Rel

Summary

Gene Symbol: Rel
Description: reticuloendotheliosis oncogene
Alias: c-Rel, proto-oncogene c-Rel, C-Rel proto-oncogene protein
Species: mouse
Products:     Rel

Top Publications

  1. Kuprash D, Udalova I, Turetskaya R, Rice N, Nedospasov S. Conserved kappa B element located downstream of the tumor necrosis factor alpha gene: distinct NF-kappa B binding pattern and enhancer activity in LPS activated murine macrophages. Oncogene. 1995;11:97-106 pubmed
    ..of various genes by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is known to be mediated, at least in part, by the NF-kappa B/Rel family of transcription factors...
  2. Harling McNabb L, Deliyannis G, Jackson D, Gerondakis S, Grigoriadis G, Brown L. Mice lacking the transcription factor subunit Rel can clear an influenza infection and have functional anti-viral cytotoxic T cells but do not develop an optimal antibody response. Int Immunol. 1999;11:1431-9 pubmed
    b>Rel, a haemopoietic cell-restricted member of the NF-kappaB/Rel family of transcription factors, has recently been shown to be important in the function of B and T lymphocytes...
  3. O Keeffe M, Grumont R, Hochrein H, Fuchsberger M, Gugasyan R, Vremec D, et al. Distinct roles for the NF-kappaB1 and c-Rel transcription factors in the differentiation and survival of plasmacytoid and conventional dendritic cells activated by TLR-9 signals. Blood. 2005;106:3457-64 pubmed
    Reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog/nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells 1 (Rel/NF-kappaB) activation is a ubiquitous outcome of engaging Toll-like receptors (TLRs), yet the cell-type-specific ..
  4. Mintern J, Belz G, Gerondakis S, Carbone F, Heath W. The cross-priming APC requires a Rel-dependent signal to induce CTL. J Immunol. 2002;168:3283-7 pubmed
    ..To further dissect the molecular pathways involved in cross-priming, we examined the role of Rel, an NF-kappaB family member...
  5. Grumont R, Rourke I, Gerondakis S. Rel-dependent induction of A1 transcription is required to protect B cells from antigen receptor ligation-induced apoptosis. Genes Dev. 1999;13:400-11 pubmed
    In response to different extracellular signals, Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factors are critical regulators of apoptosis in a variety of cell types...
  6. Belguise K, Sonenshein G. PKCtheta promotes c-Rel-driven mammary tumorigenesis in mice and humans by repressing estrogen receptor alpha synthesis. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:4009-21 pubmed
    The vast majority of primary human breast cancer tissues display aberrant nuclear NF-kappaB c-Rel expression...
  7. Grumont R, Rourke I, O Reilly L, Strasser A, Miyake K, Sha W, et al. B lymphocytes differentially use the Rel and nuclear factor kappaB1 (NF-kappaB1) transcription factors to regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis in quiescent and mitogen-activated cells. J Exp Med. 1998;187:663-74 pubmed
    b>Rel and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB1, two members of the Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factor family, are essential for mitogen-induced B cell proliferation...
  8. Reinhard K, Huber M, Wostl C, Hellhund A, Toboldt A, Abass E, et al. c-Rel promotes type 1 and type 17 immune responses during Leishmania major infection. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:1388-98 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies demonstrated the crucial role of c-Rel in directing Treg lineage commitment and its involvement in T helper 1 (Th1) cell-mediated autoimmune inflammation...
  9. Hilliard B, Mason N, Xu L, Sun J, Lamhamedi Cherradi S, Liou H, et al. Critical roles of c-Rel in autoimmune inflammation and helper T cell differentiation. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:843-50 pubmed
    Different members of the Rel/NF-kappaB family may play different roles in immunity and inflammation. We report here that c-Rel-deficient mice are resistant to autoimmune encephalomyelitis and are defective in Th1, but not Th2 responses...

