Gene Symbol: Rarb
Description: retinoic acid receptor, beta
Alias: A830025K23, Hap, Nr1b2, retinoic acid receptor beta, RAR-beta, nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group B member 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Rarb

Top Publications

  1. Rochette Egly C, Lutz Y, Saunders M, Scheuer I, Gaub M, Chambon P. Retinoic acid receptor gamma: specific immunodetection and phosphorylation. J Cell Biol. 1991;115:535-45 pubmed
    ..They were also used to demonstrate that the mRAR-gamma 1 protein can be phosphorylated and that the phosphorylation occurs mainly in the NH2-terminal A/B region. ..
  2. Ghyselinck N, Dupé V, Dierich A, Messaddeq N, Garnier J, Rochette Egly C, et al. Role of the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta) during mouse development. Int J Dev Biol. 1997;41:425-47 pubmed
    Homozygous RAR beta mutants are growth-deficient, but are fertile and have a normal longevity. They display homeotic transformations and malformations of cervical vertebrae and a retrolenticular membrane...
  3. Vernet N, Dennefeld C, Guillou F, Chambon P, Ghyselinck N, Mark M. Prepubertal testis development relies on retinoic acid but not rexinoid receptors in Sertoli cells. EMBO J. 2006;25:5816-25 pubmed
  4. Malpel S, Mendelsohn C, Cardoso W. Regulation of retinoic acid signaling during lung morphogenesis. Development. 2000;127:3057-67 pubmed
    ..Our study illustrates the importance of regional mechanisms that control RA availability and utilization for correct expression of pattern regulators and normal morphogenesis during lung development. ..
  5. Bowles J, Knight D, Smith C, Wilhelm D, Richman J, Mamiya S, et al. Retinoid signaling determines germ cell fate in mice. Science. 2006;312:596-600 pubmed
    ..Thus, precise regulation of retinoid levels during fetal gonad development provides the molecular control mechanism that specifies germ cell fate. ..
  6. Molotkova N, Molotkov A, Duester G. Role of retinoic acid during forebrain development begins late when Raldh3 generates retinoic acid in the ventral subventricular zone. Dev Biol. 2007;303:601-10 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the role of RA during forebrain development begins late when Raldh3 expression initiates in the ventral subventricular zone. ..
  7. Kastner P, Messaddeq N, Mark M, Wendling O, Grondona J, Ward S, et al. Vitamin A deficiency and mutations of RXRalpha, RXRbeta and RARalpha lead to early differentiation of embryonic ventricular cardiomyocytes. Development. 1997;124:4749-58 pubmed
  8. Zhao X, Brade T, Cunningham T, Duester G. Retinoic acid controls expression of tissue remodeling genes Hmgn1 and Fgf18 at the digit-interdigit junction. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:665-71 pubmed publisher
    ..transgene and matrix metalloproteinase-11 (Mmp11) throughout the interdigital mesenchyme, while expression of RARb, Fgf18, and high mobility group N1 (Hmgn1) is lost at the digit-interdigit junction...
  9. Corcoran J, So P, Barber R, Vincent K, Mazarakis N, Mitrophanous K, et al. Retinoic acid receptor beta2 and neurite outgrowth in the adult mouse spinal cord in vitro. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:3779-86 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that RARbeta2 is involved in neurite outgrowth, at least in vitro, and that this gene may in the future be of some therapeutic use. ..

More Information


  1. Horn V, Minucci S, Ogryzko V, Adamson E, Howard B, Levin A, et al. RAR and RXR selective ligands cooperatively induce apoptosis and neuronal differentiation in P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. FASEB J. 1996;10:1071-7 pubmed
    ..Together, our results indicate that retinoid-induced apoptosis and neuronal differentiation are closely coupled, and that both RAR and RXR play a role in these processes as active receptors for their respective ligands...
