Gene Symbol: Rho
Description: rhodopsin
Alias: Noerg1, Opn2, Ops, RP4, rhodopsin, L opsin, LWS opsin, Long Wavelength Sensitive opsin, Red Opsin, Rod Opsin, opsin 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Rho

Top Publications

  1. Spencer C, Pajovic S, Devlin H, Dinh Q, Corson T, Gallie B. Distinct patterns of expression of the RB gene family in mouse and human retina. Gene Expr Patterns. 2005;5:687-94 pubmed
    ..The RB gene family is dynamically and variably expressed through retinal development in specific retinal cells. ..
  2. Jaissle G, May C, Reinhard J, Kohler K, Fauser S, Lütjen Drecoll E, et al. Evaluation of the rhodopsin knockout mouse as a model of pure cone function. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:506-13 pubmed
    To determine a time window in the rhodopsin knockout (Rho(-/-)) mouse during which retinal function is already sufficiently developed but cone degeneration is not yet substantial, thus representing an all-cone retina...
  3. Sung C, Makino C, Baylor D, Nathans J. A rhodopsin gene mutation responsible for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa results in a protein that is defective in localization to the photoreceptor outer segment. J Neurosci. 1994;14:5818-33 pubmed
    Over 45 mutations in the rhodopsin gene have been identified in patients with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa, including a cluster near the extreme carboxy-terminus, a region of the protein for which no function has yet been ..
  4. Lopes V, Jimeno D, Khanobdee K, Song X, Chen B, Nusinowitz S, et al. Dysfunction of heterotrimeric kinesin-2 in rod photoreceptor cells and the role of opsin mislocalization in rapid cell death. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:4076-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, reduced rod opsin expression provided enhanced rod and cone photoreceptor survival and function, as measured by photoreceptor cell ..
  5. Medina C, Mazerolle C, Wang Y, Berube N, Coupland S, Gibbons R, et al. Altered visual function and interneuron survival in Atrx knockout mice: inference for the human syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:966-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These results implicate a role for Atrx in interneuron survival and differentiation...
  6. Lee E, Flannery J. Transport of truncated rhodopsin and its effects on rod function and degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:2868-76 pubmed
    Most transgenic animal models of retinal degeneration caused by rhodopsin mutations express the rhodopsin transgene on a wild-type (WT) genetic background...
  7. Mendez A, Burns M, Roca A, Lem J, Wu L, Simon M, et al. Rapid and reproducible deactivation of rhodopsin requires multiple phosphorylation sites. Neuron. 2000;28:153-64 pubmed
    Efficient single-photon detection by retinal rod photoreceptors requires timely and reproducible deactivation of rhodopsin. Like other G protein-coupled receptors, rhodopsin contains multiple sites for phosphorylation at its COOH-..
  8. Olsson J, Gordon J, Pawlyk B, Roof D, Hayes A, Molday R, et al. Transgenic mice with a rhodopsin mutation (Pro23His): a mouse model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Neuron. 1992;9:815-30 pubmed
    ..degeneration had the lowest transgene expression, which was one-sixth the level of endogenous murine rod opsin. Of two lines of mice with the wild-type allele, one expressed approximately equal amounts of transgenic and ..
  9. Price B, Sandoval I, Chan F, Simons D, Wu S, Wensel T, et al. Mislocalization and degradation of human P23H-rhodopsin-GFP in a knockin mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:9728-36 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of treatments on degradation and mislocalization of proline-to-histidine change at codon 23 (P23H) rhodopsin, a common cause of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP)...

More Information


  1. Nishida A, Furukawa A, Koike C, Tano Y, Aizawa S, Matsuo I, et al. Otx2 homeobox gene controls retinal photoreceptor cell fate and pineal gland development. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:1255-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, Otx2 is a key regulatory gene for the cell fate determination of retinal photoreceptor cells. Our results reveal the key molecular steps required for photoreceptor cell-fate determination and pinealocyte development. ..
  2. Ma J, Kabiel M, Tucker B, Ge J, Young M. Combining chondroitinase ABC and growth factors promotes the integration of murine retinal progenitor cells transplanted into Rho(-/-) mice. Mol Vis. 2011;17:1759-70 pubmed
    ..Only a few mRPCs expressed recoverin in B6 mice. More mRPCs expressed rhodopsin, recoverin, and synaptophysin after transplantation into Rho(-/-) mice when combined with chondroitinase ABC and ..
