Rela

Summary

Gene Symbol: Rela
Description: v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (avian)
Alias: p65, transcription factor p65, avian reticuloendotheliosis viral (v-rel) oncogene homolog A, nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p65 subunit, nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 3, p65 NF kappaB, p65 NF-kappa B, p65 NFkB
Species: mouse
Products:     Rela

Top Publications

  1. Yang X, Tajkhorshid E, Chen L. Functional interplay between acetylation and methylation of the RelA subunit of NF-kappaB. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2170-80 pubmed publisher
    Posttranslational modifications of the RelA subunit of NF-kappaB, including acetylation and methylation, play a key role in controlling the strength and duration of its nuclear activity...
  2. Geisler F, Algül H, Paxian S, Schmid R. Genetic inactivation of RelA/p65 sensitizes adult mouse hepatocytes to TNF-induced apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:2489-503 pubmed
    ..response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha during development because mice deficient for the NF-kappaB subunit RelA/p65 die in utero because of TNF-induced liver apoptosis...
  3. Zhao W, Wang L, Zhang M, Wang P, Zhang L, Yuan C, et al. NF-?B- and AP-1-mediated DNA looping regulates osteopontin transcription in endotoxin-stimulated murine macrophages. J Immunol. 2011;186:3173-9 pubmed publisher
    ..role of NF-?B and AP-1 in LPS-stimulated DNA looping was confirmed, as small interfering RNA knock-down of NF-?B p65 and AP-1 c-Jun exhibited decreased levels of DNA looping...
  4. Mulero M, Ferres Marco D, Islam A, Margalef P, Pecoraro M, Toll A, et al. Chromatin-bound I?B? regulates a subset of polycomb target genes in differentiation and cancer. Cancer Cell. 2013;24:151-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Accumulation of cytoplasmic I?B? was found in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) associated with IKK activation and HOX upregulation. ..
  5. Dong J, Jimi E, Zhong H, Hayden M, Ghosh S. Repression of gene expression by unphosphorylated NF-kappaB p65 through epigenetic mechanisms. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1159-73 pubmed publisher
    Cells from a "knock-in" mouse expressing a NF-kappaB p65 mutant bearing an alanine instead of serine at position 276 (S276A) display a significant reduction of NF-kappaB-dependent transcription, even though the mutant p65 forms ..
  6. Sasaki C, Ghosh P, Longo D. Recruitment of RelB to the Csf2 promoter enhances RelA-mediated transcription of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:1093-102 pubmed publisher
    ..The LT? priming process was not due to an increase in TNF-mediated nuclear translocation of p65, p65 DNA binding, or NF-?B transactivational activity...
  7. Sheedy F, Palsson McDermott E, Hennessy E, Martin C, O Leary J, Ruan Q, et al. Negative regulation of TLR4 via targeting of the proinflammatory tumor suppressor PDCD4 by the microRNA miR-21. Nat Immunol. 2010;11:141-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, miR-21 regulates PDCD4 expression after LPS stimulation. ..
  8. Basak S, Kim H, Kearns J, Tergaonkar V, O Dea E, Werner S, et al. A fourth IkappaB protein within the NF-kappaB signaling module. Cell. 2007;128:369-81 pubmed
    Inflammatory NF-kappaB/RelA activation is mediated by the three canonical inhibitors, IkappaBalpha, -beta, and -epsilon...
  9. De Lorenzi R, Gareus R, Fengler S, Pasparakis M. GFP-p65 knock-in mice as a tool to study NF-kappaB dynamics in vivo. Genesis. 2009;47:323-9 pubmed publisher
    ..we generated knock-in mice expressing a fusion protein between the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the p65/RelA NF-kappaB subunit (GFP-p65) from the endogenous p65 genomic locus...