More Information

Publications62

  1. Donovan C, Mark D, He H, Liou H, Kobzik L, Wang Y, et al. NF-kappa B/Rel transcription factors: c-Rel promotes airway hyperresponsiveness and allergic pulmonary inflammation. J Immunol. 1999;163:6827-33 pubmed
    The NF-kappa B/Rel family of transcription factors induces many genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses...
  2. Weih F, Carrasco D, Bravo R. Constitutive and inducible Rel/NF-kappa B activities in mouse thymus and spleen. Oncogene. 1994;9:3289-97 pubmed
    We have studied the expression of members of the rel family of transcription factors and ikba in mouse thymus and spleen by in situ hybridization...
  3. Doi T, Takahashi T, Taguchi O, Azuma T, Obata Y. NF-kappa B RelA-deficient lymphocytes: normal development of T cells and B cells, impaired production of IgA and IgG1 and reduced proliferative responses. J Exp Med. 1997;185:953-61 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that RelA plays a critical role in production of specific Ig isotypes and also in signal transduction pathways for lymphocyte proliferation. ..
  4. Grigoriadis G, Zhan Y, Grumont R, Metcalf D, Handman E, Cheers C, et al. The Rel subunit of NF-kappaB-like transcription factors is a positive and negative regulator of macrophage gene expression: distinct roles for Rel in different macrophage populations. EMBO J. 1996;15:7099-107 pubmed
    The role of Rel in the monocyte/macrophage lineage was examined in mice with an inactivated c-rel gene...
  5. Gilmore T, Kalaitzidis D, Liang M, Starczynowski D. The c-Rel transcription factor and B-cell proliferation: a deal with the devil. Oncogene. 2004;23:2275-86 pubmed
    Activation of the Rel/NF-kappaB signal transduction pathway has been associated with a variety of animal and human malignancies...
  6. Courtine E, Pène F, Cagnard N, Toubiana J, Fitting C, Brocheton J, et al. Critical role of cRel subunit of NF-?B in sepsis survival. Infect Immun. 2011;79:1848-54 pubmed publisher
    ..NF-?B comprises homo- and heterodimers of proteins from the Rel family. Among them, p50 and p65 have been clearly implicated in the pathophysiology of sepsis...
  7. Stankovic S, Gugasyan R, Kyparissoudis K, Grumont R, Banerjee A, Tsichlis P, et al. Distinct roles in NKT cell maturation and function for the different transcription factors in the classical NF-?B pathway. Immunol Cell Biol. 2011;89:294-303 pubmed publisher
    ..We have investigated the influence of the classical NF-?B transcription factors NF-?B1, c-Rel and RelA on NKT cell development and function, using gene-deleted mice...
  8. Deenick E, Po L, Chapatte L, Murakami K, Lu Y, Elford A, et al. c-Rel phenocopies PKCtheta but not Bcl-10 in regulating CD8+ T-cell activation versus tolerance. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:867-77 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that T cells from mice deficient in c-Rel but not NF-kappaB1 (p50) have increased susceptibility to the induction of anergy, similar to T cells from PKCtheta-..
  9. Mason N, Liou H, Hunter C. T cell-intrinsic expression of c-Rel regulates Th1 cell responses essential for resistance to Toxoplasma gondii. J Immunol. 2004;172:3704-11 pubmed
    The ability of many microbial and inflammatory stimuli to activate members of the Rel/NF-kappaB family of transcription factors is associated with the regulation of innate and adaptive responses required to control infection...
  10. Gerondakis S, Grossmann M, Nakamura Y, Pohl T, Grumont R. Genetic approaches in mice to understand Rel/NF-kappaB and IkappaB function: transgenics and knockouts. Oncogene. 1999;18:6888-95 pubmed
    b>Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factors have been implicated in regulating a wide variety of genes important in cellular processes that include cell division, cell survival, differentiation and immunity...
  11. Rao S, Gerondakis S, Woltring D, Shannon M. c-Rel is required for chromatin remodeling across the IL-2 gene promoter. J Immunol. 2003;170:3724-31 pubmed
    ..showed that IL-2 gene transcription in CD4(+) primary T cells is dependent on the NF-kappaB family member, c-Rel, but not RelA...
