Gene Symbol: Rbp4
Description: retinol binding protein 4, plasma
Alias: Rbp-4, retinol-binding protein 4, PRBP, RBP, plasma retinol-binding protein, retinol binding protein 4, cellular
Species: mouse
Products:     Rbp4

Top Publications

  1. Quadro L, Blaner W, Salchow D, Vogel S, Piantedosi R, Gouras P, et al. Impaired retinal function and vitamin A availability in mice lacking retinol-binding protein. EMBO J. 1999;18:4633-44 pubmed
    Retinol-binding protein (RBP) is the sole specific transport protein for retinol (vitamin A) in the circulation, and its single known function is to deliver retinol to tissues...
  2. Artner I, Hang Y, Mazur M, Yamamoto T, Guo M, Lindner J, et al. MafA and MafB regulate genes critical to beta-cells in a unique temporal manner. Diabetes. 2010;59:2530-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide insight into the sequential manner by which MafA and MafB regulate islet ?-cell formation and maturation. ..
  3. Chiefari E, Paonessa F, Iiritano S, Le Pera I, Palmieri D, Brunetti G, et al. The cAMP-HMGA1-RBP4 system: a novel biochemical pathway for modulating glucose homeostasis. BMC Biol. 2009;7:24 pubmed publisher
    ..We first show that HMGA1 is needed for basal and cAMP-induced retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) gene and protein expression in living cells of both human and mouse origin...
  4. Yang Q, Graham T, Mody N, Preitner F, Peroni O, Zabolotny J, et al. Serum retinol binding protein 4 contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Nature. 2005;436:356-62 pubmed
    ..Here we show, using DNA arrays, that expression of retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) is elevated in adipose tissue of adipose-Glut4(-/-) mice...
  5. Jessen K, Satre M. Induction of mouse retinol binding protein gene expression by cyclic AMP in Hepa 1-6 cells. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1998;357:126-30 pubmed
    Retinol binding protein (RBP) is the primary circulating transport molecule for retinol, facilitating its transport to target tissues and influencing target cell uptake...
  6. Wendler C, Schmoldt A, Flentke G, Case L, Quadro L, Blaner W, et al. Increased fibronectin deposition in embryonic hearts of retinol-binding protein-null mice. Circ Res. 2003;92:920-8 pubmed
    Precise regulation of retinoid levels is critical for normal heart development. Retinol-binding protein (RBP), an extracellular retinol transporter, is strongly secreted by cardiogenic endoderm...
  7. Norseen J, Hosooka T, Hammarstedt A, Yore M, Kant S, Aryal P, et al. Retinol-binding protein 4 inhibits insulin signaling in adipocytes by inducing proinflammatory cytokines in macrophages through a c-Jun N-terminal kinase- and toll-like receptor 4-dependent and retinol-independent mechanism. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:2010-9 pubmed publisher
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), the sole retinol transporter in blood, is secreted from adipocytes and liver. Serum RBP4 levels correlate highly with insulin resistance, other metabolic syndrome factors, and cardiovascular disease...
  8. Ortiz B, Wassef L, Shabrova E, Cordeddu L, Banni S, Quadro L. Hepatic retinol secretion and storage are altered by dietary CLA: common and distinct actions of CLA c9,t11 and t10,c12 isomers. J Lipid Res. 2009;50:2278-89 pubmed publisher
    ..secretion, resulting in increased serum levels of retinol and its specific carrier, retinol-binding protein (RBP)...
  9. Muenzner M, Tuvia N, Deutschmann C, Witte N, Tolkachov A, Valai A, et al. Retinol-binding protein 4 and its membrane receptor STRA6 control adipogenesis by regulating cellular retinoid homeostasis and retinoic acid receptor ? activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:4068-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Circulating retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and its membrane receptor STRA6 coordinate cellular retinol uptake...

More Information


  1. Wongsiriroj N, Jiang H, Piantedosi R, Yang K, Kluwe J, Schwabe R, et al. Genetic dissection of retinoid esterification and accumulation in the liver and adipose tissue. J Lipid Res. 2014;55:104-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The elevated RA-responsive gene expression was associated with elevated hepatic triglyceride levels and decreased expression of Ppar? and its downstream Pdk4 target, suggesting a role for RA in these processes in vivo. ..
