Rax

Summary

Gene Symbol: Rax
Description: retina and anterior neural fold homeobox
Alias: 7530406A22Rik, E130303K03Rik, ey-1, ey1, retinal homeobox protein Rx, Rx/rax homeoprotein, eyeless 1, retina and anterior neural fold homeobox protein
Species: mouse
Products:     Rax

Top Publications

  1. Voronina V, Kozlov S, Mathers P, Lewandoski M. Conditional alleles for activation and inactivation of the mouse Rx homeobox gene. Genesis. 2005;41:160-4 pubmed
  2. Matsushima D, Heavner W, Pevny L. Combinatorial regulation of optic cup progenitor cell fate by SOX2 and PAX6. Development. 2011;138:443-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that precise regulation of the ratio of SOX2 to PAX6 is necessary to ensure accurate progenitor cell specification, and place SOX2 as a decisive factor of neural competence in the retina. ..
  3. Liu W, Lagutin O, Swindell E, Jamrich M, Oliver G. Neuroretina specification in mouse embryos requires Six3-mediated suppression of Wnt8b in the anterior neural plate. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3568-77 pubmed publisher
  4. Fujimura N, Taketo M, Mori M, Korinek V, Kozmik Z. Spatial and temporal regulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is essential for development of the retinal pigment epithelium. Dev Biol. 2009;334:31-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined, our data suggest that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays an essential role in development of RPE by maintaining or inducing expression of Mitf and Otx2. ..
  5. Tétreault N, Champagne M, Bernier G. The LIM homeobox transcription factor Lhx2 is required to specify the retina field and synergistically cooperates with Pax6 for Six6 trans-activation. Dev Biol. 2009;327:541-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work reveals how two master regulators of eye development coordinate their action to sequentially promote tissue-specific transcriptional initiation and full activation of a retinal determinant gene. ..
  6. Wang Y, Dakubo G, Thurig S, Mazerolle C, Wallace V. Retinal ganglion cell-derived sonic hedgehog locally controls proliferation and the timing of RGC development in the embryonic mouse retina. Development. 2005;132:5103-13 pubmed
  7. Lagutin O, Zhu C, Kobayashi D, Topczewski J, Shimamura K, Puelles L, et al. Six3 repression of Wnt signaling in the anterior neuroectoderm is essential for vertebrate forebrain development. Genes Dev. 2003;17:368-79 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these results support the hypothesis that a Wnt signal gradient specifies posterior fates in the anterior neural plate. ..
  8. Plageman T, Lang R. Generation of an Rx-tTA: TetOp-Cre knock-in mouse line for doxycycline regulated Cre activity in the Rx expression domain. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50426 pubmed publisher
    ..This line has the potential to facilitate conditional knock-out experimentation to study early retina and/or posterior pituitary development. ..
  9. Swindell E, Liu C, Shah R, Smith A, Lang R, Jamrich M. Eye formation in the absence of retina. Dev Biol. 2008;322:56-64 pubmed publisher
    ..One involved in the formation of the eyeball and the second involved in the formation of the auxiliary eye structures. ..
  10. Furukawa T, Kozak C, Cepko C. rax, a novel paired-type homeobox gene, shows expression in the anterior neural fold and developing retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3088-93 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we report the identification of a novel homeobox gene, rax (retina and anterior neural fold homeobox), whose expression pattern suggests an important role in eye development...

Detail Information

Publications80

  1. Voronina V, Kozlov S, Mathers P, Lewandoski M. Conditional alleles for activation and inactivation of the mouse Rx homeobox gene. Genesis. 2005;41:160-4 pubmed
  2. Matsushima D, Heavner W, Pevny L. Combinatorial regulation of optic cup progenitor cell fate by SOX2 and PAX6. Development. 2011;138:443-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that precise regulation of the ratio of SOX2 to PAX6 is necessary to ensure accurate progenitor cell specification, and place SOX2 as a decisive factor of neural competence in the retina. ..
  3. Liu W, Lagutin O, Swindell E, Jamrich M, Oliver G. Neuroretina specification in mouse embryos requires Six3-mediated suppression of Wnt8b in the anterior neural plate. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3568-77 pubmed publisher
  4. Fujimura N, Taketo M, Mori M, Korinek V, Kozmik Z. Spatial and temporal regulation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is essential for development of the retinal pigment epithelium. Dev Biol. 2009;334:31-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined, our data suggest that Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays an essential role in development of RPE by maintaining or inducing expression of Mitf and Otx2. ..