More Information

Publications61

  1. Saijo K, Winner B, Carson C, Collier J, Boyer L, Rosenfeld M, et al. A Nurr1/CoREST pathway in microglia and astrocytes protects dopaminergic neurons from inflammation-induced death. Cell. 2009;137:47-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Nurr1 exerts anti-inflammatory effects by docking to NF-kappaB-p65 on target inflammatory gene promoters in a signal-dependent manner...
  2. Yao H, Hwang J, Moscat J, Diaz Meco M, Leitges M, Kishore N, et al. Protein kinase C zeta mediates cigarette smoke/aldehyde- and lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation and histone modifications. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:5405-16 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism underlying these findings is associated with decreased RelA/p65 phosphorylation (Ser(311)) and translocation of the RelA/p65 subunit of NF-kappaB into the nucleus...
  3. Mauro C, Leow S, Anso E, Rocha S, Thotakura A, Tornatore L, et al. NF-?B controls energy homeostasis and metabolic adaptation by upregulating mitochondrial respiration. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:1272-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify NF-?B as a physiological regulator of mitochondrial respiration and establish a role for NF-?B in metabolic adaptation in normal cells and cancer. ..
  4. Kawahara T, Michishita E, Adler A, Damian M, Berber E, Lin M, et al. SIRT6 links histone H3 lysine 9 deacetylation to NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression and organismal life span. Cell. 2009;136:62-74 pubmed publisher
    ..SIRT6 interacts with the NF-kappaB RELA subunit and deacetylates histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) at NF-kappaB target gene promoters...
  5. Quinton L, Jones M, Simms B, Kogan M, Robson B, Skerrett S, et al. Functions and regulation of NF-kappaB RelA during pneumococcal pneumonia. J Immunol. 2007;178:1896-903 pubmed
    ..To determine the roles of the NF-kappaB subunit RelA in facilitating these events, we infected RelA-deficient mice (generated on a TNFR1-deficient background) with ..
  6. Greten F, Arkan M, Bollrath J, Hsu L, Goode J, Miething C, et al. NF-kappaB is a negative regulator of IL-1beta secretion as revealed by genetic and pharmacological inhibition of IKKbeta. Cell. 2007;130:918-31 pubmed
    ..These results unravel an unanticipated role for IKKbeta-dependent NF-kappaB signaling in the negative control of IL-1beta production and highlight potential complications of long-term IKKbeta inhibition. ..
  7. Algül H, Treiber M, Lesina M, Nakhai H, Saur D, Geisler F, et al. Pancreas-specific RelA/p65 truncation increases susceptibility of acini to inflammation-associated cell death following cerulein pancreatitis. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:1490-501 pubmed
    ..Here we studied the role of RelA/p65, the main transactivating subunit, during acute pancreatitis using a Cre-loxP strategy...
  8. Bergqvist S, Alverdi V, Mengel B, Hoffmann A, Ghosh G, Komives E. Kinetic enhancement of NF-kappaBxDNA dissociation by IkappaBalpha. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19328-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutational stabilization of these repeats reduces the efficiency with which IkappaBalpha enhances the dissociation rate. ..
  9. Moreno R, Sobotzik J, Schultz C, Schmitz M. Specification of the NF-kappaB transcriptional response by p65 phosphorylation and TNF-induced nuclear translocation of IKK epsilon. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:6029-44 pubmed publisher
    ..we investigated the regulation of NF-?B activity by post-translational modifications upon reconstitution of NF-?B p65-deficient cells with the wild-type protein or phosphorylation-defect mutants...
  10. Cheng C, Feldman K, Lee J, Verma S, Huang D, Huynh K, et al. The specificity of innate immune responses is enforced by repression of interferon response elements by NF-?B p50. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra11 pubmed publisher
  11. Lee J, Gao Z, Ye J. Regulation of 11?-HSD1 expression during adipose tissue expansion by hypoxia through different activities of NF-?B and HIF-1?. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;304:E1035-41 pubmed publisher
    ..11?-HSD1 expression was elevated by NF-?B in epididymal fat of aP2-p65 mice...