  2. Quadro L, Blaner W, Hamberger L, Novikoff P, Vogel S, Piantedosi R, et al. The role of extrahepatic retinol binding protein in the mobilization of retinoid stores. J Lipid Res. 2004;45:1975-82 pubmed
    Although the major tissue site of retinol binding protein (RBP) synthesis in the body is the liver, other sites of synthesis have been reported...
  3. Du M, Phelps E, Balangue M, Dockins A, Moiseyev G, Shin Y, et al. Transgenic Mice Over-Expressing RBP4 Have RBP4-Dependent and Light-Independent Retinal Degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017;58:4375–4383 pubmed publisher
    Transgenic mice overexpressing serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4-Tg) develop progressive retinal degeneration, characterized by microglia activation, yet the precise mechanisms underlying retinal degeneration are unclear...
  4. Bianconcini A, Lupo A, Capone S, Quadro L, Monti M, Zurlo D, et al. Transcriptional activity of the murine retinol-binding protein gene is regulated by a multiprotein complex containing HMGA1, p54 nrb/NonO, protein-associated splicing factor (PSF) and steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1)/liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1). Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:2189-203 pubmed publisher
    Retinol-binding protein (RBP4) transports retinol in the circulation from hepatic stores to peripheral tissues. Since little is known regarding the regulation of this gene, we analysed the cis-regulatory sequences of the mouse RBP4 gene...
  5. Berry D, Jacobs H, Marwarha G, Gely Pernot A, O Byrne S, DeSantis D, et al. The STRA6 receptor is essential for retinol-binding protein-induced insulin resistance but not for maintaining vitamin A homeostasis in tissues other than the eye. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:24528-39 pubmed publisher
    ..membrane protein STRA6 is thought to mediate uptake of retinol from its blood carrier retinol-binding protein (RBP) into cells and to function as a surface receptor that, upon binding of holo-RBP, activates a JAK/STAT cascade...
  6. O Brien E, Novak E, Keller S, Poirier C, Guenet J, Swank R. Molecular map of chromosome 19 including three genes affecting bleeding time: ep, ru, and bm. Mamm Genome. 1994;5:356-60 pubmed
    ..Several markers were found to be closely linked to the three genes and should be useful as entry points in their eventual molecular identification. ..
  7. Thompson S, Sargsyan A, Lee S, Yuen J, Cai J, Smalling R, et al. Hepatocytes Are the Principal Source of Circulating RBP4 in Mice. Diabetes. 2017;66:58-63 pubmed publisher
    b>RBP4 is produced mainly by hepatocytes. In type 2 diabetes and obesity, circulating RBP4 is increased and may act systemically to cause insulin resistance and glucose intolerance...
  8. Du M, Martin A, HAYS F, Johnson J, FARJO R, Farjo K. Serum retinol-binding protein-induced endothelial inflammation is mediated through the activation of toll-like receptor 4. Mol Vis. 2017;23:185-197 pubmed
    Elevation of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) induces inflammation in primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) via a retinol-independent mechanism; thus, it may play a causative role in the development and ..
  9. Buck K, Rademacher B, Metten P, Crabbe J. Mapping murine loci for physical dependence on ethanol. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002;160:398-407 pubmed
    ..Syntenic homology between human and mouse chromosomes suggests that genes related to physical dependence on ethanol may localize to human chromosome regions 10q23-q26, 1q21-q43, 2q11-q32, 5p15/5q14-q21, and 9p24-p22. ..
  10. Hatfield J, Anderson P, Powell B. Retinol-binding protein 4 is expressed in chondrocytes of developing mouse long bones: implications for a local role in formation of the secondary ossification center. Histochem Cell Biol. 2013;139:727-34 pubmed publisher
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (Rbp4) is the major carrier of retinol in the bloodstream, a retinoid whose metabolites influence osteogenesis, chondrogenesis and adipogenesis...