  5. Tétreault N, Champagne M, Bernier G. The LIM homeobox transcription factor Lhx2 is required to specify the retina field and synergistically cooperates with Pax6 for Six6 trans-activation. Dev Biol. 2009;327:541-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work reveals how two master regulators of eye development coordinate their action to sequentially promote tissue-specific transcriptional initiation and full activation of a retinal determinant gene. ..
  6. Wang Y, Dakubo G, Thurig S, Mazerolle C, Wallace V. Retinal ganglion cell-derived sonic hedgehog locally controls proliferation and the timing of RGC development in the embryonic mouse retina. Development. 2005;132:5103-13 pubmed
  7. Lagutin O, Zhu C, Kobayashi D, Topczewski J, Shimamura K, Puelles L, et al. Six3 repression of Wnt signaling in the anterior neuroectoderm is essential for vertebrate forebrain development. Genes Dev. 2003;17:368-79 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these results support the hypothesis that a Wnt signal gradient specifies posterior fates in the anterior neural plate. ..
  8. Plageman T, Lang R. Generation of an Rx-tTA: TetOp-Cre knock-in mouse line for doxycycline regulated Cre activity in the Rx expression domain. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50426 pubmed publisher
    ..This line has the potential to facilitate conditional knock-out experimentation to study early retina and/or posterior pituitary development. ..
  9. Swindell E, Liu C, Shah R, Smith A, Lang R, Jamrich M. Eye formation in the absence of retina. Dev Biol. 2008;322:56-64 pubmed publisher
    ..One involved in the formation of the eyeball and the second involved in the formation of the auxiliary eye structures. ..
  10. Furukawa T, Kozak C, Cepko C. rax, a novel paired-type homeobox gene, shows expression in the anterior neural fold and developing retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3088-93 pubmed
    ..In this paper, we report the identification of a novel homeobox gene, rax (retina and anterior neural fold homeobox), whose expression pattern suggests an important role in eye development...
  11. Tucker P, Laemle L, Munson A, Kanekar S, Oliver E, Brown N, et al. The eyeless mouse mutation (ey1) removes an alternative start codon from the Rx/rax homeobox gene. Genesis. 2001;31:43-53 pubmed
    ..suggest that a small number of interacting genes are responsible, including at least one major recessive locus, ey1. Although predicted since the 1940s, these loci were never identified...
  12. Hallonet M, Hollemann T, Pieler T, Gruss P. Vax1, a novel homeobox-containing gene, directs development of the basal forebrain and visual system. Genes Dev. 1999;13:3106-14 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these results, we propose a model for a molecular cascade involved in the establishment of structures of the visual system. ..
  13. Swindell E, Bailey T, Loosli F, Liu C, Amaya Manzanares F, Mahon K, et al. Rx-Cre, a tool for inactivation of gene expression in the developing retina. Genesis. 2006;44:361-3 pubmed
    ..Using these sequences, we made a Cre line that can be used for inactivation of gene expression in the developing retina. ..
  14. Mathers P, Grinberg A, Mahon K, Jamrich M. The Rx homeobox gene is essential for vertebrate eye development. Nature. 1997;387:603-7 pubmed
    ..Mouse embryos carrying a null allele of this gene do not form optic cups and so do not develop eyes. The Rx gene family plays an important role in the establishment and/or proliferation of retinal progenitor cells. ..
  15. Zhang L, Mathers P, Jamrich M. Function of Rx, but not Pax6, is essential for the formation of retinal progenitor cells in mice. Genesis. 2000;28:135-42 pubmed
  16. Nishida A, Furukawa A, Koike C, Tano Y, Aizawa S, Matsuo I, et al. Otx2 homeobox gene controls retinal photoreceptor cell fate and pineal gland development. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:1255-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, Otx2 is a key regulatory gene for the cell fate determination of retinal photoreceptor cells. Our results reveal the key molecular steps required for photoreceptor cell-fate determination and pinealocyte development. ..
