Gene Symbol: Ret
Description: ret proto-oncogene
Alias: PTC, RET51, RET9, c-Ret, proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase receptor Ret, proto-oncogene c-Ret
Species: mouse
Products:     Ret

Top Publications

  1. Walker K, Sims Lucas S, Di Giovanni V, Schaefer C, Sunseri W, Novitskaya T, et al. Deletion of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 from the peri-wolffian duct stroma leads to ureteric induction abnormalities and vesicoureteral reflux. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56062 pubmed publisher
    ..E10.5 Fgfr2(ST-/-) mice had decreases in Bmp4 mRNA in stromal tissues, suggesting a mechanism underlying the ureteric induction and VUR phenotypes. Mutations in FGFR2 could possibly cause VUR in humans. ..
  2. Hasegawa H, Wang F. Visualizing mechanosensory endings of TrkC-expressing neurons in HS3ST-2-hPLAP mice. J Comp Neurol. 2008;511:543-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results revealed the subtype identities of TrkC-positive mechanosensory neurons and demonstrated the usefulness of HS3ST-2 as a genetic marker for these subclasses of neurons. ..
  3. Natarajan D, Grigoriou M, Marcos Gutierrez C, Atkins C, Pachnis V. Multipotential progenitors of the mammalian enteric nervous system capable of colonising aganglionic bowel in organ culture. Development. 1999;126:157-68 pubmed
    ..Among the genes that play an important role in ENS development is c-Ret, mutations of which result in failure of formation of enteric ganglia (intestinal aganglionosis)...
  4. Bouchard M, Souabni A, Mandler M, Neubüser A, Busslinger M. Nephric lineage specification by Pax2 and Pax8. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2958-70 pubmed
    ..transitions required for nephric duct formation, fails to initiate the kidney-specific expression of Lim1 and c-Ret, and is lost by apoptosis 1 d after failed pronephric induction...
  5. Bridgewater D, Cox B, Cain J, Lau A, Athaide V, Gill P, et al. Canonical WNT/beta-catenin signaling is required for ureteric branching. Dev Biol. 2008;317:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..followed by decreased expression of genes downstream of Emx2, including Lim1, Pax2, and the ureteric tip markers, c-ret and Wnt 11...
  6. Schnabel C, Godin R, Cleary M. Pbx1 regulates nephrogenesis and ureteric branching in the developing kidney. Dev Biol. 2003;254:262-76 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data establish a role for Pbx1 in mesenchymal-epithelial signaling and demonstrate that Pbx1 is an essential regulator of mesenchymal function during renal morphogenesis. ..
  7. Fode C, Gradwohl G, Morin X, Dierich A, LeMeur M, Goridis C, et al. The bHLH protein NEUROGENIN 2 is a determination factor for epibranchial placode-derived sensory neurons. Neuron. 1998;20:483-94 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the homeobox gene Phox2a is activated independently of ngn2 in epibranchial placodes, suggesting that neuronal fate and neuronal subtype identity may be specified independently in cranial sensory ganglia. ..
  8. Sims Lucas S, Cullen McEwen L, Eswarakumar V, Hains D, Kish K, Becknell B, et al. Deletion of Frs2alpha from the ureteric epithelium causes renal hypoplasia. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F1208-19 pubmed publisher
    ..However, Ret and Wnt11 (molecules critical for ureteric branching morphogenesis) mRNA levels were lower in mutants vs. controls...
  9. Majumdar A, Vainio S, Kispert A, McMahon J, McMahon A. Wnt11 and Ret/Gdnf pathways cooperate in regulating ureteric branching during metanephric kidney development. Development. 2003;130:3175-85 pubmed
    ..Gdnf encodes a mesenchymally produced ligand for the Ret tyrosine kinase receptor that is crucial for normal ureteric branching...

More Information


  1. Heuckeroth R, Enomoto H, Grider J, Golden J, Hanke J, Jackman A, et al. Gene targeting reveals a critical role for neurturin in the development and maintenance of enteric, sensory, and parasympathetic neurons. Neuron. 1999;22:253-63 pubmed
    Neurturin (NTN) is a neuronal survival factor that activates the Ret tyrosine kinase in the presence of a GPI-linked coreceptor (either GFR alpha1 or GFR alpha2)...