  11. Vogel S, Piantedosi R, O Byrne S, Kako Y, Quadro L, Gottesman M, et al. Retinol-binding protein-deficient mice: biochemical basis for impaired vision. Biochemistry. 2002;41:15360-8 pubmed
    We reported previously that mice lacking plasma retinol-binding protein (RBP) are phenotypically normal except that they display impaired vision at the time of weaning...
  12. Buxbaum J, Roberts A, Adame A, Masliah E. Silencing of murine transthyretin and retinol binding protein genes has distinct and shared behavioral and neuropathologic effects. Neuroscience. 2014;275:352-64 pubmed publisher
    ..if it was related to TTR's function as the carrier of RBP we carried out simultaneous studies with homozygous Rbp4(-/-) and Ttr(-/-) animals 4-7 months of age...
  13. Mercader J, Granados N, Bonet M, Palou A. All-trans retinoic acid decreases murine adipose retinol binding protein 4 production. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2008;22:363-72 pubmed publisher
    Adipose-derived retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) might contribute to the development of insulin resistance, and therefore further knowledge of factors regulating it is of interest...
  14. Golczak M, Maeda A, Bereta G, Maeda T, Kiser P, Hunzelmann S, et al. Metabolic basis of visual cycle inhibition by retinoid and nonretinoid compounds in the vertebrate retina. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:9543-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we provide evidence for a crucial role of lecithin: retinol acyltransferase activity in mediating tissue specific absorption and long lasting therapeutic effects of retinoid-based visual cycle inhibitors. ..
  15. Wassef L, Spiegler E, Quadro L. Embryonic phenotype, ?-carotene and retinoid metabolism upon maternal supplementation of ?-carotene in a mouse model of severe vitamin A deficiency. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2013;539:223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..e. Lrat-/-Rbp-/- dams maintained on a vitamin A-deficient diet during gestation...
  16. Quadro L, Hamberger L, Gottesman M, Wang F, Colantuoni V, Blaner W, et al. Pathways of vitamin A delivery to the embryo: insights from a new tunable model of embryonic vitamin A deficiency. Endocrinology. 2005;146:4479-90 pubmed
    ..retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives) are found predominantly as retinol bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP), which transports retinol from liver stores to target tissues, or as retinyl ester incorporated in lipoproteins of ..
  17. Kim Y, Wassef L, Chung S, Jiang H, Wyss A, Blaner W, et al. ?-Carotene and its cleavage enzyme ?-carotene-15,15'-oxygenase (CMOI) affect retinoid metabolism in developing tissues. FASEB J. 2011;25:1641-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We performed loss of CMOI function studies in mice lacking retinol-binding protein (RBP), an established model of embryonic vitamin A deficiency (VAD)...
  18. Wassef L, Shete V, Hong A, Spiegler E, Quadro L. ?-Carotene supplementation decreases placental transcription of LDL receptor-related protein 1 in wild-type mice and stimulates placental ?-carotene uptake in marginally vitamin A-deficient mice. J Nutr. 2012;142:1456-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We used wild-type (WT) and Lrat(-/-)Rbp(-/-) (L(-/-)R(-/-)) mice, the latter being a model of marginal vitamin A deficiency...
  19. Kuperman Y, Issler O, Vaughan J, Bilezikjian L, Vale W, Chen A. Expression and regulation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 2? in developing and mature mouse skeletal muscle. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:157-69 pubmed publisher
    ..The current findings further position the SM CRFR2 pathways as a relevant physiological system that may affect the known reciprocal relationship between psychological and physiological challenges and the metabolic syndrome. ..
  20. Sopher A, Gerken A, Blaner W, Root J, McMahon D, Oberfield S. Metabolic manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome in nonobese adolescents: retinol-binding protein 4 and ectopic fat deposition. Fertil Steril. 2012;97:1009-15 pubmed publisher
    ..whether nonobese adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher levels of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and ectopic fat than controls and whether RBP4 and ectopic fat correlate with comorbidities of metabolic disease...
  21. Amengual J, Zhang N, Kemerer M, Maeda T, Palczewski K, von Lintig J. STRA6 is critical for cellular vitamin A uptake and homeostasis. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:5402-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Blood transport of the lipophilic vitamin is mediated by the retinol-binding protein, RBP4. Biochemical evidence suggests that cellular uptake of vitamin A from RBP4 is facilitated by a membrane receptor...
