Rho GTPase activities during cell protrusion. Nature. 2009;461:99-103 pubmed publisher
    The GTPases Rac1, RhoA and Cdc42 act together to control cytoskeleton dynamics...
  37. Papakonstanti E, Ridley A, Vanhaesebroeck B. The p110delta isoform of PI 3-kinase negatively controls RhoA and PTEN. EMBO J. 2007;26:3050-61 pubmed
    ..We report that the p110delta PI3K negatively regulates PTEN, through a pathway involving inhibition of RhoA. Inactivation of p110delta in macrophages led to reduced Akt and Rac1 activation, but paradoxically to increased ..
  38. Galandrini R, Henning S, Cantrell D. Different functions of the GTPase Rho in prothymocytes and late pre-T cells. Immunity. 1997;7:163-74 pubmed
    ..These studies show that the critical processes of proliferation and survival are independently regulated during thymopoiesis and establish two different functions for Rho in the development of early thymic progenitors. ..
  39. Zhang S, Zhou X, Lang R, Guo F. RhoA of the Rho family small GTPases is essential for B lymphocyte development. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33773 pubmed publisher
    b>RhoA is a member of the Rho family small GTPases that are implicated in various cell functions including proliferation and survival. However, the physiological role of RhoA in vivo remains largely unknown...
  40. Herzog D, Loetscher P, van Hengel J, Knüsel S, Brakebusch C, Taylor V, et al. The small GTPase RhoA is required to maintain spinal cord neuroepithelium organization and the neural stem cell pool. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5120-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We have addressed the role of the small GTPase RhoA in the developing mouse nervous system using tissue-specific conditional gene ablation...
  41. Riento K, Totty N, Villalonga P, Garg R, Guasch R, Ridley A. RhoE function is regulated by ROCK I-mediated phosphorylation. EMBO J. 2005;24:1170-80 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration of an endogenous Rho family member being phosphorylated in vivo and indicates that phosphorylation is an important mechanism to control the stability and function of this GTPase-deficient Rho protein...
  42. Lammers M, Meyer S, Kühlmann D, Wittinghofer A. Specificity of interactions between mDia isoforms and Rho proteins. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:35236-46 pubmed publisher
    ..From the three mDia isoforms, mDia1 is activated only by Rho (RhoA, -B, and -C), in contrast to mDia2 and -3, which is also activated by Rac and Cdc42...
  43. Zhang Y, Sawada T, Jing X, Yokote H, Yan X, Sakaguchi K. Regulation of ephexin1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor of Rho family GTPases, by fibroblast growth factor receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31103-12 pubmed
    ..FGFR-mediated phosphorylation of ephexin1 enhances the guanine nucleotide exchange activity toward RhoA without affecting the activity to Rac1 or Cdc42...
  44. Shang X, Moon S, Zheng Y. p200 RhoGAP promotes cell proliferation by mediating cross-talk between Ras and Rho signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:8801-11 pubmed
    ..domain in p200 RhoGAP is also required for its full transforming activity, and expression of a dominant negative RhoA mutant that blocks RhoA cycling between the GDP- and GTP-bound states suppresses p200 RhoGAP transformation...
  45. Liu X, Yan F, Yao H, Chang M, Qin J, Li Y, et al. Involvement of RhoA/ROCK in insulin secretion of pancreatic ?-cells in 3D culture. Cell Tissue Res. 2014;358:359-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and the RhoA/ROCK pathway were investigated...
  46. Wang F, Zhang L, Duan X, Zhang G, Wang Z, Wang Q, et al. RhoA-mediated FMNL1 regulates GM130 for actin assembly and phosphorylates MAPK for spindle formation in mouse oocyte meiosis. Cell Cycle. 2015;14:2835-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we found that the small GTPase RhoA might be the upstream regulator of FMNL1...
  47. Menko A, Zhang L, Schiano F, Kreidberg J, Kukuruzinska M. Regulation of cadherin junctions during mouse submandibular gland development. Dev Dyn. 2002;224:321-33 pubmed
    ..beta-catenin to cell-cell borders was paralleled by changes in membrane association of two Rho GTPases, Cdc42 and RhoA. N-cadherin was detected only at early stages of postnatal development, whereas E-cadherin and beta-catenin became ..
  48. Serizawa N, Tian J, Fukada H, Baghy K, Scott F, Chen X, et al. Galectin 3 regulates HCC cell invasion by RhoA and MLCK activation. Lab Invest. 2015;95:1145-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton, RhoA GTPase activity and the phosphorylation of MLC2 (myosin light chain 2) were decreased in the galectin 3 siRNA-..
  49. Gakidis M, Cullere X, Olson T, Wilsbacher J, Zhang B, Moores S, et al. Vav GEFs are required for beta2 integrin-dependent functions of neutrophils. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:273-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, Vav proteins are specifically required for stable adhesion. beta2-induced activation of Cdc42, Rac1, and RhoA is defective in Vav1/3ko neutrophils, and phosphorylation of Pyk2, paxillin, and Akt is also significantly reduced...
  50. Harrod J, Rada C, Pierce S, England S, Lamping K. Altered contribution of RhoA/Rho kinase signaling in contractile activity of myometrium in leptin receptor-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;301:E362-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this, we correlated RhoA and Rho kinase expression to contractility in myometrium from nonpregnant (NP) and late-pregnant (P18) heterozygous ..