  2. Lohnes D, Mark M, Mendelsohn C, Dolle P, Dierich A, Gorry P, et al. Function of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) during development (I). Craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities in RAR double mutants. Development. 1994;120:2723-48 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, we found further abnormalities not previously reported in VAD fetuses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  3. Toresson H, Mata De Urquiza A, Fagerstrom C, Perlmann T, Campbell K. Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. Development. 1999;126:1317-26 pubmed
    ..These findings, therefore, strongly support the notion that local retinoid signalling within the lateral ganglionic eminence regulates striatal neuron differentiation. ..
  4. Mascrez B, Mark M, Dierich A, Ghyselinck N, Kastner P, Chambon P. The RXRalpha ligand-dependent activation function 2 (AF-2) is important for mouse development. Development. 1998;125:4691-707 pubmed
  5. Kastner P, Mark M, Ghyselinck N, Krezel W, Dupé V, Grondona J, et al. Genetic evidence that the retinoid signal is transduced by heterodimeric RXR/RAR functional units during mouse development. Development. 1997;124:313-26 pubmed
    ..The significance of these observations is discussed with respect to the problem of functional specificity and redundancy among retinoid receptors in vivo. ..
  6. Mendelsohn C, Lohnes D, Decimo D, Lufkin T, LeMeur M, Chambon P, et al. Function of the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) during development (II). Multiple abnormalities at various stages of organogenesis in RAR double mutants. Development. 1994;120:2749-71 pubmed
    ..We discuss several possibilities that may account for the apparent functional redundancy observed amongst retinoic acid receptors during embryogenesis. ..
  7. Zhao X, Sirbu I, Mic F, Molotkova N, Molotkov A, Kumar S, et al. Retinoic acid promotes limb induction through effects on body axis extension but is unnecessary for limb patterning. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1050-7 pubmed publisher
  8. Liao W, Tsai H, Wang H, Chang J, Lu K, Wu H, et al. Modular patterning of structure and function of the striatum by retinoid receptor signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6765-70 pubmed publisher
    ..RARbeta signaling thus plays a crucial role in setting up striatal compartments that may engage in neural circuits of psychomotor control. ..
  9. Taneja R, Bouillet P, Boylan J, Gaub M, Roy B, Gudas L, et al. Reexpression of retinoic acid receptor (RAR) gamma or overexpression of RAR alpha or RAR beta in RAR gamma-null F9 cells reveals a partial functional redundancy between the three RAR types. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:7854-8 pubmed
    ..differentiation, "rescue" cell lines reexpressing RAR gamma 2 or overexpressing either RAR alpha 1 or RAR beta 2 were established in RAR gamma-null cells...
  10. Waclaw R, Wang B, Campbell K. The homeobox gene Gsh2 is required for retinoid production in the embryonic mouse telencephalon. Development. 2004;131:4013-20 pubmed
    ..Thus, in addition to the previously described role for Gsh2 to maintain correct molecular identity in the LGE, our results demonstrate a novel requirement of this gene for retinoid production within the ventral telencephalon. ..
  11. Zelent A, Krust A, Petkovich M, Kastner P, Chambon P. Cloning of murine alpha and beta retinoic acid receptors and a novel receptor gamma predominantly expressed in skin. Nature. 1989;339:714-7 pubmed
    ..role that RARs might play during development and in adult tissues, we have cloned the mouse RAR alpha and RAR beta (mRAR alpha and mRAR beta)...
  12. Lufkin T, Lohnes D, Mark M, Dierich A, Gorry P, Gaub M, et al. High postnatal lethality and testis degeneration in retinoic acid receptor alpha mutant mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:7225-9 pubmed
    ..These results, showing that RAR alpha is indeed involved in the transduction of the RA signal, also suggest an unexpected genetic redundancy. ..
  13. Dupé V, Pellerin I. Retinoic acid receptors exhibit cell-autonomous functions in cranial neural crest cells. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2701-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, RARs exert a function in the NCC as well as in a separated cell population. This work demonstrates that RARs use distinct mechanisms to pattern cranial NCC. ..