  12. Geng H, Wittwer T, Dittrich Breiholz O, Kracht M, Schmitz M. Phosphorylation of NF-kappaB p65 at Ser468 controls its COMMD1-dependent ubiquitination and target gene-specific proteasomal elimination. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:381-6 pubmed publisher
    ..phosphorylation/ubiquitination switch in the NF-kappaB network that controls the stability of the transactivating p65 subunit...
  13. Rebholz B, Haase I, Eckelt B, Paxian S, Flaig M, Ghoreschi K, et al. Crosstalk between keratinocytes and adaptive immune cells in an IkappaBalpha protein-mediated inflammatory disease of the skin. Immunity. 2007;27:296-307 pubmed
    ..Targeted deletion of RelA from epidermal keratinocytes completely rescued the inflammatory skin phenotype of Ikba(Delta)(/Delta) mice...
  14. Isomura I, Palmer S, Grumont R, Bunting K, Hoyne G, Wilkinson N, et al. c-Rel is required for the development of thymic Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells. J Exp Med. 2009;206:3001-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results indicate that c-Rel is important for both the thymic development and peripheral homeostatic proliferation of T reg cells. ..
  15. O Shea J, Perkins N. Thr435 phosphorylation regulates RelA (p65) NF-kappaB subunit transactivation. Biochem J. 2010;426:345-54 pubmed publisher
    Phosphorylation of the RelA (p65) NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappaB) subunit has been previously shown to modulate its ability to induce or repress transcription...
  16. Wang J, Wang X, Hussain S, Zheng Y, Sanjabi S, Ouaaz F, et al. Distinct roles of different NF-kappa B subunits in regulating inflammatory and T cell stimulatory gene expression in dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2007;178:6777-88 pubmed
    ..g., TNF-alpha, IL-1alpha, and IL-6). In striking contrast, the RelA subunit was crucial for expression of inflammatory cytokine genes but not T cell stimulatory genes...
  17. Liu Z, Ma Z, Terada L, Garrard W. Divergent roles of RelA and c-Rel in establishing chromosomal loops upon activation of the Igkappa gene. J Immunol. 2009;183:3819-30 pubmed publisher
    ..utilizes three distal enhancers and requires the transcription factor NF-kappaB, whose family members include RelA and c-Rel...
  18. Chen Q, Liu K, Robinson A, Clauson C, Blair H, Robbins P, et al. DNA damage drives accelerated bone aging via an NF-?B-dependent mechanism. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28:1214-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, we demonstrated that haploinsufficiency of the p65 NF-?B subunit partially rescued the osteoporosis phenotype of Ercc1(-/?) mice...
  19. Zschiedrich I, Hardeland U, Krones Herzig A, Berriel Diaz M, Vegiopoulos A, Müggenburg J, et al. Coactivator function of RIP140 for NFkappaB/RelA-dependent cytokine gene expression. Blood. 2008;112:264-76 pubmed publisher
    ..for cytokine gene promoter activity relies on direct protein-protein interactions with the NFkappaB subunit RelA and histone acetylase cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP)...
  20. Inta I, Paxian S, Maegele I, Zhang W, Pizzi M, Spano P, et al. Bim and Noxa are candidates to mediate the deleterious effect of the NF-kappa B subunit RelA in cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci. 2006;26:12896-903 pubmed
    ..focal cerebral ischemia in mice with a germline deletion of the p52 or c-Rel gene or with a conditional deletion of RelA in the brain. Only RelA deficiency reduced infarct size...
  21. Dong J, Jimi E, Zeiss C, Hayden M, Ghosh S. Constitutively active NF-kappaB triggers systemic TNFalpha-dependent inflammation and localized TNFalpha-independent inflammatory disease. Genes Dev. 2010;24:1709-17 pubmed publisher
    ..of NF-kappaB in inflammation, we created a knock-in mouse that expresses a constitutively active form of NF-kappaB p65 dimers...