  51. Wang C, Song S, Zhang Y, Ge Y, Fang X, Huang T, et al. Inhibition of the Rho/Rho kinase pathway prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced hyperalgesia and the release of TNF-α and IL-1β in the mouse spinal cord. Sci Rep. 2015;5:14553 pubmed publisher
    ..The spinal cord of LPS-treated mice showed increased active GTP-bound RhoA and upregulation of ROCK2 and c-fos compared to the normal saline group...
  52. Kuwahara K, Barrientos T, Pipes G, Li S, Olson E. Muscle-specific signaling mechanism that links actin dynamics to serum response factor. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:3173-81 pubmed
    ..The STARS-dependent nuclear import of MRTFs requires RhoA and actin polymerization, and the actin-binding domain of STARS is necessary and sufficient for this activity...
  53. Shih Y, Sun P, Wang A, Lo S. Tensin1 positively regulates RhoA activity through its interaction with DLC1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1853:3258-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Through its RhoGAP domain, DLC1 inhibits the activity of RhoA GTPase, which regulates actin cytoskeleton networks and dis/assembly of focal adhesions...
  54. Bowerman M, Beauvais A, Anderson C, Kothary R. Rho-kinase inactivation prolongs survival of an intermediate SMA mouse model. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:1468-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that Smn depletion leads to increased activation of RhoA, a major regulator of actin dynamics, in the spinal cord of an intermediate SMA mouse model...
  55. Fisher D, Xing B, Dill J, Li H, Hoang H, Zhao Z, et al. Leukocyte common antigen-related phosphatase is a functional receptor for chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan axon growth inhibitors. J Neurosci. 2011;31:14051-66 pubmed publisher
    ..CSPG-LAR interaction mediates axonal growth inhibition of neurons partially via inactivating Akt and activating RhoA signals...
  56. Zhao B, Wu Z, Muller U. Murine Fam65b forms ring-like structures at the base of stereocilia critical for mechanosensory hair cell function. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Binding to RhoC and oligomerization are critical for Fam65b function. Our findings thus reveal a highly organized compartment near the base of stereocilia that is critical for hair cell function and affected in disease. ..
  57. Takano T, Wu M, Nakamuta S, Naoki H, Ishizawa N, Namba T, et al. Discovery of long-range inhibitory signaling to ensure single axon formation. Nat Commun. 2017;8:33 pubmed publisher
    ..These Ca2+ waves increase RhoA activity in the cell body through calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I...
  58. Chen B, Tzen J, Bresnick A, Chen H. Roles of Rho-associated kinase and myosin light chain kinase in morphological and migratory defects of focal adhesion kinase-null cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:33857-63 pubmed
  59. Wang G, Woods A, Sabari S, Pagnotta L, Stanton L, Beier F. RhoA/ROCK signaling suppresses hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:13205-14 pubmed
    ..We have investigated the roles of the GTPase RhoA and its effector kinases ROCK1/2 in hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation...
  60. Peng J, He F, Zhang C, Deng X, Yin F. Protein kinase C-? signals P115RhoGEF phosphorylation and RhoA activation in TNF-?-induced mouse brain microvascular endothelial cell barrier dysfunction. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:28 pubmed publisher
    Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), a proinflammatory cytokine, is capable of activating the small GTPase RhoA, which in turn contributes to endothelial barrier dysfunction. However, the underlying signaling mechanisms remained undefined...
  61. Wei L, Imanaka Yoshida K, Wang L, Zhan S, Schneider M, DeMayo F, et al. Inhibition of Rho family GTPases by Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor disrupts cardiac morphogenesis and inhibits cardiomyocyte proliferation. Development. 2002;129:1705-14 pubmed
    ..0 during morphogenesis of the linear heart tube. RhoA, Rac1 and Cdc42 activities were significantly inhibited, as shown by decreased membrane translocation of these ..
  62. Kazmers N, Ma S, Yoshida T, Stern P. Rho GTPase signaling and PTH 3-34, but not PTH 1-34, maintain the actin cytoskeleton and antagonize bisphosphonate effects in mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Bone. 2009;45:52-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Small GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) of the Ras family, such as RhoA, influence various elements of the cytoskeleton...
  63. Jennings R, Strengert M, Hayes P, El Benna J, Brakebusch C, Kubica M, et al. RhoA determines disease progression by controlling neutrophil motility and restricting hyperresponsiveness. Blood. 2014;123:3635-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the cytoskeletal organizer RhoA suppresses neutrophil priming via formins...
  64. Goh L, Manser E. The RhoA GEF Syx is a target of Rnd3 and regulated via a Raf1-like ubiquitin-related domain. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12409 pubmed publisher
    ..The current consensus is that Rnd1 and Rnd3 function as important antagonists of RhoA signaling primarily by activating the ubiquitous p190 RhoGAP [3], but not by inhibiting the ROCK family kinases...
  65. Lin Y, Chen N, Shih Y, Liao Y, Xue L, Lo S. DLC2 modulates angiogenic responses in vascular endothelial cells by regulating cell attachment and migration. Oncogene. 2010;29:3010-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes are rescued by silencing of RhoA, suggesting that the process is RhoA pathway dependent...