Gene Symbol: Rfng
Description: RFNG O-fucosylpeptide 3-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase
Alias: beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase radical fringe, O-fucosylpeptide 3-beta-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, radical fringe gene homolog
Species: mouse
Products:     Rfng

Top Publications

  1. Moran J, Levorse J, Vogt T. Limbs move beyond the radical fringe. Nature. 1999;399:742-3 pubmed
  2. Kato T, Kawaguchi A, Kosodo Y, Niwa H, Matsuzaki F. Lunatic fringe potentiates Notch signaling in the developing brain. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;45:12-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo overexpression experiments with Notch ligands suggest that Lfng strongly augments Notch signaling mediated by Delta-like 1 but not Jagged 1. ..
  3. Moran J, Shifley E, Levorse J, Mani S, Ostmann K, Perez Balaguer A, et al. Manic fringe is not required for embryonic development, and fringe family members do not exhibit redundant functions in the axial skeleton, limb, or hindbrain. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:1803-12 pubmed publisher
    ..little is known regarding the developmental functions of the other vertebrate fringe genes, Radical fringe (Rfng) and Manic fringe (Mfng). Here we report that Mfng expression is not required for embryonic development...
  4. Ishii Y, Nakamura S, Osumi N. Demarcation of early mammalian cortical development by differential expression of fringe genes. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2000;119:307-20 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that a significant number of proliferative cells exist outside the VZ, which supply neurons during early cortical development. ..
  5. Ryan M, Bales C, Nelson A, Gonzalez D, Underkoffler L, Segalov M, et al. Bile duct proliferation in Jag1/fringe heterozygous mice identifies candidate modifiers of the Alagille syndrome hepatic phenotype. Hepatology. 2008;48:1989-97 pubmed publisher
    ..mice that were haploinsufficient for both Jag1 and one of three paralogous Fringe genes: Lunatic (Lfng), Radical (Rfng), and Manic (Mfng)...
  6. Grishina I, Kim S, Ferrara C, Makarenkova H, Walden P. BMP7 inhibits branching morphogenesis in the prostate gland and interferes with Notch signaling. Dev Biol. 2005;288:334-47 pubmed
    ..Based on our studies, we propose a model that BMP7 inhibits branching morphogenesis in the prostate and limits the number of domains with high Notch1/Hes1 activity. ..
  7. Cohen B, Bashirullah A, Dagnino L, Campbell C, Fisher W, Leow C, et al. Fringe boundaries coincide with Notch-dependent patterning centres in mammals and alter Notch-dependent development in Drosophila. Nat Genet. 1997;16:283-8 pubmed
    ..Ectopic expression of murine manic fringe or radical fringe in Drosophila results in phenotypes that resemble those seen in Notch mutants. ..
  8. Thelu J, Viallet J, Dhouailly D. Differential expression pattern of the three Fringe genes is associated with epidermal differentiation. J Invest Dermatol. 1998;111:903-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Manic, Lunatic, and Radical Fringe by modulating the Notch pathway may play a key role in defining the different steps of keratinocyte differentiation. ..
  9. Moran J, Johnston S, Rauskolb C, Bhalerao J, Bowcock A, Vogt T. Genomic structure, mapping, and expression analysis of the mammalian Lunatic, Manic, and Radical fringe genes. Mamm Genome. 1999;10:535-41 pubmed
    The three members of the mammalian fringe gene family, Manic fringe (Mfng), Radical fringe (Rfng), and Lunatic fringe (Lfng), were identified on the basis of their similarity to Drosophila fringe (fng) and their participation in the ..