  14. Lohnes D, Kastner P, Dierich A, Mark M, LeMeur M, Chambon P. Function of retinoic acid receptor gamma in the mouse. Cell. 1993;73:643-58 pubmed
    ..The variable penetrance of some of the observed defects is discussed in light of this redundancy and stochastic variation of gene activity. ..
  15. Chambon P. A decade of molecular biology of retinoic acid receptors. FASEB J. 1996;10:940-54 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on recent developments, particularly in the area of structure-function relationships. ..
  16. Massaro G, Massaro D, Chan W, Clerch L, Ghyselinck N, Chambon P, et al. Retinoic acid receptor-beta: an endogenous inhibitor of the perinatal formation of pulmonary alveoli. Physiol Genomics. 2000;4:51-7 pubmed
    ..Suppressing perinatal RARbeta signaling by RARbeta antagonists may offer a novel, nonsurgical, means of preventing, or remediating, failed septation in prematurely born children...
  17. Ruberte E, Friederich V, Chambon P, Morriss Kay G. Retinoic acid receptors and cellular retinoid binding proteins. III. Their differential transcript distribution during mouse nervous system development. Development. 1993;118:267-82 pubmed
    ..The function of CRABP II is not well understood; its domains of expression showed overlaps with both CRABP I and CRBP I. ..
  18. Roy B, Taneja R, Chambon P. Synergistic activation of retinoic acid (RA)-responsive genes and induction of embryonal carcinoma cell differentiation by an RA receptor alpha (RAR alpha)-, RAR beta-, or RAR gamma-selective ligand in combination with a retinoid X receptor-specific . Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:6481-7 pubmed
    ..On their own, low concentrations of retinoids selective for either RAR alpha, RAR beta, or RAR gamma did not induce or very inefficiently induced the expression of several RA target genes or triggered ..
  19. Dolle P, Ruberte E, Kastner P, Petkovich M, Stoner C, Gudas L, et al. Differential expression of genes encoding alpha, beta and gamma retinoic acid receptors and CRABP in the developing limbs of the mouse. Nature. 1989;342:702-5 pubmed
    ..CRABP transcripts, however, are excluded from regions expressing mRAR gamma and mRAR beta. These results indicate that all three RARs and CRABP have specific functions during morphogenesis and differentiation of the mouse limb. ..
  20. Mollard R, Viville S, Ward S, Decimo D, Chambon P, Dolle P. Tissue-specific expression of retinoic acid receptor isoform transcripts in the mouse embryo. Mech Dev. 2000;94:223-32 pubmed
    ..5. At later stages, both RARgamma isoforms are essentially coexpressed, although the progressive restriction of RARgamma1 transcripts to craniofacial or limb precartilaginous condensations appears to precede that of RARgamma2. ..
  21. Ruberte E, Dolle P, Krust A, Zelent A, Morriss Kay G, Chambon P. Specific spatial and temporal distribution of retinoic acid receptor gamma transcripts during mouse embryogenesis. Development. 1990;108:213-22 pubmed
  22. Romand R, Sapin V, Dolle P. Spatial distributions of retinoic acid receptor gene transcripts in the prenatal mouse inner ear. J Comp Neurol. 1998;393:298-308 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the colocalization of several RAR and RXR gene transcripts suggests possible heterodimerization between these receptors in several regions of the cochlea. ..
  23. Garel S, Marin F, Grosschedl R, Charnay P. Ebf1 controls early cell differentiation in the embryonic striatum. Development. 1999;126:5285-94 pubmed
  24. Bitoh Y, Shimotake T, Kubota Y, Kimura O, Iwai N. Impaired distribution of retinoic acid receptors in the hindgut-tailgut region of murine embryos with anorectal malformations. J Pediatr Surg. 2001;36:377-80 pubmed
    ..0. These results suggest that overdose of ATRA affects the distal hindgut development by directly disrupting the retinoid-mediated signalling pathway. ..