  22. Dale B, Jones A, Presland R, Adler D, Disteche C. Chromosomal localization of the retinol binding protein gene and its elimination as a candidate gene for the repeated epilation (Er) mutation in mice. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 1992;12:76-81 pubmed
    ..b>Plasma retinol binding protein (RBP) was tested as a possible candidate gene for the Er defect because of the importance of retinol ..
  23. Kim Y, Wassef L, Hamberger L, Piantedosi R, Palczewski K, Blaner W, et al. Retinyl ester formation by lecithin: retinol acyltransferase is a key regulator of retinoid homeostasis in mouse embryogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:5611-21 pubmed
    ..Dams lacking both LRAT and retinol-binding protein (RBP), the sole specific carrier for retinol in serum, were maintained on diets containing different amounts of vitamin ..
  24. O Byrne S, Kako Y, Deckelbaum R, Hansen I, Palczewski K, Goldberg I, et al. Multiple pathways ensure retinoid delivery to milk: studies in genetically modified mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2010;298:E862-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Rbp(-/-) mice maintain milk retinoid concentrations similar to those in matched wild-type mice...
  25. Moraes Vieira P, Castoldi A, Aryal P, Wellenstein K, Peroni O, Kahn B. Antigen Presentation and T-Cell Activation Are Critical for RBP4-Induced Insulin Resistance. Diabetes. 2016;65:1317-27 pubmed publisher
    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation contributes to impaired insulin action, which is a major cause of type 2 diabetes. RBP4 is an adipocyte- and liver-derived protein with an important role in insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and AT ..
  26. Messer L, Wang L, Yelich J, Pomp D, Geisert R, Rothschild M. Linkage mapping of the retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) gene to porcine chromosome 14. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:396 pubmed
  27. McIlroy G, Delibegovic M, Owen C, Stoney P, Shearer K, McCaffery P, et al. Fenretinide treatment prevents diet-induced obesity in association with major alterations in retinoid homeostatic gene expression in adipose, liver, and hypothalamus. Diabetes. 2013;62:825-36 pubmed publisher
    ..downregulation of PPAR? and improved insulin sensitivity and the levels of adiponectin, resistin, and serum RBP (RBP4). FEN inhibited hyperleptinemia in vivo and leptin expression in adipocytes...
  28. Quadro L, Gamble M, Vogel S, Lima A, Piantedosi R, Moore S, et al. Retinol and retinol-binding protein: gut integrity and circulating immunoglobulins. J Infect Dis. 2000;182 Suppl 1:S97-S102 pubmed
    ..No differences were observed in B and T cell populations present in spleen, thymus, and bone marrow. ..
  29. Chainani M, Sampsell B, Elliott R. Localization of the gene for plasma retinol binding protein to the distal half of mouse chromosome 19. Genomics. 1991;9:376-9 pubmed
    ..the polymorphism in DNA from 64 inbred mouse strains demonstrated the presence of a single gene with two alleles, Rbp-4b and Rbp-4d...
  30. Ghyselinck N, Vernet N, Dennefeld C, Giese N, Nau H, Chambon P, et al. Retinoids and spermatogenesis: lessons from mutant mice lacking the plasma retinol binding protein. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1608-22 pubmed
    Using Rbp4-null mice as models, we have established for the first time the kinetics of the spermatogenetic alterations during vitamin A deficiency (VAD)...
  31. Petri A, Ahnfelt Rønne J, Frederiksen K, Edwards D, Madsen D, Serup P, et al. The effect of neurogenin3 deficiency on pancreatic gene expression in embryonic mice. J Mol Endocrinol. 2006;37:301-16 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Irx1 and Irx2 serve an evolutionary conserved role in the regulation of alpha-cell-specific gene expression. ..
  32. Sapin V, Ward S, Bronner S, Chambon P, Dolle P. Differential expression of transcripts encoding retinoid binding proteins and retinoic acid receptors during placentation of the mouse. Dev Dyn. 1997;208:199-210 pubmed
    We report the distribution of transcripts from genes encoding the retinol binding protein (RBP), the cellular retinol binding proteins (CRBP I, II) and retinoic acid binding proteins (CRABP I, II), the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (..
