Gene Symbol: Rala
Description: v-ral simian leukemia viral oncogene A (ras related)
Alias: 3010001O15Rik, AW322615, Ral, Rasl1, ras-related protein Ral-A, RAS-like, family 1, ral-A protein, v-ral simian leukemia viral oncogene homolog A (ras related)
Species: mouse
Products:     Rala

Top Publications

  1. Corrotte M, Nyguyen A, Harlay M, Vitale N, Bader M, Grant N. Ral isoforms are implicated in Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis: activation of phospholipase D by RalA. J Immunol. 2010;185:2942-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the role of a potential PLD regulator, the Ral GTPases RalA and RalB, in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages...
  2. Chen X, Leto D, Xiong T, Yu G, Cheng A, DECKER S, et al. A Ral GAP complex links PI 3-kinase/Akt signaling to RalA activation in insulin action. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:141-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that activation of the small GTPase RalA downstream of PI 3-kinase plays a critical role in this process by mobilizing the exocyst complex for GLUT4 vesicle ..
  3. Lopez J, Kwan E, Xie L, He Y, James D, Gaisano H. The RalA GTPase is a central regulator of insulin exocytosis from pancreatic islet beta cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:17939-45 pubmed publisher
    b>RalA is a small GTPase that is thought to facilitate exocytosis through its direct interaction with the mammalian exocyst complex...
  4. Chen X, Leto D, Chiang S, Wang Q, Saltiel A. Activation of RalA is required for insulin-stimulated Glut4 trafficking to the plasma membrane via the exocyst and the motor protein Myo1c. Dev Cell. 2007;13:391-404 pubmed
    ..Here we report that insulin regulates this process via the G protein RalA, which is present in Glut4 vesicles and interacts with the exocyst in adipocytes...
  5. Balasubramanian N, Meier J, Scott D, Norambuena A, White M, Schwartz M. RalA-exocyst complex regulates integrin-dependent membrane raft exocytosis and growth signaling. Curr Biol. 2010;20:75-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The small GTPase RalA is activated in metastatic cancers through multiple mechanisms and specifically induces anchorage independence...
  6. Justice M, Silan C, Ceci J, Buchberg A, Copeland N, Jenkins N. A molecular genetic linkage map of mouse chromosome 13 anchored by the beige (bg) and satin (sa) loci. Genomics. 1990;6:341-51 pubmed
    ..The map locations of Ctla-3, Dhfr, Fim-1, 4/12, Hexb, Hilda, Inhba, Lamb-1.13, Ral, Rrm2-ps3, and Tcrg were determined with respect to the beige (bg) and satin (sa) loci...
  7. Nichols C, Casanova J. Salmonella-directed recruitment of new membrane to invasion foci via the host exocyst complex. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1316-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Exocyst assembly requires activation of the small GTPase RalA, which we show is triggered during Salmonella infection by the translocated effector, SopE...
  8. Hudson J, Chen L, Fode C, Binkert C, Dennis J. Sak kinase gene structure and transcriptional regulation. Gene. 2000;241:65-73 pubmed
    ..Using various Sak promoter/luciferase constructs, the core promoter region required for expression was located within 400bp of the message Cap site, and sequence further 5' strongly suppressed transcription. ..
  9. Gentry L, Nishimura A, Cox A, Martin T, Tsygankov D, Nishida M, et al. Divergent roles of CAAX motif-signaled posttranslational modifications in the regulation and subcellular localization of Ral GTPases. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:22851-61 pubmed publisher
    The Ras-like small GTPases RalA and RalB are well validated effectors of RAS oncogene-driven human cancer growth, and pharmacologic inhibitors of Ral function may provide an effective anti-Ras therapeutic strategy...