  17. Horsford D, Nguyen M, Sellar G, Kothary R, Arnheiter H, McInnes R. Chx10 repression of Mitf is required for the maintenance of mammalian neuroretinal identity. Development. 2005;132:177-87 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that the repression of Mitf by FGF is Chx10 dependent, indicating that FGF, Chx10 and Mitf are components of a pathway that determines and maintains the identity of the NR. ..
  18. Morcillo J, Martinez Morales J, Trousse F, Fermin Y, Sowden J, Bovolenta P. Proper patterning of the optic fissure requires the sequential activity of BMP7 and SHH. Development. 2006;133:3179-90 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data indicate that BMP7 is required for retinal fissure formation and that its activity is needed, before SHH signalling, for the generation of PAX2-positive cells at the optic disc. ..
  19. Lu F, Kar D, Gruenig N, Zhang Z, Cousins N, Rodgers H, et al. Rax is a selector gene for mediobasal hypothalamic cell types. J Neurosci. 2013;33:259-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the Retina and anterior neural fold homeobox (Rax) gene plays a key role in establishing ARC and VMH nuclei in mice...
  20. Laemle L, Ottenweller J. Daily patterns of running wheel activity in male anophthalmic mice. Physiol Behav. 1998;64:165-71 pubmed
  21. Alfano G, Vitiello C, Caccioppoli C, Caramico T, Carola A, Szego M, et al. Natural antisense transcripts associated with genes involved in eye development. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:913-23 pubmed
    ..identification of eight novel mouse NATs associated with transcription factors (Pax6, Pax2, Six3, Six6, Otx2, Crx, Rax and Vax2) that play an important role in eye development and function...
  22. Silver J. Abnormal development of the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus in a strain of genetically anophthalmic mice. J Comp Neurol. 1977;176:589-606 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that regular formation of the suprachiasmatic region of the hypothalamus and especially the suprachiasmatic nuclei, may depend during development upon the presence of the eye or the subjacent optic axons. ..
  23. Chabot N, Robert S, Tremblay R, Miceli D, Boire D, Bronchti G. Audition differently activates the visual system in neonatally enucleated mice compared with anophthalmic mutants. Eur J Neurosci. 2007;26:2334-48 pubmed
    ..None was found in controls with intact eyes. We suggest that the prenatal period of spontaneous retinal activity shapes the differences of the sensory reorganization in mice. ..
  24. Irie S, Sanuki R, Muranishi Y, Kato K, Chaya T, Furukawa T. Rax Homeoprotein Regulates Photoreceptor Cell Maturation and Survival in Association with Crx in the Postnatal Mouse Retina. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:2583-96 pubmed publisher
    The Rax homeobox gene plays essential roles in multiple processes of vertebrate retina development. Many vertebrate species possess Rax and Rax2 genes, and different functions have been suggested...
  25. Gotoh N, Ito M, Yamamoto S, Yoshino I, Song N, Wang Y, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation sites on FRS2alpha responsible for Shp2 recruitment are critical for induction of lens and retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:17144-9 pubmed
    ..These experiments demonstrate that intracellular signals that depend on specific tyrosine residues in FRS2alpha lie upstream of gene products critical for induction of lens and retina. ..
  26. Orquera D, Nasif S, Low M, Rubinstein M, de Souza F. Essential function of the transcription factor Rax in the early patterning of the mammalian hypothalamus. Dev Biol. 2016;416:212-224 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigate the function of the homeobox gene Rax/Rx in early hypothalamic development using a conditional targeted inactivation strategy in the mouse...
  27. Miranda Angulo A, Byerly M, Mesa J, Wang H, Blackshaw S. Rax regulates hypothalamic tanycyte differentiation and barrier function in mice. J Comp Neurol. 2014;522:876-99 pubmed publisher
    ..We observed that the retina and anterior neural fold homeobox transcription factor (Rax) is selectively expressed in hypothalamic tanycytes, and showed a complementary pattern of expression to markers of ..
  28. Hägglund A, Dahl L, Carlsson L. Lhx2 is required for patterning and expansion of a distinct progenitor cell population committed to eye development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23387 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we have defined a distinct progenitor cell population in the forebrain committed to eye development and identified genes linked to Lhx2's function in the expansion and patterning of these progenitor cells. ..