  3. Dyer M, Cepko C. p27Kip1 and p57Kip2 regulate proliferation in distinct retinal progenitor cell populations. J Neurosci. 2001;21:4259-71 pubmed
  4. Applebury M, Antoch M, Baxter L, Chun L, Falk J, Farhangfar F, et al. The murine cone photoreceptor: a single cone type expresses both S and M opsins with retinal spatial patterning. Neuron. 2000;27:513-23 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that two different mechanisms control M and S opsin expression. We suggest that a common cone type is patterned across the retinal surface to produce phenotypic cone subtypes. ..
  5. Mao H, James T, Schwein A, Shabashvili A, Hauswirth W, Gorbatyuk M, et al. AAV delivery of wild-type rhodopsin preserves retinal function in a mouse model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Hum Gene Ther. 2011;22:567-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Earlier, a study on mice carrying mutated rhodopsin transgenes on either RHO?+?/?+? or RHO?+?/- backgrounds suggested that the amount of wild-type rhodopsin ..
  6. Redmond T, Yu S, Lee E, Bok D, Hamasaki D, Chen N, et al. Rpe65 is necessary for production of 11-cis-vitamin A in the retinal visual cycle. Nat Genet. 1998;20:344-51 pubmed
    ..Rpe65-/- mice lack rhodopsin, but not opsin apoprotein...
  7. Karali M, Peluso I, Marigo V, Banfi S. Identification and characterization of microRNAs expressed in the mouse eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:509-15 pubmed
    ..Knowledge of the spatiotemporal distribution of miRNAs is an essential step toward the identification of their targets and eventually the elucidation of their biological role in eye development and function. ..
  8. Price B, Sandoval I, Chan F, NICHOLS R, Roman Sanchez R, Wensel T, et al. Rhodopsin gene expression determines rod outer segment size and rod cell resistance to a dominant-negative neurodegeneration mutant. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49889 pubmed publisher
    ..We have addressed both questions by performing an in vivo titration with rhodopsin gene copies in genetically engineered mice that express only normal rhodopsin or an autosomal dominant allele, ..
  9. Gross A, Decker G, Chan F, Sandoval I, Wilson J, Wensel T. Defective development of photoreceptor membranes in a mouse model of recessive retinal degeneration. Vision Res. 2006;46:4510-8 pubmed
    ..Some of the most severe disease alleles involve mutations at the C-terminus of rhodopsin, but in no case is the pathogenic mechanism leading to cell death well understood...
  10. Lei B, Yao G, Zhang K, Hofeldt K, Chang B. Study of rod- and cone-driven oscillatory potentials in mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:2732-8 pubmed
    ..obtained in three mouse models: wild-type C57BL/6J mouse, cone photoreceptor function loss 1 (cpfl1) mouse, and rhodopsin knockout (rho-/-) mouse. A Butterworth filter was used to extract OPs from ERG signals...
  11. Cachafeiro M, Bemelmans A, Canola K, Pignat V, Crippa S, Kostic C, et al. Remaining rod activity mediates visual behavior in adult Rpe65-/- mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:6835-42 pubmed publisher
    ..function loss 1; pure rod function), Gnat1a(-/-) (rod ?-transducin; pure cone function), and Rpe65(-/-);Rho(-/-) double-knockout mice were studied to distinguish the respective contributions of the different photoreceptor (..
  12. Burmeister M, Novak J, Liang M, Basu S, Ploder L, Hawes N, et al. Ocular retardation mouse caused by Chx10 homeobox null allele: impaired retinal progenitor proliferation and bipolar cell differentiation. Nat Genet. 1996;12:376-84 pubmed
    ..off ..
  13. Rich K, Zhan Y, Blanks J. Migration and synaptogenesis of cone photoreceptors in the developing mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 1997;388:47-63 pubmed
    ..The types of cues used by maturing cone cells for their eventual sclerad location remain to be elucidated. ..