  22. Yamamoto K, Ahyi A, Pepper Cunningham Z, Ferrari J, Wilson A, Jones M, et al. Roles of lung epithelium in neutrophil recruitment during pneumococcal pneumonia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2014;50:253-62 pubmed publisher
    ..unique epithelial activities that influence immunity during infection, we generated mice with nuclear factor-?B RelA mutated throughout all epithelial cells of the lung and coupled this approach with epithelial cell isolation from ..
  23. van Essen D, Engist B, Natoli G, Saccani S. Two modes of transcriptional activation at native promoters by NF-kappaB p65. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e73 pubmed publisher
    ..To dissect NF-kappaB-driven transcription at native promoters, we disrupted the interaction between NF-kappaB p65 and the Mediator complex...
  24. Buerki C, Rothgiesser K, Valovka T, Owen H, Rehrauer H, Fey M, et al. Functional relevance of novel p300-mediated lysine 314 and 315 acetylation of RelA/p65. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:1665-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here in vitro and in vivo acetylation of RelA/p65 by p300 on lysine 314 and 315, two novel acetylation sites...
  25. Tanaka T, Grusby M, Kaisho T. PDLIM2-mediated termination of transcription factor NF-kappaB activation by intranuclear sequestration and degradation of the p65 subunit. Nat Immunol. 2007;8:584-91 pubmed
    ..report that PDLIM2 negatively regulated NF-kappaB activity, acting as a nuclear ubiquitin E3 ligase targeting the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB. PDLIM2 bound to p65 and promoted p65 polyubiquitination...
  26. Kawauchi K, Araki K, Tobiume K, Tanaka N. p53 regulates glucose metabolism through an IKK-NF-kappaB pathway and inhibits cell transformation. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:611-8 pubmed publisher
    ..cell transformation and acceleration of aerobic glycolysis in p53-deficient cells were suppressed in the absence of p65/NF-kappaB expression, and were restored by GLUT3 expression...
  27. Fan Y, Mao R, Zhao Y, Yu Y, Sun W, Song P, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces RelA degradation via ubiquitination at lysine 195 to prevent excessive nuclear factor-kappaB activation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:29290-7 pubmed publisher
    Ubiquitination-mediated degradation of the RelA subunit of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is critical for the termination of NF-kappaB activation...
  28. Huang B, Yang X, Zhou M, Ozato K, Chen L. Brd4 coactivates transcriptional activation of NF-kappaB via specific binding to acetylated RelA. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1375-87 pubmed publisher
    Acetylation of the RelA subunit of NF-kappaB, especially at lysine-310, is critical for the transcriptional activation of NF-kappaB and the expression of inflammatory genes...
  29. Quinton L, Blahna M, Jones M, Allen E, Ferrari J, Hilliard K, et al. Hepatocyte-specific mutation of both NF-?B RelA and STAT3 abrogates the acute phase response in mice. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:1758-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the elimination in mice of both NF-?B p65 (RelA) and STAT3, but neither alone, abrogated all acute phase responses measured...
  30. Yamaki T, Wu C, GUSTIN M, Lim J, Jackman R, Kandarian S. Rel A/p65 is required for cytokine-induced myotube atrophy. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012;303:C135-42 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that the prototypical NF-?B transcription factor, Rel A (p65), is required for NF-?B activation in C2C12 and L6 myotubes due to treatment with exogenous TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-1?, ..
  31. Lanzillotta A, Sarnico I, Ingrassia R, Boroni F, Branca C, Benarese M, et al. The acetylation of RelA in Lys310 dictates the NF-?B-dependent response in post-ischemic injury. Cell Death Dis. 2010;1:e96 pubmed publisher
    The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) p50/RelA is a key event in ischemic neuronal injury, as well as in brain ischemic tolerance...