  29. Salvatierra J, Lee D, Zibetti C, Duran Moreno M, Yoo S, Newman E, et al. The LIM homeodomain factor Lhx2 is required for hypothalamic tanycyte specification and differentiation. J Neurosci. 2014;34:16809-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Lhx2-deficient tanycytes lost expression of tanycyte-specific genes, such as Rax, while also displaying ectopic expression of genes specific to cuboid ependymal cells, such as Rarres2...
  30. Heavner W, Andoniadou C, Pevny L. Establishment of the neurogenic boundary of the mouse retina requires cooperation of SOX2 and WNT signaling. Neural Dev. 2014;9:27 pubmed publisher
  31. Pak T, Yoo S, Miranda Angulo A, Miranda Angulo A, Wang H, Blackshaw S. Rax-CreERT2 knock-in mice: a tool for selective and conditional gene deletion in progenitor cells and radial glia of the retina and hypothalamus. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e90381 pubmed publisher
    To study gene function in neural progenitors and radial glia of the retina and hypothalamus, we developed a Rax-CreERT2 mouse line in which a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase is inserted into the endogenous Rax locus...
  32. Tabata Y, Ouchi Y, Kamiya H, Manabe T, Arai K, Watanabe S. Specification of the retinal fate of mouse embryonic stem cells by ectopic expression of Rx/rax, a homeobox gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:4513-21 pubmed
    ..of generating retinal cells from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells by exogenous gene transfer, we introduced the Rx/rax transcription factor, which is expressed in immature retinal cells, into feeder-free mouse ES cells (CCE)...
  33. Hårch C, Chase H, Gonsalves N. Studies on an anophthalmic strain of mice. VI. Lens and cup interaction. Dev Biol. 1978;63:352-7 pubmed
  34. Lord Grignon J, Abdouh M, Bernier G. Identification of genes expressed in retinal progenitor/stem cell colonies isolated from the ocular ciliary body of adult mice. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:992-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our study reveals that PSC isolated from the ocular CB express genes involved in the control of embryonic development, retinal identity, redox metabolism, and cellular proliferation. ..
  35. Li J, Tang Y, Cai D. IKK?/NF-?B disrupts adult hypothalamic neural stem cells to mediate a neurodegenerative mechanism of dietary obesity and pre-diabetes. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:999-1012 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, adult htNSCs are important for the central regulation of metabolic physiology, and IKK?/NF-?B-mediated impairment of adult htNSCs is a critical neurodegenerative mechanism for obesity and related diabetes. ..
  36. Langer L, Taranova O, Sulik K, Pevny L. SOX2 hypomorphism disrupts development of the prechordal floor and optic cup. Mech Dev. 2012;129:1-12 pubmed publisher
  37. Aujla P, Naratadam G, Xu L, Raetzman L. Notch/Rbpj? signaling regulates progenitor maintenance and differentiation of hypothalamic arcuate neurons. Development. 2013;140:3511-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that Notch/Rbpj? signaling regulates the generation and differentiation of Arc neurons, which contribute to homeostatic regulation of body size. ..
  38. Qi Y, Zhang M, Li H, Frank J, Dai L, Liu H, et al. MicroRNA-29b regulates ethanol-induced neuronal apoptosis in the developing cerebellum through SP1/RAX/PKR cascade. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:10201-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our data indicated that miR-29b mediated ethanol neurotoxicity through the SP1/RAX/PKR cascade...
  39. Laemle L, Ottenweller J. The relationship between circadian rhythmicity and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of congenitally anophthalmic mice. Brain Res. 2001;917:105-11 pubmed
    ..Our data provide the first definitive evidence that the presence of VIP neurons in the SCN is not sufficient for generation of circadian locomotor rhythms. ..
  40. Rohde K, Bering T, Furukawa T, Rath M. A modulatory role of the Rax homeobox gene in mature pineal gland function: Investigating the photoneuroendocrine circadian system of a Rax conditional knockout mouse. J Neurochem. 2017;143:100-111 pubmed publisher
    The retinal and anterior neural fold homeobox gene (Rax) controls development of the eye and the forebrain. Postnatal expression of Rax in the brain is restricted to the pineal gland, a forebrain structure devoted to melatonin synthesis...