  12. Grumont R, Strasser A, Gerondakis S. B cell growth is controlled by phosphatidylinosotol 3-kinase-dependent induction of Rel/NF-kappaB regulated c-myc transcription. Mol Cell. 2002;10:1283-94 pubmed
    b>Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factors regulate the division and survival of B lymphocytes...
  13. Deenick E, Elford A, Pellegrini M, Hall H, Mak T, Ohashi P. c-Rel but not NF-kappaB1 is important for T regulatory cell development. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:677-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that Treg numbers are reduced in the absence of c-Rel but not NF-kappaB1 (p50)...
  14. Bunting K, Rao S, Hardy K, Woltring D, Denyer G, Wang J, et al. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in T cells to identify targets of the NF-kappa B transcription factor c-Rel. J Immunol. 2007;178:7097-109 pubmed
    ..c-Rel, a member of the NF-kappaB family, appears to play a specific role in T cell function because T cells from c-Rel(-/-..
  15. Wang J, Wang X, Hussain S, Zheng Y, Sanjabi S, Ouaaz F, et al. Distinct roles of different NF-kappa B subunits in regulating inflammatory and T cell stimulatory gene expression in dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2007;178:6777-88 pubmed
    ..Together, our findings indicate novel and critically important overall roles of NF-kappaB in TLR-induced gene expression that are mediated by unique functions of distinct subunits. ..
  16. Gugasyan R, Voss A, Varigos G, Thomas T, Grumont R, Kaur P, et al. The transcription factors c-rel and RelA control epidermal development and homeostasis in embryonic and adult skin via distinct mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5733-45 pubmed
    Determining the roles of Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factors in mouse skin development with loss-of-function mutants has been limited by redundancy among these proteins and by embryonic lethality associated with the absence of RelA...
  17. Wang Y, Rickman B, Poutahidis T, Schlieper K, Jackson E, Erdman S, et al. c-Rel is essential for the development of innate and T cell-induced colitis. J Immunol. 2008;180:8118-25 pubmed
    ..The NF-kappaB subunit c-Rel can regulate expression of IL-12/23 subunits suggesting that it could have a critical role in mediating the ..
  18. Resch K, Korthaus D, Wedemeyer N, Lengeling A, Ronsiek M, Thiel C, et al. Homology between human chromosome 2p13.3 and the wobbler critical region on mouse chromosome 11: comparative high-resolution mapping of STS and EST loci on YAC/BAC contigs. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:893-8 pubmed
    ..11. The maps comprise several known genes, MEIS1/Meis1, RAB1a/Rab1a, MDH1/Mor2, OTX1/Otx1, and REL on human 2p13.3 and mouse Chr 11, respectively, as well as the wobbler (wr) critical region of the mouse...
  19. Liou H, Jin Z, Tumang J, Andjelic S, Smith K, Liou M. c-Rel is crucial for lymphocyte proliferation but dispensable for T cell effector function. Int Immunol. 1999;11:361-71 pubmed
    ..Several transcription factor families, including NF-kappaB/Rel, have been implicated in the regulation of cytokine gene expression in T cells in response to antigen, cytokine and ..
  20. Pohl T, Gugasyan R, Grumont R, Strasser A, Metcalf D, Tarlinton D, et al. The combined absence of NF-kappa B1 and c-Rel reveals that overlapping roles for these transcription factors in the B cell lineage are restricted to the activation and function of mature cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:4514-9 pubmed
    Transcription factors NF-kappaB1 and c-Rel, individually dispensable during embryogenesis, serve similar, yet distinct, roles in the function of mature hemopoietic cells...