  2. Kuure S, Chi X, Lu B, Costantini F. The transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5 mediate formation of the ureteric bud tip domain during kidney development. Development. 2010;137:1975-9 pubmed publisher
    Signaling by the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase promotes cell movements in the Wolffian duct that give rise to the first ureteric bud tip, initiating kidney development...
  3. Hains D, Sims Lucas S, Kish K, Saha M, McHugh K, Bates C. Role of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 in kidney mesenchyme. Pediatr Res. 2008;64:592-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Fgfr2 is critical in ensuring that there is a single ureteric bud from the nephric duct. The plethora of later stage defects in Fgfr2 conditional knockouts is reminiscent of many human cases of genetic urogenital anomalies. ..
  4. Pattyn A, Morin X, Cremer H, Goridis C, Brunet J. The homeobox gene Phox2b is essential for the development of autonomic neural crest derivatives. Nature. 1999;399:366-70 pubmed
    ..nervous system and the sympathetic ganglia, Phox2b is needed for the expression of the GDNF-receptor subunit Ret and for maintaining Mash1 expression...
  5. Cain J, Islam E, Haxho F, Chen L, Bridgewater D, Nieuwenhuis E, et al. GLI3 repressor controls nephron number via regulation of Wnt11 and Ret in ureteric tip cells. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7313 pubmed publisher
    ..Ureteric tip cells are remarkable for abnormal morphology and impaired expression of Ret and Wnt11, markers of tip cell differentiation...
  6. Nosrat C, Tomac A, Hoffer B, Olson L. Cellular and developmental patterns of expression of Ret and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor alpha mRNAs. Exp Brain Res. 1997;115:410-22 pubmed
    ..GDNFR-alpha), after which the GDNF-GDNFR-alpha associates with and activates the tyrosine kinase receptor Ret. We have localized Ret messenger RNA (mRNA) in the developing and adult rodent and compared with to the expression ..
  7. Veiga Fernandes H, Coles M, Foster K, Patel A, Williams A, Natarajan D, et al. Tyrosine kinase receptor RET is a key regulator of Peyer's patch organogenesis. Nature. 2007;446:547-51 pubmed
    ..A subset of these cells expresses the receptor tyrosine kinase RET, which is essential for mammalian enteric nervous system formation...
  8. Smidt M, Smits S, Bouwmeester H, Hamers F, van der Linden A, Hellemons A, et al. Early developmental failure of substantia nigra dopamine neurons in mice lacking the homeodomain gene Pitx3. Development. 2004;131:1145-55 pubmed
    ..However, an overall lower activity was observed. The results suggest that Pitx3 is specifically required for the formation of the SNc subfield at the onset of dopaminergic neuron differentiation...
  9. Yallowitz A, Hrycaj S, Short K, Smyth I, Wellik D. Hox10 genes function in kidney development in the differentiation and integration of the cortical stroma. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23410 pubmed publisher
  10. Jain S, Encinas M, Johnson E, Milbrandt J. Critical and distinct roles for key RET tyrosine docking sites in renal development. Genes Dev. 2006;20:321-33 pubmed
    ..RET signaling in kidney development, we characterized mice that exclusively express either the human RET9 or RET51 isoform, or express these isoforms with individual mutations in docking tyrosines for PTB and SH2-domain-..
  11. Yang D, McKee K, Chen Z, Mernaugh G, Strickland S, Zent R, et al. Renal collecting system growth and function depend upon embryonic ?1 laminin expression. Development. 2011;138:4535-44 pubmed publisher
    ..mRNA levels for fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and mediators of the GDNF/RET and WNT11 signaling pathway were also decreased...