  25. Wang L, Tankersley L, Tang M, Potter J, Mezey E. Regulation of the murine alpha(2)(I) collagen promoter by retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;401:262-70 pubmed
    ..This study investigated the effects of retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta) and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) on the regulation of the alpha(2)(I) collagen ..
  26. Batourina E, Choi C, Paragas N, Bello N, Hensle T, Costantini F, et al. Distal ureter morphogenesis depends on epithelial cell remodeling mediated by vitamin A and Ret. Nat Genet. 2002;32:109-15 pubmed
    ..Our studies indicate that formation of the trigonal wedge may be essential for correct insertion of the distal ureters into the bladder, and that these events are mediated by the vitamin A and Ret signaling pathways. ..
  27. Sylvester I, Scholer H. Regulation of the Oct-4 gene by nuclear receptors. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:901-11 pubmed
    ..Specifically, important roles for ARP-1 and RAR in Oct-4 expression are indicated. ..
  28. De The H, Marchio A, Tiollais P, Dejean A. A novel steroid thyroid hormone receptor-related gene inappropriately expressed in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Nature. 1987;330:667-70 pubmed
    ..Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the overall structure of the cellular gene, which we have named hap, is similar to that of the DNA-binding hormone receptors...
  29. Rochette Egly C, Gaub M, Lutz Y, Ali S, Scheuer I, Chambon P. Retinoic acid receptor-beta: immunodetection and phosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Mol Endocrinol. 1992;6:2197-209 pubmed
    ..or fusion proteins) corresponding to amino acid sequences unique to human and mouse retinoic acid receptor-beta (RAR beta) isoforms...
  30. Romand R, Hashino E, Dolle P, Vonesch J, Chambon P, Ghyselinck N. The retinoic acid receptors RARalpha and RARgamma are required for inner ear development. Mech Dev. 2002;119:213-23 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these results demonstrate that RARalpha and RARgamma play an essential role in the initial differentiation of otic placode derivatives, whereas RARbeta plays a minimal role in this process. ..
  31. Vucetic Z, Zhang Z, Zhao J, Wang F, Soprano K, Soprano D. Acinus-S' represses retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-regulated gene expression through interaction with the B domains of RARs. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:2549-58 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify Acinus-S' as a novel RAR-interacting protein that regulates the expression of a subset of RAR-regulated genes through direct binding to the N-terminal B domains of RARs. ..
  32. Albino Sanchez M, Vazquez Hernandez J, Ocadiz Delgado R, Serafin Higuera N, León Galicia I, Garcia Villa E, et al. Decreased RAR? expression induces abundant inflammation and cervical precancerous lesions. Exp Cell Res. 2016;346:40-52 pubmed publisher
  33. McMurray R, Keisler D, Kanuckel K, Izui S, Walker S. Prolactin influences autoimmune disease activity in the female B/W mouse. J Immunol. 1991;147:3780-7 pubmed
    ..Further evaluation of this model may identify specific means of intervening clinically with immunosuppressive hormone-modulating therapy in SLE. ..
  34. Dupé V, Ghyselinck N, Wendling O, Chambon P, Mark M. Key roles of retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta in the patterning of the caudal hindbrain, pharyngeal arches and otocyst in the mouse. Development. 1999;126:5051-9 pubmed
  35. Chiba H, Clifford J, Metzger D, Chambon P. Specific and redundant functions of retinoid X Receptor/Retinoic acid receptor heterodimers in differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis of F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. J Cell Biol. 1997;139:735-47 pubmed
    ..The present approach for multiple gene targeting should allow inactivation of any set of genes in a given cell. ..
  36. Ruberte E, Friederich V, Morriss Kay G, Chambon P. Differential distribution patterns of CRABP I and CRABP II transcripts during mouse embryogenesis. Development. 1992;115:973-87 pubmed
    ..The transcript distribution of CRABP I and II is discussed in relation to the teratogenic effects of RA, and compared to the RA-sensitive pattern of expression of other important developmental genes. ..