  21. Verma I, Stevenson J, Schwarz E, Van Antwerp D, Miyamoto S. Rel/NF-kappa B/I kappa B family: intimate tales of association and dissociation. Genes Dev. 1995;9:2723-35 pubmed
  22. Ruan Q, Kameswaran V, Tone Y, Li L, Liou H, Greene M, et al. Development of Foxp3(+) regulatory t cells is driven by the c-Rel enhanceosome. Immunity. 2009;31:932-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that the c-Rel transcription factor controlled development of Treg cells by promoting the formation of a Foxp3-specific ..
  23. Grumont R, Hochrein H, O KEEFFE M, Gugasyan R, White C, Caminschi I, et al. c-Rel regulates interleukin 12 p70 expression in CD8(+) dendritic cells by specifically inducing p35 gene transcription. J Exp Med. 2001;194:1021-32 pubmed
    ..Here we show that in CD8(+) dendritic cells, major producers of IL-12 p70, the Rel/nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB signaling pathway is necessary for the induction of IL-12 in response to microbial ..
  24. Himes S, Coles L, Reeves R, Shannon M. High mobility group protein I(Y) is required for function and for c-Rel binding to CD28 response elements within the GM-CSF and IL-2 promoters. Immunity. 1996;5:479-89 pubmed
    ..We show that the CK-1 element (CD28RE) within the GM-CSF promoter binds the RelA and c-Rel transcription factors in response to CD28 activation...
  25. Grossmann M, Metcalf D, Merryfull J, Beg A, Baltimore D, Gerondakis S. The combined absence of the transcription factors Rel and RelA leads to multiple hemopoietic cell defects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:11848-53 pubmed
    Individual Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factors, although dispensable for the development and maturation of most hemopoietic cells, are critical regulators of normal immune function...
  26. Damdinsuren B, Zhang Y, Khalil A, Wood W, Becker K, Shlomchik M, et al. Single round of antigen receptor signaling programs naive B cells to receive T cell help. Immunity. 2010;32:355-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that transient BCR signals prime B cells to receive T cell help by increasing the probability of B-T encounter and creating a cellular environment that is hyper-responsive to CD40 signaling. ..
  27. Carrasco D, Rizzo C, Dorfman K, Bravo R. The v-rel oncogene promotes malignant T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in transgenic mice. EMBO J. 1996;15:3640-50 pubmed
    The oncogene product from the avian reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T, v-Rel, is a member of the Rel/ NF-kappa B family of transcription factors. The mechanism by which v-Rel induces oncogenic transformation remains unclear...
  28. Wang W, Tam W, Hughes C, Rath S, Sen R. c-Rel is a target of pentoxifylline-mediated inhibition of T lymphocyte activation. Immunity. 1997;6:165-74 pubmed
    ..We found that in T cells, anti-CD3-induced c-Rel expression was blocked by PF, whereas the induction of other NF-kappaB family members was not significantly ..
  29. Banerjee D, Liou H, Sen R. c-Rel-dependent priming of naive T cells by inflammatory cytokines. Immunity. 2005;23:445-58 pubmed
    ..We show that cytokine-mediated priming of naive T cells requires the NF-kappaB family member c-Rel. In resting naive cells c-Rel is associated primarily with IkappaBbeta, an inhibitory molecule that is not ..
  30. Carmody R, Ruan Q, Liou H, Chen Y. Essential roles of c-Rel in TLR-induced IL-23 p19 gene expression in dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2007;178:186-91 pubmed
    ..We report, in this study, that murine dendritic cells deficient in c-Rel, a member of the NF-kappaB family, are severely compromised in their ability to transcribe the p19 gene, one of the ..
  31. Gaspar Pereira S, Fullard N, Townsend P, Banks P, Ellis E, Fox C, et al. The NF-?B subunit c-Rel stimulates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 2012;180:929-39 pubmed publisher
    ..We assign a new role for the c-Rel subunit as a stimulator of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis...
  32. Artis D, Shapira S, Mason N, Speirs K, Goldschmidt M, Caamano J, et al. Differential requirement for NF-kappa B family members in control of helminth infection and intestinal inflammation. J Immunol. 2002;169:4481-7 pubmed
    ..Here we investigated the requirement for NF-kappaB1, NF-kappaB2, and c-Rel in the expression of Th2 cytokine responses, development of host protective immunity, and regulation of intestinal ..