  32. Bakkar N, Wang J, Ladner K, Wang H, Dahlman J, Carathers M, et al. IKK/NF-kappaB regulates skeletal myogenesis via a signaling switch to inhibit differentiation and promote mitochondrial biogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:787-802 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that myogenesis is enhanced in MyoD-expressing fibroblasts deficient in classical pathway components RelA/p65, inhibitor of kappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta), or IKKgamma...
  33. Gloire G, Horion J, El Mjiyad N, Bex F, Chariot A, Dejardin E, et al. Promoter-dependent effect of IKKalpha on NF-kappaB/p65 DNA binding. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:21308-18 pubmed
    ..and reexpressing IKKalpha after retroviral transduction, we demonstrate that IKKalpha contributes to NF-kappaB/p65 DNA binding activity on an exogenous kappaB element and on some, but not all, endogenous NF-kappaB-target promoters...
  34. Martin A, Trama J, Crighton D, Ryan K, Fearnhead H. Activation of p73 and induction of Noxa by DNA damage requires NF-kappa B. Aging (Albany NY). 2009;1:335-49 pubmed
    ..Here we investigate this mechanism and show that in transformed MEFs lacking NF-kappaB (p65-null cells) genotoxin-induced cytochrome c release is compromised...
  35. Bassères D, Ebbs A, Levantini E, Baldwin A. Requirement of the NF-kappaB subunit p65/RelA for K-Ras-induced lung tumorigenesis. Cancer Res. 2010;70:3537-46 pubmed publisher
    ..where activation of oncogenic K-Ras in lung cells was coupled with inactivation of the NF-kappaB subunit p65/RelA. In this model, deletion of p65/RelA reduces the number of K-Ras-induced lung tumors both in the presence and in ..
  36. Luedde T, Heinrichsdorff J, De Lorenzi R, De Vos R, Roskams T, Pasparakis M. IKK1 and IKK2 cooperate to maintain bile duct integrity in the liver. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:9733-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal a novel function of the two IkappaB kinases in cooperatively regulating liver immune homeostasis and bile duct integrity and suggest that IKK signaling may be implicated in human biliary diseases...
  37. Pittet L, Quinton L, Yamamoto K, Robson B, Ferrari J, Algül H, et al. Earliest innate immune responses require macrophage RelA during pneumococcal pneumonia. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2011;45:573-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The NF-?B protein RelA is critical for pulmonary host defense during Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia, but the cell-specific roles of ..
  38. Tilstra J, Robinson A, Wang J, Gregg S, Clauson C, Reay D, et al. NF-?B inhibition delays DNA damage-induced senescence and aging in mice. J Clin Invest. 2012;122:2601-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic depletion of one allele of the p65 subunit of NF-?B or treatment with a pharmacological inhibitor of the NF-?B-activating kinase, IKK, delayed the age-..
  39. Remels A, Langen R, Gosker H, Russell A, Spaapen F, Voncken J, et al. PPARgamma inhibits NF-kappaB-dependent transcriptional activation in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E174-83 pubmed publisher
    ..in cultured myotubes revealed that the anti-inflammatory effect of PPARgamma activation is not due to decreased RelA translocation to the nucleus or reduced RelA DNA binding...
  40. Huxford T, Huang D, Malek S, Ghosh G. The crystal structure of the IkappaBalpha/NF-kappaB complex reveals mechanisms of NF-kappaB inactivation. Cell. 1998;95:759-70 pubmed
    ..The 2.3 A crystal structure of IkappaBalpha in complex with the NF-kappaB p50/p65 heterodimer reveals mechanisms of these inhibitory activities...
  41. Gerondakis S, Grossmann M, Nakamura Y, Pohl T, Grumont R. Genetic approaches in mice to understand Rel/NF-kappaB and IkappaB function: transgenics and knockouts. Oncogene. 1999;18:6888-95 pubmed
    ..One exception is rela, which is essential for embryonic liver development...