  41. Zhao S, Hung F, Colvin J, White A, Dai W, Lovicu F, et al. Patterning the optic neuroepithelium by FGF signaling and Ras activation. Development. 2001;128:5051-60 pubmed
    ..In mouse embryos lacking FGF9, the retinal pigment epithelium extends into the presumptive neural retina, indicating a role of FGF9 in defining the boundary of the neural retina. ..
  42. Piché M, Robert S, Miceli D, Bronchti G. Environmental enrichment enhances auditory takeover of the occipital cortex in anophthalmic mice. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:3463-72 pubmed
    ..This animal model will be useful for understanding neuronal mechanisms underlying some cross-modal sensory phenomena observed in blind or deaf humans. ..
  43. Lee H, Wroblewski E, Philips G, Stair C, Conley K, Reedy M, et al. Multiple requirements for Hes 1 during early eye formation. Dev Biol. 2005;284:464-78 pubmed
    ..Together, these studies demonstrate that Hes1, like Pax6, simultaneously regulates multiple developmental processes during optic development. ..
  44. Wang Q, Chen S, Esumi N, Swain P, Haines H, Peng G, et al. QRX, a novel homeobox gene, modulates photoreceptor gene expression. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:1025-40 pubmed
    ..Its homeodomain is nearly identical to that of Rx/Rax, a transcription factor that is essential for eye development, but it shares only limited homology elsewhere...
  45. Laemle L, Ottenweller J. Nonphotic entrainment of activity and temperature rhythms in anophthalmic mice. Physiol Behav. 1999;66:461-71 pubmed
    ..Both sighted and anophthalmic mice were able to entrain to restricted wheel access, although not all animals responded. Mice that did not entrain showed either no effect of wheel locking or exhibited masking. ..
  46. Beck S. The anophthalmic mutant of the mouse. II. An association of anophthalmia and polydactyly. J Hered. 1963;54:79-83 pubmed
  47. Webster E, Silver A, Gonsalves N. The extracellular matrix between the optic vesicle and presumptive lens during lens morphogenesis in an anophthalmic strain of mice. Dev Biol. 1984;103:142-50 pubmed
    ..B. Chase (1941, J. Morphol. 68, 279-301) that there may be abnormal contact between the optic vesicle and presumptive lens ectoderm in the mutant strain, although there is a differing view on the cause of the abnormal contact. ..
  48. Olavarria J, Van Sluyters R. Callosal connections of the posterior neocortex in normal-eyed, congenitally anophthalmic, and neonatally enucleated mice. J Comp Neurol. 1984;230:249-68 pubmed
    ..Finally, examination of coronal sections indicates that the laminar distribution of callosal connections develops normally in both groups of eyeless mice. ..
  49. Li H, Wagner E, McCaffery P, Smith D, Andreadis A, Drager U. A retinoic acid synthesizing enzyme in ventral retina and telencephalon of the embryonic mouse. Mech Dev. 2000;95:283-9 pubmed
    ..From here it extends via the piriform cortex into the lower part of the septum. Of the three RALDHs, RALDH3 shows the strongest predilection for epithelia. ..
  50. Chase H. Studies on an Anophthalmic Strain of Mice. IV. a Second Major Gene for Anophthalmia. Genetics. 1944;29:264-9 pubmed
  51. Wagner E, McCaffery P, Drager U. Retinoic acid in the formation of the dorsoventral retina and its central projections. Dev Biol. 2000;222:460-70 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that the dorsoventral axis of the embryonic eye anlage determines the functional coordinates of both vision and eye movements in the adult. ..
  52. Schwarz M, Cecconi F, Bernier G, Andrejewski N, Kammandel B, Wagner M, et al. Spatial specification of mammalian eye territories by reciprocal transcriptional repression of Pax2 and Pax6. Development. 2000;127:4325-34 pubmed
    ..Based on our findings, we propose a model for Pax gene regulation that establishes the proper spatial regionalization of the mammalian visual system. ..
  53. Bharti K, Gasper M, Ou J, Brucato M, Clore Gronenborn K, Pickel J, et al. A regulatory loop involving PAX6, MITF, and WNT signaling controls retinal pigment epithelium development. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002757 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that careful manipulation of the Pax6 regulatory circuit may facilitate the generation of retinal and pigment epithelium cells from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells. ..