  12. Chi L, Zhang S, Lin Y, Prunskaite Hyyryläinen R, Vuolteenaho R, Itäranta P, et al. Sprouty proteins regulate ureteric branching by coordinating reciprocal epithelial Wnt11, mesenchymal Gdnf and stromal Fgf7 signalling during kidney development. Development. 2004;131:3345-56 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that Spry genes contribute to reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal and stromal signalling controlling ureteric branching, which involves the coordination of Ffg/Wnt11/Gdnf pathways. ..
  13. Levinson R, Batourina E, Choi C, Vorontchikhina M, Kitajewski J, Mendelsohn C. Foxd1-dependent signals control cellularity in the renal capsule, a structure required for normal renal development. Development. 2005;132:529-39 pubmed
  14. Torres M, Gómez Pardo E, Dressler G, Gruss P. Pax-2 controls multiple steps of urogenital development. Development. 1995;121:4057-65 pubmed
    ..These data show that Pax-2 is required for multiple steps during the differentiation of intermediate mesoderm. In addition, Pax-2 mouse mutants provide an animal model for human hereditary kidney diseases...
  15. Clarke J, Patel S, Raymond R, Andrew S, Robinson B, Dressler G, et al. Regulation of c-Ret in the developing kidney is responsive to Pax2 gene dosage. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:3420-8 pubmed
    ..expressed very early in the mammalian nephric duct and both precede the expression of receptor tyrosine kinase, c-Ret. However, in Pax2-/- mutant mice, expression of c-Ret is lost after embryonic day 10.5...
  16. Encinas M, Rozen E, Dolcet X, Jain S, Comella J, Milbrandt J, et al. Analysis of Ret knockin mice reveals a critical role for IKKs, but not PI 3-K, in neurotrophic factor-induced survival of sympathetic neurons. Cell Death Differ. 2008;15:1510-21 pubmed publisher
    We analyzed the survival responses and downstream signaling elicited by GDNF on sympathetic neurons from different Ret knockin mice. Lack of tyrosine 1062, a multidocking site in Ret, completely prevented GDNF-mediated survival...
  17. Freem L, Escot S, Tannahill D, Druckenbrod N, Thapar N, Burns A. The intrinsic innervation of the lung is derived from neural crest cells as shown by optical projection tomography in Wnt1-Cre;YFP reporter mice. J Anat. 2010;217:651-64 pubmed publisher
    ..culture, and responded in a chemoattractive manner to the proto-oncogene, rearranged during transfection (RET) ligand, glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), suggesting that the RET signalling pathway is involved ..
  18. Sandilands E, Serrels B, Wilkinson S, Frame M. Src-dependent autophagic degradation of Ret in FAK-signalling-defective cancer cells. EMBO Rep. 2012;13:733-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the Ret tyrosine kinase is also degraded by autophagy in cancer cells with altered/reduced FAK signalling, preventing its ..
  19. Yu O, Murawski I, Myburgh D, Gupta I. Overexpression of RET leads to vesicoureteric reflux in mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004;287:F1123-30 pubmed
    b>RET, a tyrosine kinase receptor essential for kidney development, has recently been shown to be important for the formation of the urinary tract...
  20. Barlow A, de Graaff E, Pachnis V. Enteric nervous system progenitors are coordinately controlled by the G protein-coupled receptor EDNRB and the receptor tyrosine kinase RET. Neuron. 2003;40:905-16 pubmed
    ..Two signaling systems mediated by RET and EDNRB have been identified as critical players in enteric neurogenesis...
  21. Sims Lucas S, Cusack B, Baust J, Eswarakumar V, Masatoshi H, Takeuchi A, et al. Fgfr1 and the IIIc isoform of Fgfr2 play critical roles in the metanephric mesenchyme mediating early inductive events in kidney development. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Beyond E12.5, Fgfr1(Mes-/-)Fgfr2IIIc-/- mice had no renal tissue. In conclusion, Fgfr2IIIc and Fgfr1 in kidney mesenchyme (together) are critical for normal early renal development. ..
  22. Quaggin S, Schwartz L, Cui S, Igarashi P, Deimling J, Post M, et al. The basic-helix-loop-helix protein pod1 is critically important for kidney and lung organogenesis. Development. 1999;126:5771-83 pubmed
    ..Defects specific to later specialized cell types where Pod1 is expressed, such as the podocytes, were also observed, suggesting that this transcription factor may play multiple roles in kidney morphogenesis. ..