  14. Lee E, Burnside B, Flannery J. Characterization of peripherin/rds and rom-1 transport in rod photoreceptors of transgenic and knockout animals. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:2150-60 pubmed
    ..rom-1 were examined by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and molecular biological methods in wild-type, rhodopsin-knockout, and peripherin/rds-knockout mice...
  15. Dyer M, Cepko C. p57(Kip2) regulates progenitor cell proliferation and amacrine interneuron development in the mouse retina. Development. 2000;127:3593-605 pubmed
    ..Consequently, we propose that p57(Kip2) has two roles during retinal development, acting first as a cyclin kinase inhibitor in mitotic progenitor cells, and then playing a distinct role in neuronal differentiation. ..
  16. Claes E, Seeliger M, Michalakis S, Biel M, Humphries P, Haverkamp S. Morphological characterization of the retina of the CNGA3(-/-)Rho(-/-) mutant mouse lacking functional cones and rods. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004;45:2039-48 pubmed
    ..Double knockout mice were generated by cross-breeding CNGA3(-/-) mice with Rho(-/-) mice...
  17. Naash M, Hollyfield J, al Ubaidi M, Baehr W. Simulation of human autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa in transgenic mice expressing a mutated murine opsin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:5499-503 pubmed
    ..In photoreceptor cells of ADRP patients with mutations in the opsin gene, normal rhodopsin is thought to be synthesized concomitantly with mutated rhodopsin, which, by an unknown mechanism, causes the ..
  18. Makino C, Wen X, Michaud N, Covington H, Dibenedetto E, Hamm H, et al. Rhodopsin expression level affects rod outer segment morphology and photoresponse kinetics. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37832 pubmed publisher
    ..Within the cilium, up to several thousand membranous disks contain as many as a billion copies of rhodopsin for efficient photon capture...
  19. Ozawa Y, Nakao K, Shimazaki T, Shimmura S, Kurihara T, Ishida S, et al. SOCS3 is required to temporally fine-tune photoreceptor cell differentiation. Dev Biol. 2007;303:591-600 pubmed
    ..SOCS3 was required after P0 to shut down the residual STAT3 activation; this loss of activated STAT3 leads to Rhodopsin expression and rod photoreceptor cell differentiation...
  20. Louie C, Caridi G, Lopes V, Brancati F, Kispert A, Lancaster M, et al. AHI1 is required for photoreceptor outer segment development and is a modifier for retinal degeneration in nephronophthisis. Nat Genet. 2010;42:175-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support context-specific roles for AHI1 as a contributor to retinopathy and show that AHI1 may explain a proportion of the variability in retinal phenotypes observed in nephronophthisis. ..
  21. Jones B, Watt C, Frederick J, Baehr W, Chen C, Levine E, et al. Retinal remodeling triggered by photoreceptor degenerations. J Comp Neurol. 2003;464:1-16 pubmed
    ..the initial molecular targets of retinal degenerations, including defects in the retinal pigmented epithelium, rhodopsin, or downstream phototransduction elements...
  22. White D, Fritz J, Hauswirth W, Kaushal S, Lewin A. Increased sensitivity to light-induced damage in a mouse model of autosomal dominant retinal disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:1942-51 pubmed
    To describe a sensitivity to light-induced damage associated with expression of a T17M mutant human rhodopsin (hT17M) transgene in mice, with the goal of minimizing retinal injury during the subretinal delivery of rAAV-mediated gene ..
  23. Humphries M, Rancourt D, Farrar G, Kenna P, Hazel M, Bush R, et al. Retinopathy induced in mice by targeted disruption of the rhodopsin gene. Nat Genet. 1997;15:216-9 pubmed
    ..Genetic linkage between an autosomal dominant RP locus and rhodopsin, the photoreactive pigment of the rod cells, led to the identification of mutations within the rhodopsin gene in ..
  24. Seeliger M, Grimm C, Stahlberg F, Friedburg C, Jaissle G, Zrenner E, et al. New views on RPE65 deficiency: the rod system is the source of vision in a mouse model of Leber congenital amaurosis. Nat Genet. 2001;29:70-4 pubmed
    ..Mutations in the gene encoding RPE65, a protein vital for regeneration of the visual pigment rhodopsin in the retinal pigment epithelium, account for 10-15% of LCA cases...