  54. Laemle L, Ottenweller J, Fugaro C. Diurnal variations in vasoactive intestinal polypeptide-like immunoreactivity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of congenitally anophthalmic mice. Brain Res. 1995;688:203-8 pubmed
    ..These observations support the hypothesis that expression of VIP is related to regulation of circadian rhythms by the SCN. ..
  55. Kaiserman Abramof I, Graybiel A, Nauta W. The thalamic projection to cortical area 17 in a congenitally anophthalmic mouse strain. Neuroscience. 1980;5:41-52 pubmed
  56. Brinkmeier M, Davis S, Carninci P, MacDonald J, Kawai J, Ghosh D, et al. Discovery of transcriptional regulators and signaling pathways in the developing pituitary gland by bioinformatic and genomic approaches. Genomics. 2009;93:449-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes are exciting candidates for regulators of pituitary development and function. ..
  57. Cunningham D, Xiao Q, Chatterjee A, Sulik K, Juriloff D, Elder F, et al. exma: an X-linked insertional mutation that disrupts forebrain and eye development. Mamm Genome. 2002;13:179-85 pubmed
    ..From the physical mapping results, we propose a model of the gross rearrangements that accompanied transgene integration and discuss its implications for evaluating candidate genes for exma. ..
  58. Hatakeyama J, Bessho Y, Katoh K, Ookawara S, Fujioka M, Guillemot F, et al. Hes genes regulate size, shape and histogenesis of the nervous system by control of the timing of neural stem cell differentiation. Development. 2004;131:5539-50 pubmed
  59. Muranishi Y, Terada K, Inoue T, Katoh K, Tsujii T, Sanuki R, et al. An essential role for RAX homeoprotein and NOTCH-HES signaling in Otx2 expression in embryonic retinal photoreceptor cell fate determination. J Neurosci. 2011;31:16792-807 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the RAX homeoprotein interacts with EELPOT to transactivate Otx2, mainly in the final cell cycle of retinal progenitors...
  60. Laemle L, Rusa R. VIP-like immunoreactivity in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of a mutant anophthalmic mouse. Brain Res. 1992;589:124-8 pubmed
    ..Within the SCN, the distribution of VIP-immunoreactive cells was more diffuse in anophthalmic mice than in the controls; immunoreactive neurons were frequently observed in ectopic locations in the mutant animals. ..
  61. Ma L, Cantrup R, Varrault A, Colak D, Klenin N, Gotz M, et al. Zac1 functions through TGFbetaII to negatively regulate cell number in the developing retina. Neural Dev. 2007;2:11 pubmed
    ..This raises the intriguing possibility that tumorigenicity may also be associated with the loss of feedback inhibition in mature tissues. ..
  62. Zwaan J, Silver J. Crystallin synthesis in the lens rudiment of a strain of mice with congenital anophthalmia. Exp Eye Res. 1983;36:551-7 pubmed
    ..This indicates that the optic vesicle in this mutant is capable of inducing a lens, while the surface ectoderm can respond to the stimulus in a normal fashion. ..
  63. Laemle L, Puszkarczuk M, Feinberg R. Apoptosis in early ocular morphogenesis in the mouse. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1999;112:129-33 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that apoptosis plays a role in normal ocular morphogenesis and provides the groundwork for studies of abnormal ocular development. ..
  64. Beck S. The anophthalmic mutant of the mouse. I. Genetic contribution to the anophthalmic phenotype. J Hered. 1963;54:39-44 pubmed
  65. Mikkola I, Bruun J, Holm T, Johansen T. Superactivation of Pax6-mediated transactivation from paired domain-binding sites by dna-independent recruitment of different homeodomain proteins. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:4109-18 pubmed
    ..The paired-like homeodomain protein Rax behaved similarly to Pax6DeltaPD...
  66. de Melo J, Zibetti C, Clark B, Hwang W, Miranda Angulo A, Qian J, et al. Lhx2 Is an Essential Factor for Retinal Gliogenesis and Notch Signaling. J Neurosci. 2016;36:2391-405 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway genes including Notch1, Dll1, and Dll3 and gliogenic transcription factors such as Hes1, Hes5, Sox8, and Rax. Conditional knock-out of Lhx2 resulted in a rapid downregulation of Notch pathway genes and loss of Notch ..