  23. Sainio K, Suvanto P, Davies J, Wartiovaara J, Wartiovaara K, Saarma M, et al. Glial-cell-line-derived neurotrophic factor is required for bud initiation from ureteric epithelium. Development. 1997;124:4077-87 pubmed
    ..Thus, GDNF is the first defined inducer in the embryonic metanephric kidney. ..
  24. Basson M, Akbulut S, Watson Johnson J, Simon R, Carroll T, Shakya R, et al. Sprouty1 is a critical regulator of GDNF/RET-mediated kidney induction. Dev Cell. 2005;8:229-39 pubmed
    ..These defects are due to increased sensitivity of the Wolffian duct to GDNF/RET signaling, and reducing Gdnf gene dosage correspondingly rescues the Spry1 null phenotype...
  25. Kobayashi A, Kwan K, Carroll T, McMahon A, Mendelsohn C, Behringer R. Distinct and sequential tissue-specific activities of the LIM-class homeobox gene Lim1 for tubular morphogenesis during kidney development. Development. 2005;132:2809-23 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that the nephric duct is essential for the elongation and maintenance of the adjacent Mullerian duct, the anlage of the female reproductive tract. ..
  26. Karner C, Dietrich M, Johnson E, Kappesser N, Tennert C, Percin F, et al. Lrp4 regulates initiation of ureteric budding and is crucial for kidney formation--a mouse model for Cenani-Lenz syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10418 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Lrp4 is a critical regulator of UB branching and lack of Lrp4 results in congenital kidney malformations in humans and mice. ..
  27. Kuure S, Cebrian C, MACHINGO Q, Lu B, Chi X, Hyink D, et al. Actin depolymerizing factors cofilin1 and destrin are required for ureteric bud branching morphogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001176 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that ADF activity, provided by either cofilin1 or destrin, is essential in UB epithelial cells for normal growth and branching. ..
  28. Dykes I, Tempest L, Lee S, Turner E. Brn3a and Islet1 act epistatically to regulate the gene expression program of sensory differentiation. J Neurosci. 2011;31:9789-99 pubmed publisher
  29. Caruana G, Cullen McEwen L, Nelson A, Kostoulias X, Woods K, Gardiner B, et al. Spatial gene expression in the T-stage mouse metanephros. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:807-25 pubmed
    ..This study has identified genes spatially expressed in regions of the developing kidney involved in branching morphogenesis, nephrogenesis and the development of the collecting duct system, calyces, renal pelvis and ureter. ..
  30. Nakamura S, Senzaki K, Yoshikawa M, Nishimura M, Inoue K, Ito Y, et al. Dynamic regulation of the expression of neurotrophin receptors by Runx3. Development. 2008;135:1703-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we show that the number of TrkA-positive DRG neurons is reduced in Runx3(-/-) mice, as compared with the wild type. These results suggest that Runx3 positively regulates the expression of TrkC and TrkA in DRG neurons. ..
  31. Huang E, Zang K, Schmidt A, Saulys A, Xiang M, Reichardt L. POU domain factor Brn-3a controls the differentiation and survival of trigeminal neurons by regulating Trk receptor expression. Development. 1999;126:2869-82 pubmed
    ..Approximately 70% of these express the GDNF receptor subunit, c-ret; many can be sustained by GDNF, but not by NGF in culture...
  32. Mandai K, Guo T, St Hillaire C, Meabon J, Kanning K, Bothwell M, et al. LIG family receptor tyrosine kinase-associated proteins modulate growth factor signals during neural development. Neuron. 2009;63:614-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Linx, are expressed in subsets of somatosensory and motor neurons, and select members interact with TrkA and Ret RTKs...