  33. Kraus B, Sartoretto J, Polak P, Hosooka T, Shiroto T, Eskurza I, et al. Novel role for retinol-binding protein 4 in the regulation of blood pressure. FASEB J. 2015;29:3133-40 pubmed publisher
    Elevated levels of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) contribute to insulin resistance and correlate with increased prevalence of hypertension and myocardial infarction...
  34. Moraes Vieira P, Yore M, Dwyer P, Syed I, Aryal P, Kahn B. RBP4 activates antigen-presenting cells, leading to adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. Cell Metab. 2014;19:512-26 pubmed publisher
    ..b>RBP4, a retinol transporter, is elevated in insulin resistance and contributes to increased diabetes risk...
  35. Rosell M, Hondares E, Iwamoto S, Gonzalez F, Wabitsch M, Staels B, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-? and -?, and cAMP-mediated pathways, control retinol-binding protein-4 gene expression in brown adipose tissue. Endocrinology. 2012;153:1162-73 pubmed publisher
    Retinol binding protein-4 (RBP4) is a serum protein involved in the transport of vitamin A. It is known to be produced by the liver and white adipose tissue. RBP4 release by white fat has been proposed to induce insulin resistance...
  36. Mody N, Graham T, Tsuji Y, Yang Q, Kahn B. Decreased clearance of serum retinol-binding protein and elevated levels of transthyretin in insulin-resistant ob/ob mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:E785-93 pubmed publisher
    Serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4) is secreted by liver and adipocytes and is implicated in systemic insulin resistance in rodents and humans...
  37. Mohapatra J, Sharma M, Acharya A, Pandya G, Chatterjee A, Balaraman R, et al. Retinol-binding protein 4 : a possible role in cardiovascular complications. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;164:1939-48 pubmed publisher
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipocyte-secreted hormone proposed to link obesity with insulin resistance. However, the role of RBP4 in cardiovascular complications is yet to be fully understood...
  38. Mock B, Connelly M, McBride O, Kozak C, Marcu K. CHUK, a conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase, maps to human chromosome 10 and mouse chromosome 19. Genomics. 1995;27:348-51 pubmed
    ..Chuk and a related sequence, Chuk-rs1, were mapped to mouse chromosomes 19 and 16, respectively, by a combination of somatic cell hybrid, recombinant inbred, and backcross analyses. ..
  39. Gao W, Wang H, Zhang L, Cao Y, Bao J, Liu Z, et al. Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Induces Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy by Activating TLR4/MyD88 Pathway. Endocrinology. 2016;157:2282-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that circulating levels and adipose expression of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), an adipokine that contributes to systemic insulin resistance, were elevated in cardiac hypertrophy induced by ..
  40. Quadro L, Blaner W, Hamberger L, Van Gelder R, Vogel S, Piantedosi R, et al. Muscle expression of human retinol-binding protein (RBP). Suppression of the visual defect of RBP knockout mice. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:30191-7 pubmed
    Mice lacking retinol-binding protein (RBP) have low circulating retinol levels. They have severe visual defects due to a low content of retinol or retinyl esters in the eye...
  41. Lee J, Saha P, Yang Q, Lee S, Park J, Suh Y, et al. Targeted inactivation of MLL3 histone H3-Lys-4 methyltransferase activity in the mouse reveals vital roles for MLL3 in adipogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:19229-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ASCOM-MLL3 and ASCOM-MLL4 likely function as crucial but redundant H3K4MT complexes for PPARgamma-dependent adipogenesis. ..
  42. Berry D, Croniger C, Ghyselinck N, Noy N. Transthyretin blocks retinol uptake and cell signaling by the holo-retinol-binding protein receptor STRA6. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:3851-9 pubmed publisher
    Vitamin A is secreted from cellular stores and circulates in blood bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP). In turn, holo-RBP associates in plasma with transthyretin (TTR) to form a ternary RBP-retinol-TTR complex...