  37. Yamagata T, Momoi M, Yanagisawa M, Kumagai H, Yamakado M, Momoi T. Changes of the expression and distribution of retinoic acid receptors during neurogenesis in mouse embryos. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1994;77:163-76 pubmed
    ..The distribution of RAR-alpha- or -beta-positive cells were consistent with the neurogenesis during development in the spinal cord and brain. ..
  38. Maden M. Retinoids have differing efficacies on alveolar regeneration in a dexamethasone-treated mouse. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2006;35:260-7 pubmed
  39. Lee R, Luo J, Evans R, Giguere V, Sucov H. Compartment-selective sensitivity of cardiovascular morphogenesis to combinations of retinoic acid receptor gene mutations. Circ Res. 1997;80:757-64 pubmed
    ..We have previously established germ-line mutations in mice in the genes that encode the RAR alpha 1, RAR beta, and RXR alpha retinoic acid receptors as a means of studying the function of these receptors in vivo...
  40. Crocoll A, Herzer U, Ghyselinck N, Chambon P, Cato A. Interdigital apoptosis and downregulation of BAG-1 expression in mouse autopods. Mech Dev. 2002;111:149-52 pubmed
    ..On the contrary, the expression of BAG-1 remains unaltered in autopods of RARbeta(-/-)/RARgamma(-/-) mice which show severe interdigital webbing due to a marked decrease in interdigital apoptosis. ..
  41. Chapellier B, Mark M, Bastien J, Dierich A, LeMeur M, Chambon P, et al. A conditional floxed (loxP-flanked) allele for the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta) gene. Genesis. 2002;32:91-4 pubmed
  42. Darwiche N, Celli G, De Luca L. Specificity of retinoid receptor gene expression in mouse cervical epithelia. Endocrinology. 1994;134:2018-25 pubmed
    ..epithelium, which is highly responsive to vitamin A status, expressed high levels of RAR alpha (1 and 2), RAR beta (2 and 3), and RXR (alpha and beta) transcripts...
  43. Sapin V, Ward S, Bronner S, Chambon P, Dolle P. Differential expression of transcripts encoding retinoid binding proteins and retinoic acid receptors during placentation of the mouse. Dev Dyn. 1997;208:199-210 pubmed
    ..During early placentation, RAR beta and RAR gamma are co-expressed in the decidua but differentially expressed in the chorionic region (RAR beta, 10...
  44. Ruberte E, Dolle P, Chambon P, Morriss Kay G. Retinoic acid receptors and cellular retinoid binding proteins. II. Their differential pattern of transcription during early morphogenesis in mouse embryos. Development. 1991;111:45-60 pubmed
  45. Monteiro M, Wdziekonski B, Villageois P, Vernochet C, Iehle C, Billon N, et al. Commitment of mouse embryonic stem cells to the adipocyte lineage requires retinoic acid receptor beta and active GSK3. Stem Cells Dev. 2009;18:457-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that although RARbeta and active GSK3 are required for RA-induced adipogenesis, they might be acting through a Wnt pathway-independent mechanism. ..
  46. Cho K, Kwon H, Shin J, Lee J, Cho S, Tickle C, et al. Retinoic acid signaling and the initiation of mammary gland development. Dev Biol. 2012;365:259-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We produced a molecular model for mammary gland initiation that incorporated retinoic acid signaling. ..
  47. Serpente P, Tümpel S, Ghyselinck N, Niederreither K, Wiedemann L, Dolle P, et al. Direct crossregulation between retinoic acid receptor {beta} and Hox genes during hindbrain segmentation. Development. 2005;132:503-13 pubmed
    ..We have analysed the murine retinoic acid receptor beta gene (Rarb) and show that it is induced prior to segmentation, by retinoic-acid (RA) signalling from ..