More Information


  1. Favier B, Fliniaux I, Thelu J, Viallet J, Demarchez M, Jahoda C, et al. Localisation of members of the notch system and the differentiation of vibrissa hair follicles: receptors, ligands, and fringe modulators. Dev Dyn. 2000;218:426-37 pubmed
    ..During the hair vibrissa cycle, Notch1 and Manic Fringe display temporal and spatial changes of expression, suggesting that they may intervene as modulators of trichocyte activities. ..
  2. Post L, Ternet M, Hogan B. Notch/Delta expression in the developing mouse lung. Mech Dev. 2000;98:95-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we report the localization of transcripts of several genes encoding members of the Notch/Delta pathway in the early mouse lung. Most genes are expressed in specific populations and so may contribute to cell diversification. ..
  3. Zhang N, Norton C, Gridley T. Segmentation defects of Notch pathway mutants and absence of a synergistic phenotype in lunatic fringe/radical fringe double mutant mice. Genesis. 2002;33:21-8 pubmed
    ..We also show that Radical fringe (Rfng)-deficient mice exhibit no obvious phenotypic defects...
  4. Leimeister C, Schumacher N, Gessler M. Expression of Notch pathway genes in the embryonic mouse metanephros suggests a role in proximal tubule development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2003;3:595-8 pubmed
    ..Dll1, 3, 4, Jag1 and Jag2), intracellular effectors (the Hey genes) and extracellular modulators (Lfng, Mfng, Rfng) in the developing mouse metanephros...
  5. Basch M, Brown R, Jen H, Semerci F, Depreux F, Edlund R, et al. Fine-tuning of Notch signaling sets the boundary of the organ of Corti and establishes sensory cell fates. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that Notch signaling is finely calibrated in the cochlea to produce precisely tuned levels of signaling that first set the boundary of the organ of Corti and later regulate hair cell development. ..
  6. Zhang N, Gridley T. Defects in somite formation in lunatic fringe-deficient mice. Nature. 1998;394:374-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Lfng encodes an essential component of the Notch signalling pathway during somitogenesis in mice. ..
  7. Yang L, Nichols J, Yao C, Manilay J, Robey E, Weinmaster G. Fringe glycosyltransferases differentially modulate Notch1 proteolysis induced by Delta1 and Jagged1. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:927-42 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that expression of mammalian fringe proteins (Lunatic [LFng], Manic [MFng], or Radical [RFng] Fringe) increased Delta1 binding and activation of Notch1 signaling in 293T and NIH 3T3 cells...
  8. Johnston S, Rauskolb C, Wilson R, Prabhakaran B, Irvine K, Vogt T. A family of mammalian Fringe genes implicated in boundary determination and the Notch pathway. Development. 1997;124:2245-54 pubmed
    ..When misexpressed in the developing Drosophila wing imaginal disc the mouse Fringe genes exhibit conserved and differential effects on boundary determination. ..
  9. Hahn K, Johnson J, Beres B, Howard S, Wilson Rawls J. Lunatic fringe null female mice are infertile due to defects in meiotic maturation. Development. 2005;132:817-28 pubmed
    ..This represents a new role for the Notch signaling pathway and lunatic fringe in mammalian folliculogenesis. ..
  10. Xu K, Usary J, Kousis P, Prat A, Wang D, Adams J, et al. Lunatic fringe deficiency cooperates with the Met/Caveolin gene amplicon to induce basal-like breast cancer. Cancer Cell. 2012;21:626-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, reduced LFNG expression facilitates JAG/NOTCH luminal progenitor signaling and cooperates with MET/CAVEOLIN basal-type signaling to promote BLBC. ..
  11. Rampal R, Li A, Moloney D, Georgiou S, Luther K, Nita Lazar A, et al. Lunatic fringe, manic fringe, and radical fringe recognize similar specificity determinants in O-fucosylated epidermal growth factor-like repeats. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:42454-63 pubmed
    ..These amino acids provide an initial step toward defining sequences that will allow us to predict which O-fucosylated EGF repeats are modified by the Fringes. ..
  12. Liu Z, Chen S, Boyle S, Zhu Y, Zhang A, Piwnica Worms D, et al. The extracellular domain of Notch2 increases its cell-surface abundance and ligand responsiveness during kidney development. Dev Cell. 2013;25:585-98 pubmed publisher
    ..This context-specific asymmetry in NICD release efficiency is further enhanced by Fringe. Our results indicate that an elevated N1 surface level could compensate for the loss of N2 signal in specific cell contexts. ..
  13. Song Y, Kumar V, Wei H, Qiu J, Stanley P. Lunatic, Manic, and Radical Fringe Each Promote T and B Cell Development. J Immunol. 2016;196:232-43 pubmed publisher
    Lunatic, Manic, and Radical Fringe (LFNG, MFNG, and RFNG) are N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases that modify Notch receptors and regulate Notch signaling...
  14. Schröder N, Gossler A. Expression of Notch pathway components in fetal and adult mouse small intestine. Gene Expr Patterns. 2002;2:247-50 pubmed
    ..the ligands (delta1, 3, 4 and Jagged1, 2), the modifying glycosyltransferases of the fringe family (Lfng, Mfng, Rfng) and four Hes genes (Hes1, 5, 6, 7) in the mouse small intestine during fetal (E13.5 and E18...
  15. Mustonen T, Tummers M, Mikami T, Itoh N, Zhang N, Gridley T, et al. Lunatic fringe, FGF, and BMP regulate the Notch pathway during epithelial morphogenesis of teeth. Dev Biol. 2002;248:281-93 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Lunatic fringe may play a role in boundary formation of the enamel knot and that Notch-signaling in the dental epithelium is regulated by mesenchymal FGFs and BMP. ..
  16. Kakuda S, Haltiwanger R. Deciphering the Fringe-Mediated Notch Code: Identification of Activating and Inhibiting Sites Allowing Discrimination between Ligands. Dev Cell. 2017;40:193-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined, these results suggest that Fringe modifications "mark" different regions in the Notch1 extracellular domain for activation or inhibition. ..