  43. Tan Y, Sun L, Kamal M, Wang X, Seale J, Qu X. Suppression of retinol-binding protein 4 with RNA oligonucleotide prevents high-fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1811:1045-53 pubmed publisher
    Conflicting data have been reported regarding the role of retinol-binding protein (RBP4) in insulin resistance, obesity, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
  44. Thompson C, Blaner W, Van Gelder R, Lai K, Quadro L, Colantuoni V, et al. Preservation of light signaling to the suprachiasmatic nucleus in vitamin A-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:11708-13 pubmed
    ..the role of retinal-based pigments (opsins) in circadian photoreception in mice, animals mutated in plasma retinol binding protein were placed on a vitamin A-free diet and tested for photic induction of gene expression in the ..
  45. Zemany L, Bhanot S, Peroni O, Murray S, Moraes Vieira P, Castoldi A, et al. Transthyretin Antisense Oligonucleotides Lower Circulating RBP4 Levels and Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Mice. Diabetes. 2015;64:1603-14 pubmed publisher
    Circulating transthyretin (TTR) is a critical determinant of plasma retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels. Elevated RBP4 levels cause insulin resistance, and the lowering of RBP4 levels improves glucose homeostasis...
  46. Shen J, Shi D, Suzuki T, Xia Z, Zhang H, Araki K, et al. Severe ocular phenotypes in Rbp4-deficient mice in the C57BL/6 genetic background. Lab Invest. 2016;96:680-91 pubmed publisher
    Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a specific carrier for retinol in the blood. In hepatocytes, newly synthesized RBP4 associates with retinol and transthyretin and is secreted into the blood...
  47. Gough N, Rakar S, Harpur A, Wilks A. Localization of genes for two members of the JAK family of protein tyrosine kinases to murine chromosomes 4 and 19. Mamm Genome. 1995;6:247-8 pubmed
    ..The location of Jak-2 in the mouse genome extends the region of homology between mouse Chr 19 and human Chr 9. ..
  48. Fu M, Sato Y, Lyons Warren A, Zhang B, KANE M, Napoli J, et al. Vitamin A facilitates enteric nervous system precursor migration by reducing Pten accumulation. Development. 2010;137:631-40 pubmed publisher
    ..and that vitamin A depletion causes distal bowel aganglionosis in serum retinol-binding-protein-deficient (Rbp4(-/-)) mice...
  49. Alapatt P, Guo F, Komanetsky S, Wang S, Cai J, Sargsyan A, et al. Liver retinol transporter and receptor for serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4). J Biol Chem. 2013;288:1250-65 pubmed publisher
    ..in the small intestine, stored in liver, and secreted into circulation bound to serum retinol-binding protein (RBP4)...
  50. Tan S. Liver-specific and position-effect expression of a retinol-binding protein-lacZ fusion gene (RBP-lacZ) in transgenic mice. Dev Biol. 1991;146:24-37 pubmed
    ..protection assays of the R197 mRNA indicate that the lacZ sequences are appropriately transcribed downstream of the RBP canonical TATA box, even though the RBP promoter is itself silent...
  51. Chen F, Marquez H, Kim Y, Qian J, Shao F, Fine A, et al. Prenatal retinoid deficiency leads to airway hyperresponsiveness in adult mice. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:801-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal a role for endogenous RA signaling in restricting SM differentiation and preventing precocious and excessive SM differentiation when airways are forming. ..
  52. White R, Boydston L, Brookshier T, McNulty S, Nsumu N, Brewer B, et al. Iron metabolism mutant hbd mice have a deletion in Sec15l1, which has homology to a yeast gene for vesicle docking. Genomics. 2005;86:668-73 pubmed
    ..The hbd mice have an exon deletion in Sec15l1, which is the first known mutation of a SEC gene homologue in mammals. ..
  53. Gely Pernot A, Raverdeau M, Celebi C, Dennefeld C, Féret B, Klopfenstein M, et al. Spermatogonia differentiation requires retinoic acid receptor ?. Endocrinology. 2012;153:438-49 pubmed publisher
    ..This latter observation supports the notion that the RA-signaling pathway previously shown to operate in Sertoli cells also participates in spermatogonia differentiation. ..