  33. Grumont R, Lock P, Mollinari M, Shannon F, Moore A, Gerondakis S. The mitogen-induced increase in T cell size involves PKC and NFAT activation of Rel/NF-kappaB-dependent c-myc expression. Immunity. 2004;21:19-30 pubmed
    ..cell cycle is partly controlled by inducing c-myc expression, which in B cells is regulated by the NF-kappaB1 and c-Rel transcription factors...
  34. Grumont R, Gerondakis S. The murine c-rel proto-oncogene encodes two mRNAs the expression of which is modulated by lymphoid stimuli. Oncogene Res. 1990;5:245-54 pubmed
    Here we report a survey of c-rel proto-oncogene transcription in murine tissues, cell lines and lymphoid cells. In addition to the previously described 7.5-kb mRNA, we have identified a mRNA of 2.5-kb...
  35. Kontgen F, Grumont R, Strasser A, Metcalf D, Li R, Tarlinton D, et al. Mice lacking the c-rel proto-oncogene exhibit defects in lymphocyte proliferation, humoral immunity, and interleukin-2 expression. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1965-77 pubmed
    The c-rel proto-oncogene, which is expressed predominantly in hemopoietic cells encodes a subunit of the NF-kappa B-like family of transcription factors...
  36. Isomura I, Palmer S, Grumont R, Bunting K, Hoyne G, Wilkinson N, et al. c-Rel is required for the development of thymic Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells. J Exp Med. 2009;206:3001-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the NF-kappaB transcription factor c-Rel is highly expressed in thymic T reg cells and that in c-rel(-/-) mice, thymic T reg cell numbers are markedly ..
  37. Visekruna A, Huber M, Hellhund A, Bothur E, Reinhard K, Bollig N, et al. c-Rel is crucial for the induction of Foxp3(+) regulatory CD4(+) T cells but not T(H)17 cells. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:671-6 pubmed publisher
    The NF-kappaB/Rel family member c-Rel was described to be required for the development of T(H)1 responses. However, the role of c-Rel in the differentiation of T(H)17 and regulatory CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T cells (Treg) remains obscure...
  38. Kaupmann K, Simon Chazottes D, Guenet J, Jockusch H. Wobbler, a mutation affecting motoneuron survival and gonadal functions in the mouse, maps to proximal chromosome 11. Genomics. 1992;13:39-43 pubmed
    ..Close linkage of wr was obtained with Erbb and Rel on chromosome 11 and the gene order cen-Nfh-Erbb-wr-Rel-Hba-Il-3 was established...
  39. Tumang J, Owyang A, Andjelic S, Jin Z, Hardy R, Liou M, et al. c-Rel is essential for B lymphocyte survival and cell cycle progression. Eur J Immunol. 1998;28:4299-312 pubmed
    c-Rel is a lymphoid-specific member of the NF-kappaB/Rel family of transcriptional factors. To investigate the role of c-Rel in B lymphocyte function, we generated a c-Rel(-/-) mouse via a gene targeting approach...
  40. Carrasco D, Cheng J, Lewin A, Warr G, Yang H, Rizzo C, et al. Multiple hemopoietic defects and lymphoid hyperplasia in mice lacking the transcriptional activation domain of the c-Rel protein. J Exp Med. 1998;187:973-84 pubmed
    The c-rel protooncogene encodes a member of the Rel/nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB family of transcriptional factors...
  41. Baeuerle P, Baltimore D. NF-kappa B: ten years after. Cell. 1996;87:13-20 pubmed
  42. Chen G, Hardy K, Pagler E, Ma L, Lee S, Gerondakis S, et al. The NF-?B transcription factor c-Rel is required for Th17 effector cell development in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Immunol. 2011;187:4483-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that mice lacking the NF-?B transcription factor family member c-Rel (rel(-/-)), which are known to be resistant to EAE, show impaired Th17 development...