  25. Roesch K, Stadler M, Cepko C. Gene expression changes within Müller glial cells in retinitis pigmentosa. Mol Vis. 2012;18:1197-214 pubmed
    ..in Müller glial cells (MGCs) from two different mouse models of RP, the retinal degeneration 1 (rd1) and rhodopsin knockout (Rhod-ko) models...
  26. Sakami S, Maeda T, Bereta G, Okano K, Golczak M, Sumaroka A, et al. Probing mechanisms of photoreceptor degeneration in a new mouse model of the common form of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa due to P23H opsin mutations. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:10551-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhodopsin, the visual pigment mediating vision under dim light, is composed of the apoprotein opsin and the chromophore ligand 11-cis-retinal...
  27. Zhang H, Fan J, Li S, Karan S, Rohrer B, Palczewski K, et al. Trafficking of membrane-associated proteins to cone photoreceptor outer segments requires the chromophore 11-cis-retinal. J Neurosci. 2008;28:4008-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, rod opsin traffics normally in mutant rods...
  28. Punzo C, Kornacker K, Cepko C. Stimulation of the insulin/mTOR pathway delays cone death in a mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. Nat Neurosci. 2009;12:44-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the non-autonomous cone death in retinitis pigmentosa could, at least in part, be a result of the starvation of cones. ..
  29. Taranova O, Magness S, Fagan B, Wu Y, Surzenko N, Hutton S, et al. SOX2 is a dose-dependent regulator of retinal neural progenitor competence. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1187-202 pubmed
  30. Mu X, Fu X, Sun H, Liang S, Maeda H, Frishman L, et al. Ganglion cells are required for normal progenitor- cell proliferation but not cell-fate determination or patterning in the developing mouse retina. Curr Biol. 2005;15:525-30 pubmed
    ..Intrinsic rather than extrinsic factors are likely to play the critical roles in determining retinal cell fate. ..
  31. Wang Z, Wen X, Ablonczy Z, Crouch R, Makino C, Lem J. Enhanced shutoff of phototransduction in transgenic mice expressing palmitoylation-deficient rhodopsin. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24293-300 pubmed
    ..its role in visual transduction, we produced transgenic knock-in mice that expressed a palmitoylation-deficient rhodopsin (Palm(-/-))...
  32. Campbell M, Humphries M, Kennan A, Kenna P, Humphries P, Brankin B. Aberrant retinal tight junction and adherens junction protein expression in an animal model of autosomal dominant Retinitis pigmentosa: the Rho(-/-) mouse. Exp Eye Res. 2006;83:484-92 pubmed
    ..model of autosomal dominant Retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) with retinopathy induced by targeted disruption of the rhodopsin gene Rho(-/-), we have analysed the levels of expression of a range of tight and adherens junction associated ..
  33. McNally N, Kenna P, Humphries M, Hobson A, Khan N, Bush R, et al. Structural and functional rescue of murine rod photoreceptors by human rhodopsin transgene. Hum Mol Genet. 1999;8:1309-12 pubmed
    Mice carrying a targeted disruption of the rhodopsin gene develop a severe degenerative retinopathy, failing to elaborate rod photoreceptor outer segments (ROS), having no recordable rod electroretinogram (ERG) and losing all of their ..
  34. Poche R, Kwan K, Raven M, Furuta Y, Reese B, Behringer R. Lim1 is essential for the correct laminar positioning of retinal horizontal cells. J Neurosci. 2007;27:14099-107 pubmed
    ..This study is the first to describe a cell type-specific genetic program that is essential for targeting a discrete retinal neuron population to the proper lamina. ..
  35. Campbell M, Humphries M, Kenna P, Humphries P, Brankin B. Altered expression and interaction of adherens junction proteins in the developing OLM of the Rho(-/-) mouse. Exp Eye Res. 2007;85:714-20 pubmed
    ..Using indirect immunostaining of retinal cryosections from C-129 Wild Type (WT) and C-129 Rho(-/-) mice, we have determined levels of expression of the adherens junction associated proteins ZO-1, beta-catenin ..