  33. Aron L, Klein P, Pham T, Kramer E, Wurst W, Klein R. Pro-survival role for Parkinson's associated gene DJ-1 revealed in trophically impaired dopaminergic neurons. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000349 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that aging mice lacking DJ-1 and the GDNF-receptor Ret in the DA system display an accelerated loss of SN cell bodies, but not axons, compared to mice that only lack Ret ..
  34. Miyazaki Y, Oshima K, Fogo A, Hogan B, Ichikawa I. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 regulates the budding site and elongation of the mouse ureter. J Clin Invest. 2000;105:863-73 pubmed
    ..The other is to promote the elongation of the branching ureter within the metanephros, thereby promoting kidney morphogenesis. ..
  35. Nishiyama C, Uesaka T, Manabe T, Yonekura Y, Nagasawa T, Newgreen D, et al. Trans-mesenteric neural crest cells are the principal source of the colonic enteric nervous system. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:1211-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of this trans-mesenteric ENCC population provides a basis for improving our understanding of ENS development and pathogenesis...
  36. Hains D, Sims Lucas S, Carpenter A, Saha M, Murawski I, Kish K, et al. High incidence of vesicoureteral reflux in mice with Fgfr2 deletion in kidney mesenchyma. J Urol. 2010;183:2077-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Fgfr2(Mes-/-) mice have ureteral induction abnormalities associated with abnormal ureteral insertion in the bladder and subsequent vesicoureteral reflux, consistent with the Mackie and Stephens hypothesis. ..
  37. Wong A, Bogni S, Kotka P, de Graaff E, D AGATI V, Costantini F, et al. Phosphotyrosine 1062 is critical for the in vivo activity of the Ret9 receptor tyrosine kinase isoform. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:9661-73 pubmed
    ..Differential splicing of the primary Ret transcript results in the generation of two main isoforms, Ret9 and Ret51, whose C-terminal amino acid tails diverge after tyrosine (Y) 1062...
  38. Shakya R, Watanabe T, Costantini F. The role of GDNF/Ret signaling in ureteric bud cell fate and branching morphogenesis. Dev Cell. 2005;8:65-74 pubmed
    While GDNF signaling through the Ret receptor is critical for kidney development, its specific role in branching morphogenesis of the epithelial ureteric bud (UB) is unclear...
  39. Widenfalk J, Nosrat C, Tomac A, Westphal H, Hoffer B, Olson L. Neurturin and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor receptor-beta (GDNFR-beta), novel proteins related to GDNF and GDNFR-alpha with specific cellular patterns of expression suggesting roles in the developing and adult nervous system and in peri. J Neurosci. 1997;17:8506-19 pubmed
    ..factor neurturin (NTN) and GDNFR-beta mRNA in developing and adult mice, and comparisons with GDNFR-alpha and RET were made...
  40. Patel A, Harker N, Moreira Santos L, Ferreira M, Alden K, Timmis J, et al. Differential RET signaling pathways drive development of the enteric lymphoid and nervous systems. Sci Signal. 2012;5:ra55 pubmed publisher
    During the early development of the gastrointestinal tract, signaling through the receptor tyrosine kinase RET is required for initiation of lymphoid organ (Peyer's patch) formation and for intestinal innervation by enteric neurons...
  41. Widenfalk J, Tomac A, Lindqvist E, Hoffer B, Olson L. GFRalpha-3, a protein related to GFRalpha-1, is expressed in developing peripheral neurons and ensheathing cells. Eur J Neurosci. 1998;10:1508-17 pubmed
    ..As Schwann cells are known to lack expression of the transducing RET receptor, we propose that a possible function of GFRalpha-3 during development could be to bind Schwann cell-..
  42. Guo T, Mandai K, Condie B, Wickramasinghe S, Capecchi M, Ginty D. An evolving NGF-Hoxd1 signaling pathway mediates development of divergent neural circuits in vertebrates. Nat Neurosci. 2011;14:31-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, conserved growth factors control divergent neuronal transcriptional events that mediate interspecies differences in neural circuits and the behaviors that they control. ..