  48. Chatzi C, Brade T, Duester G. Retinoic acid functions as a key GABAergic differentiation signal in the basal ganglia. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1000609 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observation that endogenous RA is required for generation of LGE-derived GABAergic neurons in the basal ganglia establishes a key role for RA signaling in development of the forebrain. ..
  49. Pogenberg V, Guichou J, Vivat Hannah V, Kammerer S, Pérez E, Germain P, et al. Characterization of the interaction between retinoic acid receptor/retinoid X receptor (RAR/RXR) heterodimers and transcriptional coactivators through structural and fluorescence anisotropy studies. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:1625-33 pubmed
    ..Together, our results reveal molecular and structural features that impact on the ligand-dependent interaction of the RAR/RXR heterodimer with nuclear receptor coactivators. ..
  50. Pogenberg V, Guichou J, Bourguet W. Purification and crystallization of the heterodimeric complex of RARbeta and RXRalpha ligand-binding domains in the active conformation. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2004;60:1170-2 pubmed
    The ligand-binding domains of the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) and of the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARbeta) were overexpressed separately and copurified in the heterodimeric form...
  51. Matt N, Ghyselinck N, Pellerin I, Dupé V. Impairing retinoic acid signalling in the neural crest cells is sufficient to alter entire eye morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2008;320:140-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, we observed that RA is required in the neural crest cells for normal position of the extraocular muscle. ..
  52. Nugent P, Greene R. Antisense oligonucleotides to CRABP I and II alter the expression of TGF-beta 3, RAR-beta, and tenascin in primary cultures of embryonic palate cells. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 1995;31:553-8 pubmed
    ..3 microM or 0.33 microM for 5 or 22 h. Total RNA was then extracted and the expression of TGF-beta 3, retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-beta), and tenascin was assessed by northern blot analysis...
  53. Hoshino T, Shimizu R, Ohmori S, Nagano M, Pan X, Ohneda O, et al. Reduced BMP4 abundance in Gata2 hypomorphic mutant mice result in uropathies resembling human CAKUT. Genes Cells. 2008;13:159-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments taken together implicate GATA-2 as a direct regulator of Bmp4 transcription. The pathophysiology described in Gata2 hypomorphic mutant animals resembles human congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. ..
  54. Villarroya F, Giralt M, Iglesias R. Retinoids and adipose tissues: metabolism, cell differentiation and gene expression. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999;23:1-6 pubmed
    ..Retinoic acid (RA) has a specific effect on brown adipose tissue, because it activates transcription of the gene for uncoupling protein-1, responsible for brown fat thermogenesis. ..
  55. Dupé V, Ghyselinck N, Thomazy V, Nagy L, Davies P, Chambon P, et al. Essential roles of retinoic acid signaling in interdigital apoptosis and control of BMP-7 expression in mouse autopods. Dev Biol. 1999;208:30-43 pubmed
    ..Therefore, RA may exert some of its effects on anteroposterior autopod patterning through controlling BMP-7 expression. ..
  56. Niederreither K, McCaffery P, Drager U, Chambon P, Dolle P. Restricted expression and retinoic acid-induced downregulation of the retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (RALDH-2) gene during mouse development. Mech Dev. 1997;62:67-78 pubmed
    ..which include presumptive interdigital regions, coincide with, but slightly precede, those of the RA-inducible RAR beta gene...
  57. Alric S, Froeschlé A, Piquemal D, Carnac G, Bonnieu A. Functional specificity of the two retinoic acid receptor RAR and RXR families in myogenesis. Oncogene. 1998;16:273-82 pubmed
    ..These results illustrate a critical role for RA-receptors in RA-control of C2 myogenesis and provide tools for studying the function of RA and its receptors during vertebrate development. ..