  43. Inoue J, Kerr L, Ransone L, Bengal E, Hunter T, Verma I. c-rel activates but v-rel suppresses transcription from kappa B sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991;88:3715-9 pubmed
    We show that the product of the protooncogene c-rel is a constituent of an NF-kappa B-like complex that binds to the kappa B site originally identified in the enhancer of immunoglobulin kappa light chain gene...
  44. Bull P, Morley K, Hoekstra M, Hunter T, Verma I. The mouse c-rel protein has an N-terminal regulatory domain and a C-terminal transcriptional transactivation domain. Mol Cell Biol. 1990;10:5473-85 pubmed
    We have shown that the murine c-rel protein can act as a transcriptional transactivator in both yeast and mammalian cells...
  45. Liu J, Cao S, Herman L, Ma X. Differential regulation of interleukin (IL)-12 p35 and p40 gene expression and interferon (IFN)-gamma-primed IL-12 production by IFN regulatory factor 1. J Exp Med. 2003;198:1265-76 pubmed
    ..Thus, IRF-1 acts as a critical component of IFN-gamma signaling in the selective activation of IL-12 p35 transcription in synergy with LPS-mediated events. ..
  46. Zelazowski P, Carrasco D, Rosas F, Moorman M, Bravo R, Snapper C. B cells genetically deficient in the c-Rel transactivation domain have selective defects in germline CH transcription and Ig class switching. J Immunol. 1997;159:3133-9 pubmed
    The Ig heavy chain locus contains a number of binding sites for the transcriptional activator, c-Rel. In this study, we evaluated the capacity of B cells from mice made genetically deficient in the C-terminal, transactivation domain of ..
  47. Carrasco D, Weih F, Bravo R. Developmental expression of the mouse c-rel proto-oncogene in hematopoietic organs. Development. 1994;120:2991-3004 pubmed
    We have studied the expression of the c-rel proto-oncogene during mouse embryonic development and adult animals using in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical analysis...
  48. Lamhamedi Cherradi S, Zheng S, Hilliard B, Xu L, Sun J, Alsheadat S, et al. Transcriptional regulation of type I diabetes by NF-kappa B. J Immunol. 2003;171:4886-92 pubmed
    ..Expression of these genes are regulated by a small number of transcription factors including the Rel/NF-kappaB family...
  49. Vang K, Yang J, Pagán A, Li L, Wang J, Green J, et al. Cutting edge: CD28 and c-Rel-dependent pathways initiate regulatory T cell development. J Immunol. 2010;184:4074-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that c-Rel, but not NF-kappaB1, promotes the development of Treg progenitors...
  50. Grumont R, Gerondakis S. Rel induces interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF-4) expression in lymphocytes: modulation of interferon-regulated gene expression by rel/nuclear factor kappaB. J Exp Med. 2000;191:1281-92 pubmed
    In lymphocytes, the Rel transcription factor is essential in establishing a pattern of gene expression that promotes cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation...
  51. Chen G, Hardy K, Bunting K, Daley S, Ma L, Shannon M. Regulation of the IL-21 gene by the NF-?B transcription factor c-Rel. J Immunol. 2010;185:2350-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrate that c-Rel, a member of the NF-kappaB family of transcription factors, is required for IL-21 gene expression in T lymphocytes...
  52. Campbell I, Gerondakis S, O DONNELL K, Wicks I. Distinct roles for the NF-kappaB1 (p50) and c-Rel transcription factors in inflammatory arthritis. J Clin Invest. 2000;105:1799-806 pubmed
    ..RA is characterized by the production of inflammatory mediators, many of which are regulated by the Rel/NF-kappaB transcription factors...
  53. Ouaaz F, Arron J, Zheng Y, Choi Y, Beg A. Dendritic cell development and survival require distinct NF-kappaB subunits. Immunity. 2002;16:257-70 pubmed
    ..These results therefore indicate essential, subunit-specific functions for NF-kappaB proteins in regulating DC development, survival, and cytokine production. ..