  43. Linton J, Martin G, Reichardt L. The ECM protein nephronectin promotes kidney development via integrin alpha8beta1-mediated stimulation of Gdnf expression. Development. 2007;134:2501-9 pubmed
    ..Our results thus place nephronectin and alpha8beta1 integrin in a pathway that regulates Gdnf expression and is essential for kidney development. ..
  44. Molliver D, Wright D, Leitner M, Parsadanian A, Doster K, Wen D, et al. IB4-binding DRG neurons switch from NGF to GDNF dependence in early postnatal life. Neuron. 1997;19:849-61 pubmed
    ..We show that mRNA and protein for the GDNF receptor tyrosine kinase, Ret, are expressed in the DRG in patterns that differ markedly from those of any of the neurotrophin receptors...
  45. Michos O, Cebrian C, Hyink D, Grieshammer U, Williams L, D AGATI V, et al. Kidney development in the absence of Gdnf and Spry1 requires Fgf10. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000809 pubmed publisher
    GDNF signaling through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) is required for ureteric bud (UB) branching morphogenesis during kidney development in mice and humans...
  46. Self M, Lagutin O, Bowling B, Hendrix J, Cai Y, Dressler G, et al. Six2 is required for suppression of nephrogenesis and progenitor renewal in the developing kidney. EMBO J. 2006;25:5214-28 pubmed
    ..We propose that in the developing kidney, Six2 activity is required for maintaining the mesenchymal progenitor population in an undifferentiated state by opposing the inductive signals emanating from the ureteric bud...
  47. Golden J, DeMaro J, Osborne P, Milbrandt J, Johnson E. Expression of neurturin, GDNF, and GDNF family-receptor mRNA in the developing and mature mouse. Exp Neurol. 1999;158:504-28 pubmed
    ..The receptors for these factors are complexes that include the Ret tyrosine kinase receptor and a GPI-linked, ligand-binding component called GDNF family receptor alpha 1-4 (..
  48. Kuschert S, Rowitch D, Haenig B, McMahon A, Kispert A. Characterization of Pax-2 regulatory sequences that direct transgene expression in the Wolffian duct and its derivatives. Dev Biol. 2001;229:128-40 pubmed
  49. Hoshi M, Batourina E, Mendelsohn C, Jain S. Novel mechanisms of early upper and lower urinary tract patterning regulated by RetY1015 docking tyrosine in mice. Development. 2012;139:2405-15 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase RET are associated with congenital anomalies of kidneys or urinary tract (CAKUT). RET tyrosine Y1015 is the docking site for PLC?, a major regulator of RET signaling...
  50. Chen C, Broom D, Liu Y, de Nooij J, Li Z, Cen C, et al. Runx1 determines nociceptive sensory neuron phenotype and is required for thermal and neuropathic pain. Neuron. 2006;49:365-77 pubmed
    ..development but in adult mice, becomes restricted to nociceptors marked by expression of the neurotrophin receptor Ret. In these neurons, Runx1 regulates the expression of many ion channels and receptors, including TRP class thermal ..
  51. Nishita M, Qiao S, Miyamoto M, Okinaka Y, Yamada M, Hashimoto R, et al. Role of Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling in morphogenesis of the metanephric mesenchyme during ureteric budding. Mol Cell Biol. 2014;34:3096-105 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate an important role of Wnt5a-Ror2 signaling in morphogenesis of the MM to ensure proper epithelial tubular formation of the UB required for kidney development. ..
  52. Smith Hicks C, Sizer K, Powers J, Tischler A, Costantini F. C-cell hyperplasia, pheochromocytoma and sympathoadrenal malformation in a mouse model of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B. EMBO J. 2000;19:612-22 pubmed
    ..Most cases are caused by substitution of threonine for Met918 in the RET receptor tyrosine kinase, which is believed to convert the RET gene to an oncogene by altering the enzyme's ..
  53. Kramer I, Sigrist M, de Nooij J, Taniuchi I, Jessell T, Arber S. A role for Runx transcription factor signaling in dorsal root ganglion sensory neuron diversification. Neuron. 2006;49:379-93 pubmed
    ..Together, our findings suggest that Runx transcription factor signaling plays a key role in sensory neuron diversification. ..