  36. Zhao Y, Hong D, Pawlyk B, Yue G, Adamian M, Grynberg M, et al. The retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR)- interacting protein: subserving RPGR function and participating in disk morphogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:3965-70 pubmed
    ..A defect in RPGRIP encompasses loss of both functions, hence the more severe clinical manifestation as LCA. ..
  37. Goto Y, Peachey N, Ripps H, Naash M. Functional abnormalities in transgenic mice expressing a mutant rhodopsin gene. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995;36:62-71 pubmed
    ..The mutated gene product resulted in three substitutions in the rhodopsin molecule: P23H, glycine for valine at position 20 (V20G), and leucine for proline at position 27 (P27L)...
  38. Chen J, Shi G, Concepcion F, Xie G, Oprian D, Chen J. Stable rhodopsin/arrestin complex leads to retinal degeneration in a transgenic mouse model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. J Neurosci. 2006;26:11929-37 pubmed
    Over 100 rhodopsin mutation alleles have been associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (ADRP). These mutations appear to cause photoreceptor cell death through diverse molecular mechanisms...
  39. Ozawa Y, Nakao K, Shimazaki T, Takeda J, Akira S, Ishihara K, et al. Downregulation of STAT3 activation is required for presumptive rod photoreceptor cells to differentiate in the postnatal retina. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2004;26:258-70 pubmed
    ..activation, but not SHP2 activation, is responsible for the CNTF/gp130 signaling that inhibits expression of Rhodopsin and its upstream activator, crx, in the retinal explants derived from P0 mice (P0 retinal explants), utilizing ..
  40. Comitato A, Sanges D, Rossi A, Humphries M, Marigo V. Activation of Bax in three models of retinitis pigmentosa. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2014;55:3555-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated activation of Bax in rd1, P23H transgenic, and Rho knockout retinas.
  41. Tai A, Chuang J, Bode C, Wolfrum U, Sung C. Rhodopsin's carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic tail acts as a membrane receptor for cytoplasmic dynein by binding to the dynein light chain Tctex-1. Cell. 1999;97:877-87 pubmed
    ..Here we demonstrate that dynein translocates rhodopsin-bearing vesicles along microtubules...
  42. Samardzija M, Tanimoto N, Kostic C, Beck S, Oberhauser V, Joly S, et al. In conditions of limited chromophore supply rods entrap 11-cis-retinal leading to loss of cone function and cell death. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1266-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Remnant visual function was mostly mediated by rods. Ablation of rod opsin corrected the localization of cone opsin and improved cone retinal function...
  43. Gilliam J, Chang J, Sandoval I, Zhang Y, Li T, Pittler S, et al. Three-dimensional architecture of the rod sensory cilium and its disruption in retinal neurodegeneration. Cell. 2012;151:1029-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The structures of the outer segment membranes support a model for disk morphogenesis in which basal disks are enveloped by the plasma membrane. ..
  44. Nie Z, Chen S, Kumar R, Zack D. RER, an evolutionarily conserved sequence upstream of the rhodopsin gene, has enhancer activity. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:2667-75 pubmed
    Previous transgenic mouse experiments localized the mammalian rhodopsin gene promoter to a region just upstream of the mRNA start site, and also suggested the existence of a second more distal regulatory region...
  45. Goto Y, Peachey N, Ziroli N, Seiple W, Gryczan C, Pepperberg D, et al. Rod phototransduction in transgenic mice expressing a mutant opsin gene. J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis. 1996;13:577-85 pubmed
    ..However, the increases in T50% and tau were significantly greater in VPP mice, indicating an abnormally slow recovery of the flash response in VPP rods. ..
  46. Rohrer B, Lohr H, Humphries P, Redmond T, Seeliger M, Crouch R. Cone opsin mislocalization in Rpe65-/- mice: a defect that can be corrected by 11-cis retinal. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:3876-82 pubmed
    ..Rpe65(-/-)::Rho(-/-) mice were used to remove any interference of rods and compared with wild-type (wt) mice...
  47. Tan E, Wang Q, Quiambao A, Xu X, Qtaishat N, Peachey N, et al. The relationship between opsin overexpression and photoreceptor degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:589-600 pubmed
    ..This degeneration can be induced by opsin levels that exceed by only approximately 23% that of the normal mouse retina. Opsin overexpression has potential implications in retinitis pigmentosa. ..