  58. Gabra H, Marven S, Ward S. Patterns of expression of retinoic acid receptor beta 2 (RAR-beta2)-LacZ reporter gene in the embryonic foregut. Pediatr Surg Int. 2008;24:199-204 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to study the pattern of expression of retinoic acid receptor beta 2 (RAR-beta2) in the region of the foregut during the early stages of embryonic development...
  59. Choudhary B, Zhou J, Li P, Thomas S, Kaartinen V, Sucov H. Absence of TGFbeta signaling in embryonic vascular smooth muscle leads to reduced lysyl oxidase expression, impaired elastogenesis, and aneurysm. Genesis. 2009;47:115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In mutant tissue, lysyl oxidase expression was substantially reduced, which may contribute to the observed pathology. ..
  60. Sato Y, Heuckeroth R. Retinoic acid regulates murine enteric nervous system precursor proliferation, enhances neuronal precursor differentiation, and reduces neurite growth in vitro. Dev Biol. 2008;320:185-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively these data demonstrate diverse effects of RA on ENS precursor development and suggest that altered fetal retinoid availability or metabolism could contribute to intestinal motility disorders. ..
  61. Liu X, Nugoli M, Laferriere J, Saleh S, Rodrigue Gervais I, Saleh M, et al. Stromal retinoic acid receptor beta promotes mammary gland tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:774-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, we report herein that inactivation of Rarb in the mouse results in a protective effect against ErbB2-induced mammary gland tumorigenesis...
  62. Bhasin N, Maynard T, Gallagher P, LaMantia A. Mesenchymal/epithelial regulation of retinoic acid signaling in the olfactory placode. Dev Biol. 2003;261:82-98 pubmed
    ..Some aspects of regulation in the placode are distinct, perhaps reflecting unique roles for additional local signals in neuronal differentiation in the developing olfactory pathway. ..
  63. Berard J, Luo H, Chen H, Mukuna M, Bradley W, Wu J. Abnormal regulation of retinoic acid receptor beta2 expression and compromised allograft rejection in transgenic mice expressing antisense sequences to retinoic acid receptor beta1 and beta3. J Immunol. 1997;159:2586-98 pubmed
    ..Our study has suggested that RARbeta1 and RARbeta3 are necessary to optimize immune responses. ..
  64. Zhao X, Patton J, Davis S, Florence B, Ames S, Spanjaard R. Regulation of nuclear receptor activity by a pseudouridine synthase through posttranscriptional modification of steroid receptor RNA activator. Mol Cell. 2004;15:549-58 pubmed
    ..mPus1p-dependent pseudouridylation of SRA represents an additional type of posttranscriptional modification of a NR-coactivator complex that is important for NR signaling. ..
  65. Harada M, Misaki R, Fukushima H, Nagata M, Makino S. Strain difference and mode of inheritance of the susceptibility to passive cutaneous anaphylaxis mediated by allogeneic IgE antibody in the mouse. Immunol Invest. 1989;18:723-35 pubmed
    ..This suggests the presence of some additional genes which modify the expression of the main gene. ..
  66. Lai Z, Tsou Y, Fan S, Tsai M, Chen H, Chang N, et al. Methylation-associated gene silencing of RARB in areca carcinogens induced mouse oral squamous cell carcinoma. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:378358 pubmed publisher
    ..These results showed that retinoic acid receptor β (RARB) was indicated in hypermethylation at the promoter region and the loss of expression during cancer development...
  67. Serafín Higuera N, Hernandez Sanchez J, Ocadiz Delgado R, Vazquez Hernandez J, Albino Sanchez M, Hernandez Pando R, et al. Retinoic acid receptor ? deficiency reduces splenic dendritic cell population in a conditional mouse line. Immunol Lett. 2012;146:15-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that RAR? is involved in splenic cell organization as well as in the maintenance of splenic DCs population, indicating that RAR? expression is important in homeostasis of immune system components. ..