More Information


  1. Peschard P, McCarthy A, Leblanc Dominguez V, Yeo M, Guichard S, Stamp G, et al. Genetic deletion of RALA and RALB small GTPases reveals redundant functions in development and tumorigenesis. Curr Biol. 2012;22:2063-8 pubmed publisher
    RAL small GTPases, encoded by the Rala and Ralb genes, are members of the RAS superfamily of small GTPases and can act as downstream effectors of RAS [1]...
  2. Ljubicic S, Bezzi P, Vitale N, Regazzi R. The GTPase RalA regulates different steps of the secretory process in pancreatic beta-cells. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7770 pubmed publisher
    b>RalA and RalB are multifuntional GTPases involved in a variety of cellular processes including proliferation, oncogenic transformation and membrane trafficking...
  3. Shirai Y, Morioka S, Sakuma M, Yoshino K, Otsuji C, Sakai N, et al. Direct binding of RalA to PKC? and its crucial role in morphological change during keratinocyte differentiation. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1340-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we identify the small G protein RalA as a binding partner of PKC?, which binds to the C1 domain, an indispensable region for the morphological change...
  4. Jenkins N, Justice M, Gilbert D, Chu M, Copeland N. Nidogen/entactin (Nid) maps to the proximal end of mouse chromosome 13 linked to beige (bg) and identifies a new region of homology between mouse and human chromosomes. Genomics. 1991;9:401-3 pubmed
  5. Xu L, Frankel P, Jackson D, Rotunda T, Boshans R, D SOUZA SCHOREY C, et al. Elevated phospholipase D activity in H-Ras- but not K-Ras-transformed cells by the synergistic action of RalA and ARF6. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:645-54 pubmed
    ..PLD activity in H-Ras-transformed cells is dependent upon RalA, and consistent with a lack of elevated PLD activity in K-Ras-transformed cells, RalA was not activated in K-Ras-..
  6. Das A, Gajendra S, Falenta K, Oudin M, Peschard P, Feng S, et al. RalA promotes a direct exocyst-Par6 interaction to regulate polarity in neuronal development. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:686-99 pubmed publisher
    ..in vivo postnatal electroporation and conditional genetic ablation, we show that the Ras-like small GTPase RalA and its effector, the exocyst, regulate the morphology and polarized migration of neural progenitors derived from ..
  7. Sim S, Lee H, Kim J, Choi S, Bakes J, Jang D, et al. Elevated RalA activity in the hippocampus of PI3K? knock-out mice lacking NMDAR-dependent long-term depression. BMB Rep. 2013;46:103-6 pubmed
    ..The activity of RalA, a small GTP-binding protein, increases following NMDAR-LTD inducing stimuli, and this increase in RalA activity is ..
  8. Takaya A, Kamio T, Masuda M, Mochizuki N, Sawa H, Sato M, et al. R-Ras regulates exocytosis by Rgl2/Rlf-mediated activation of RalA on endosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:1850-60 pubmed
    ..correlated with the accumulation of an R-Ras effector, the Rgl2/Rlf guanine nucleotide exchange factor for RalA, and also with high RalA activity...
  9. Nishimoto T. A new role of ran GTPase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;262:571-4 pubmed
    ..In both microtubule assembly and nucleocytoplasmic transport, chromosomal localization of RCC1 is important to carry out the functions of RanGTPase. In this regard, a future intriguing question is how RCC1 interacts with chromatin DNA. ..
  10. Misumi D, Nagle D, McGrail S, Dussault B, Smutko J, Chen H, et al. The physical and genetic map surrounding the Lyst gene on mouse chromosome 13. Genomics. 1997;40:147-50 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with LYST being the gene for the human Chediak-Higashi Syndrome and strengthen the synteny relationship between MMU13 and human 1q43. ..
  11. Pawar A, Meier J, Dasgupta A, Diwanji N, Deshpande N, Saxena K, et al. Ral-Arf6 crosstalk regulates Ral dependent exocyst trafficking and anchorage independent growth signalling. Cell Signal. 2016;28:1225-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In re-adherent mouse fibroblasts (MEFs) integrin dependent activation of RalA drives Arf6 activation...
  12. Hase K, Kimura S, Takatsu H, Ohmae M, Kawano S, Kitamura H, et al. M-Sec promotes membrane nanotube formation by interacting with Ral and the exocyst complex. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1427-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, blockage of the interaction of M-Sec with Ral and the exocyst complex, which serves as a downstream effector of Ral, attenuated the formation of membrane ..
  13. Bodempudi V, Yamoutpoor F, Pan W, Dudek A, Esfandyari T, Piedra M, et al. Ral overactivation in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3964-74 pubmed publisher
    ..b>RalA, however, was overactivated in all MPNST cells and tumor samples compared to nontransformed Schwann cells...
  14. Zhang J, Lodish H. Constitutive activation of the MEK/ERK pathway mediates all effects of oncogenic H-ras expression in primary erythroid progenitors. Blood. 2004;104:1679-87 pubmed
    ..H-ras: Raf/ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), phosphatidyl inositol 3 (PI3)-kinase/Akt, and RalGEF/RalA. However, only constitutive activation of the MEK (MAPK [mitogen-activated protein kinase]/ERK kinase)/ERK pathway ..
  15. Weissman J, Ma J, Essex A, Gao Y, Burstein E. G-protein-coupled receptor-mediated activation of rap GTPases: characterization of a novel Galphai regulated pathway. Oncogene. 2004;23:241-9 pubmed
    ..A constitutively active mutant of Galphai2 also mediated Ras/rap-dependent responses. These data indicate that GPCRs coupled to pertussis-toxin-sensitive G-proteins activate Rap through a Galpha subunit, C3G, and Src-dependent pathway. ..
  16. Park S, Weinberg R. A putative effector of Ral has homology to Rho/Rac GTPase activating proteins. Oncogene. 1995;11:2349-55 pubmed
    We report here the cloning of a gene encoding a novel Ral interacting protein (RIP1) from a cDNA expression library using radiolabeled Ral as probe. RIP1 binds to Ral in a GTP-dependent manner. The 4...
  17. Takenaka N, Sumi Y, Matsuda K, Fujita J, Hosooka T, Noguchi T, et al. Role for RalA downstream of Rac1 in skeletal muscle insulin signalling. Biochem J. 2015;469:445-54 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we examined the role of the small GTPase RalA downstream of Rac1 in skeletal muscle fibres isolated from genetically modified mice...
  18. Zhao Z, Rivkees S. Tissue-specific expression of GTPas RalA and RalB during embryogenesis and regulation by epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. Mech Dev. 2000;97:201-4 pubmed
    b>RalA and RalB are members of the Ras-like GTP-binding protein family. To investigate if Ral GTPases play a role in development, temporal and spatial patterns of RalA and RalB gene expression were examined during embryogenesis...