  67. Laemle L, Hori N, Strominger N, Tan Y, Carpenter D. Physiological and anatomical properties of the suprachiasmatic nucleus of an anophthalmic mouse. Brain Res. 2002;953:73-81 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the characteristic irregular firing pattern of anophthalmics, and of controls at night, results from extrinsic, at least in part, GABAergic input. ..
  68. Bernier G, Vukovich W, Neidhardt L, Herrmann B, Gruss P. Isolation and characterization of a downstream target of Pax6 in the mammalian retinal primordium. Development. 2001;128:3987-94 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results provide evidence that Necab is genetically downstream of Pax6 and that it is a part of a signal transduction pathway in retina development. ..
  69. Beck S. FREQUENCIES OF TERATOLOGIES AMONG HOMOZYGOUS NORMAL MICE COMPARED WITH THOSE HETEROZYGOUS FOR ANOPHTHALMIA. Nature. 1963;200:810-1 pubmed
  70. Rhoades R, Mooney R, Fish S. A comparison of visual callosal organization in normal, bilaterally enucleated and congenitally anophthalmic mice. Exp Brain Res. 1984;56:92-105 pubmed
    ..One of these was always located at the 17-18a border, and here the laminar distribution of labelled cells and anterograde labelling was the same as in the normals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) ..
  71. Yamada R, Mizutani Koseki Y, Hasegawa T, Osumi N, Koseki H, Takahashi N. Cell-autonomous involvement of Mab21l1 is essential for lens placode development. Development. 2003;130:1759-70 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Mab21l1 expression dependent on PAX6 is essential for lens placode growth and for formation of the lens vesicle; lack of Mab21l1 expression causes reduced expression of Foxe3 in a cell-autonomous manner. ..
  72. BARBER A. The effects of maternal hypoxia on inheritance of recessive blindness in mice. Am J Ophthalmol. 1957;44:94-102 pubmed
  73. Faradji Prevautel H, Cespuglio R, Jouvet M. Circadian rest-activity rhythms in the anophthalmic, monocular and binocular ZRDCT/An mice. Retinal and serotoninergic (raphe) influences. Brain Res. 1990;526:207-16 pubmed
    ..Further, a circadian variation of this signal is superimposed to that of the waking state amount. Such circadian variations are synchronized to the L/D cycle in C57 Black/6 animals and free running in the AN mice...
  74. Bennett R, Blalock W, Choi E, Lee Y, Zhang Y, Zhou L, et al. RAX is required for fly neuronal development and mouse embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 2008;125:777-85 pubmed publisher
    b>RAX was originally discovered as the unique cellular activator for the dsRNA-dependent, interferon-inducible protein kinase PKR...
  75. Wataya T, Ando S, Muguruma K, Ikeda H, Watanabe K, Eiraku M, et al. Minimization of exogenous signals in ES cell culture induces rostral hypothalamic differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:11796-801 pubmed publisher
    ..factors during early differentiation steps induces efficient generation of rostral hypothalamic-like progenitors (Rax(+)/Six3(+)/Vax1(+)) in mouse ES cell-derived neuroectodermal cells...
  76. Chabot N, Charbonneau V, Laramée M, Tremblay R, Boire D, Bronchti G. Subcortical auditory input to the primary visual cortex in anophthalmic mice. Neurosci Lett. 2008;433:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, we find no evidence of a direct projection from the auditory mesencephalon to the cortex in this animal model of blindness. ..
  77. Cullen M, Kaiserman Abramof I. Cytological organization of the dorsal lateral geniculate nuclei in mutant anophthalmic and postnatally enucleated mice. J Neurocytol. 1976;5:407-24 pubmed
    ..The possibility that some of these large replacement terminals originate from cortical or recurrent collateral axons is considered. ..
  78. Sakakura E, Eiraku M, Takata N. Specification of embryonic stem cell-derived tissues into eye fields by Wnt signaling using rostral diencephalic tissue-inducing culture. Mech Dev. 2016;141:90-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking advantage of embryonic stem cell (ESC) culture using a Rax reporter line to monitor rostral diencephalon formation, we found that ESC-derived tissues at day 7 grown in ..