  68. Morriss Kay G. Retinoic acid receptors in normal growth and development. Cancer Surv. 1992;14:181-93 pubmed
    ..The developmental control genes known to be activated by RA include the 3' members of each of the homoeogene clusters, and it is likely that others will be identified in the near future. ..
  69. Vezina C, Allgeier S, Fritz W, Moore R, Strerath M, Bushman W, et al. Retinoic acid induces prostatic bud formation. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:1321-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that reciprocal changes in hedgehog and BMP signaling by RA may regulate bud initiation. ..
  70. Mendelsohn C, Mark M, Dolle P, Dierich A, Gaub M, Krust A, et al. Retinoic acid receptor beta 2 (RAR beta 2) null mutant mice appear normal. Dev Biol. 1994;166:246-58 pubmed
    ..Each of the three RAR genes, RAR alpha, RAR beta, and RAR gamma, gives rise to several isoforms by differential usage of two promoters and alternative splicing...
  71. Batourina E, Gim S, Bello N, Shy M, Clagett Dame M, Srinivas S, et al. Vitamin A controls epithelial/mesenchymal interactions through Ret expression. Nat Genet. 2001;27:74-8 pubmed
    ..In the first part of the loop, vitamin-A-dependent signals secreted by stromal cells control Ret expression in the ureteric bud. In the second part of the loop, ureteric bud signals dependent on Ret control stromal cell patterning. ..
  72. Desai T, Chen F, LU J, Qian J, Niederreither K, Dolle P, et al. Distinct roles for retinoic acid receptors alpha and beta in early lung morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 2006;291:12-24 pubmed
    ..We show that activation of RAR beta, but not alpha, induces expression of the fibroblast growth factor Fgf10 and bud morphogenesis in the lung field...
  73. Billings S, Pierzchalski K, Butler Tjaden N, Pang X, Trainor P, KANE M, et al. The retinaldehyde reductase DHRS3 is essential for preventing the formation of excess retinoic acid during embryonic development. FASEB J. 2013;27:4877-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the reduction of retinaldehyde by DHRS3 is critical for preventing formation of excess ATRA during embryonic development...
  74. Zhang Z, Hutcheson J, Poynton H, Gabriel J, Soprano K, Soprano D. Arginine of retinoic acid receptor beta which coordinates with the carboxyl group of retinoic acid functions independent of the amino acid residues responsible for retinoic acid receptor subtype ligand specificity. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2003;409:375-84 pubmed
  75. Bloch Zupan A, Decimo D, Loriot M, Mark M, Ruch J. Expression of nuclear retinoic acid receptors during mouse odontogenesis. Differentiation. 1994;57:195-203 pubmed
    ..b>RAR beta, RAR gamma and RXR beta displayed both epithelial and mesenchymal expression...
  76. Wang Z, Dolle P, Cardoso W, Niederreither K. Retinoic acid regulates morphogenesis and patterning of posterior foregut derivatives. Dev Biol. 2006;297:433-45 pubmed
    ..Our data implicate RA as a regulator of gene expression in the early embryonic lung and stomach region upstream of Hox, Tbx and FGF10 signaling. ..
  77. Vermot J, Schuhbaur B, Le Mouellic H, McCaffery P, Garnier J, Hentsch D, et al. Retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and Hoxc8 are required in the murine brachial spinal cord for the specification of Lim1+ motoneurons and the correct distribution of Islet1+ motoneurons. Development. 2005;132:1611-21 pubmed
    ..Thus, interdependent RA signaling and Hox gene functions are required for the specification of brachial motoneurons in the mouse. ..
  78. Moreno Ramos O, Olivares A, Haider N, de Autismo L, Lattig M. Whole-Exome Sequencing in a South American Cohort Links ALDH1A3, FOXN1 and Retinoic Acid Regulation Pathways to Autism Spectrum Disorders. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0135927 pubmed publisher
    ..Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay using Retinoid Acid Receptor B (Rarb) as the immunoprecipitation target suggests RA regulation of Aldh1a3 and Foxn1 in mice...