  48. Trümpler J, Dedek K, Schubert T, de Sevilla Müller L, Seeliger M, Humphries P, et al. Rod and cone contributions to horizontal cell light responses in the mouse retina. J Neurosci. 2008;28:6818-25 pubmed publisher
    ..the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, which lacks cone function, and cone signals were assessed using the rhodopsin knock-out mouse, which is a model for pure cone function...
  49. Frederick J, Krasnoperova N, Hoffmann K, Church Kopish J, Rüther K, Howes K, et al. Mutant rhodopsin transgene expression on a null background. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:826-33 pubmed
    ..to photoreceptor degeneration in mouse models for autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) based on the rhodopsin P23H mutation...
  50. Swain P, Hicks D, Mears A, Apel I, Smith J, John S, et al. Multiple phosphorylated isoforms of NRL are expressed in rod photoreceptors. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:36824-30 pubmed
    ..factor of the Maf subfamily, interacts with the homeodomain protein CRX and synergistically regulates rhodopsin expression...
  51. Chang G, Hao Y, Wong F. Apoptosis: final common pathway of photoreceptor death in rd, rds, and rhodopsin mutant mice. Neuron. 1993;11:595-605 pubmed
    Mutations in the retinal degeneration, retinal degeneration slow(/peripherin) and rhodopsin genes cause photoreceptor degeneration in humans and mice...
  52. Liu Q, Zhou J, Daiger S, Farber D, Heckenlively J, Smith J, et al. Identification and subcellular localization of the RP1 protein in human and mouse photoreceptors. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:22-32 pubmed
    ..This study forms the basis for further investigation of the function of RP1 in retina and the mechanism by which mutations in RP1 lead to photoreceptor cell death. ..
  53. Chan F, Bradley A, Wensel T, Wilson J. Knock-in human rhodopsin-GFP fusions as mouse models for human disease and targets for gene therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:9109-14 pubmed
    The human rhodopsin gene is the locus for numerous alleles linked to the neurodegenerative disease retinitis pigmentosa...
  54. Liang Y, Fotiadis D, Maeda T, Maeda A, Modzelewska A, Filipek S, et al. Rhodopsin signaling and organization in heterozygote rhodopsin knockout mice. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:48189-96 pubmed
    b>Rhodopsin (Rho) resides within internal membrane structures called disc membranes that are found in the rod outer segments (ROS) of photoreceptors in the retina...
  55. Brown N, Patel S, Brzezinski J, Glaser T. Math5 is required for retinal ganglion cell and optic nerve formation. Development. 2001;128:2497-508 pubmed
    ..A small number of nascent RGCs are detected during embryogenesis, but these fail to develop further, suggesting that committed RGCs may also require Math5 function. ..
  56. Qtaishat N, Okajima T, Li S, Naash M, Pepperberg D. Retinoid kinetics in eye tissues of VPP transgenic mice and their normal littermates. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40:1040-9 pubmed
    ..The data place constraints on the functional consequences of any abnormality in retinoid processing that may be present at this stage of the VPP rod degeneration. ..
  57. Barber A, Hippert C, Duran Y, West E, Bainbridge J, Warre Cornish K, et al. Repair of the degenerate retina by photoreceptor transplantation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:354-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Integration can increase (Prph2(+/?307)), decrease (Crb1(rd8/rd8), Gnat1(-/-), Rho(-/-)), or remain constant (PDE6?(rd1/rd1), Prph2(rd2/rd2)) with disease progression, depending upon the gene defect,..
  58. Nishimura D, Fath M, Mullins R, Searby C, Andrews M, Davis R, et al. Bbs2-null mice have neurosensory deficits, a defect in social dominance, and retinopathy associated with mislocalization of rhodopsin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:16588-93 pubmed
    ..Photoreceptor cell death is preceded by mislocalization of rhodopsin, indicating a defect in transport...
  59. Lem J, Krasnoperova N, Calvert P, Kosaras B, Cameron D, Nicolo M, et al. Morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes in rhodopsin knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:736-41 pubmed
    ..developed normally, and rods elaborated outer segments of normal size but with half the normal complement of rhodopsin. Photoreceptor cells in these retinas also degenerated but did so over a much slower time course...