  42. Nolan G, Ghosh S, Liou H, Tempst P, Baltimore D. DNA binding and I kappa B inhibition of the cloned p65 subunit of NF-kappa B, a rel-related polypeptide. Cell. 1991;64:961-9 pubmed
    The sequence and biochemical properties of the product of the cloned cDNA for the p65 subunit of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) have been determined...
  43. Rao S, Gerondakis S, Woltring D, Shannon M. c-Rel is required for chromatin remodeling across the IL-2 gene promoter. J Immunol. 2003;170:3724-31 pubmed
    ..that IL-2 gene transcription in CD4(+) primary T cells is dependent on the NF-kappaB family member, c-Rel, but not RelA. We found that c-Rel is essential for global changes in chromatin structure across the 300-bp IL-2 promoter in ..
  44. Grumont R, Lock P, Mollinari M, Shannon F, Moore A, Gerondakis S. The mitogen-induced increase in T cell size involves PKC and NFAT activation of Rel/NF-kappaB-dependent c-myc expression. Immunity. 2004;21:19-30 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that c-myc-dependent growth during T cell activation requires c-Rel and RelA and that blocking this growth by inhibiting protein kinase C theta (PKCtheta) coincides with a failure to ..
  45. Jacque E, Tchenio T, Piton G, Romeo P, Baud V. RelA repression of RelB activity induces selective gene activation downstream of TNF receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:14635-40 pubmed
    ..TNF-alpha stimulation causes nuclear translocation of several NF-kappaB dimers, including RelA/p50 and RelB/p50...
  46. Fridmacher V, Kaltschmidt B, Goudeau B, Ndiaye D, Rossi F, Pfeiffer J, et al. Forebrain-specific neuronal inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB activity leads to loss of neuroprotection. J Neurosci. 2003;23:9403-8 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate for the first time that neuron-restricted ablation of NF-kappaB-driven gene expression increases neurodegeneration. This might lead to the path for new treatments of neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  47. Liu L, Sakai T, Sano N, Fukui K. Nucling mediates apoptosis by inhibiting expression of galectin-3 through interference with nuclear factor kappaB signalling. Biochem J. 2004;380:31-41 pubmed
    ..Nucling was shown to interfere with NF-kappaB activation via the nuclear translocation process of NF-kappaB/p65, thus inhibiting the expression of galectin-3...
  48. Gugasyan R, Voss A, Varigos G, Thomas T, Grumont R, Kaur P, et al. The transcription factors c-rel and RelA control epidermal development and homeostasis in embryonic and adult skin via distinct mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5733-45 pubmed
    ..has been limited by redundancy among these proteins and by embryonic lethality associated with the absence of RelA. Using mice lacking RelA and c-rel, which survive throughout embryogenesis on a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-..
  49. Meffert M, Chang J, Wiltgen B, Fanselow M, Baltimore D. NF-kappa B functions in synaptic signaling and behavior. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:1072-8 pubmed
    ..The p65:p50 NF-kappa B form is selectively localized at synapses; p65-deficient mice have no detectable synaptic NF-kappa B...
  50. Grossmann M, Metcalf D, Merryfull J, Beg A, Baltimore D, Gerondakis S. The combined absence of the transcription factors Rel and RelA leads to multiple hemopoietic cell defects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:11848-53 pubmed
    ..Redundancy among these proteins prompted us to examine the role of Rel and RelA in hemopoiesis by using mice that lack both subunits. Because of the death of double-mutant fetuses at day 13...
  51. Honda K, Yanai H, Negishi H, Asagiri M, Sato M, Mizutani T, et al. IRF-7 is the master regulator of type-I interferon-dependent immune responses. Nature. 2005;434:772-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, all elements of IFN responses, whether the systemic production of IFN in innate immunity or the local action of IFN from plasmacytoid dendritic cells in adaptive immunity, are under the control of IRF-7. ..
  52. Verma I, Stevenson J, Schwarz E, Van Antwerp D, Miyamoto S. Rel/NF-kappa B/I kappa B family: intimate tales of association and dissociation. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2723-35 pubmed