Gene Symbol: Rad21
Description: RAD21 cohesin complex component
Alias: SCC1, mKIAA0078, double-strand-break repair protein rad21 homolog, PW29, RAD21 homolog, SCC1 homolog, pokeweed agglutinin-binding protein 29
Species: mouse
Products:     Rad21

Top Publications

  1. Kouznetsova A, Benavente R, Pastink A, Hoog C. Meiosis in mice without a synaptonemal complex. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28255 pubmed publisher
  2. Stedman W, Kang H, Lin S, Kissil J, Bartolomei M, Lieberman P. Cohesins localize with CTCF at the KSHV latency control region and at cellular c-myc and H19/Igf2 insulators. EMBO J. 2008;27:654-66 pubmed publisher
    ..siRNA depletion of RAD21 from latently infected cells caused an increase in K14 and ORF74, and lytic inducers caused a rapid dissociation ..
  3. Herrán Y, Gutiérrez Caballero C, Sanchez Martin M, Hernandez T, Viera A, Barbero J, et al. The cohesin subunit RAD21L functions in meiotic synapsis and exhibits sexual dimorphism in fertility. EMBO J. 2011;30:3091-105 pubmed publisher
    ..replication until the onset of anaphase when the ring is opened by proteolytic cleavage of its ?-kleisin subunit (RAD21 at mitosis and REC8 at meiosis) by separase...
  4. McKay M, Troelstra C, Van der Spek P, Kanaar R, Smit B, Hagemeijer A, et al. Sequence conservation of the rad21 Schizosaccharomyces pombe DNA double-strand break repair gene in human and mouse. Genomics. 1996;36:305-15 pubmed
    The rad21 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe is involved in the repair of ionizing radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. The isolation of mouse and human putative homologs of rad21 is reported here...
  5. Lee J, Hirano T. RAD21L, a novel cohesin subunit implicated in linking homologous chromosomes in mammalian meiosis. J Cell Biol. 2011;192:263-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice, RAD21L is expressed exclusively in early meiosis: it apparently replaces RAD21 in premeiotic S phase, becomes detectable on the axial elements in leptotene, and stays on the axial/lateral ..
  6. Tachibana Konwalski K, Godwin J, van der Weyden L, Champion L, Kudo N, Adams D, et al. Rec8-containing cohesin maintains bivalents without turnover during the growing phase of mouse oocytes. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2505-16 pubmed publisher
    ..chromatid cohesion mediated by cohesin complexes whose ring structure depends on kleisin subunits, either Rec8 or Scc1. Because cohesion is established at DNA replication in the embryo, its maintenance for such a long time may require ..
  7. Prieto I, Pezzi N, Buesa J, Kremer L, Barthelemy I, Carreiro C, et al. STAG2 and Rad21 mammalian mitotic cohesins are implicated in meiosis. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:543-50 pubmed
    ..in Xenopus laevis as components of the cohesin(SA1) and cohesin(SA2) complexes, in which the shared subunits are Rad21/SCC1, SMC1 and SMC3 proteins...
  8. Lee J, Yokota T, Yamashita M. Analyses of mRNA expression patterns of cohesin subunits Rad21 and Rec8 in mice: germ cell-specific expression of rec8 mRNA in both male and female mice. Zoolog Sci. 2002;19:539-44 pubmed
    ..We investigate here the mRNA expression patterns of mouse homologues of the yeast mitotic cohesin rad21 and the meiotic cohesin rec8 in various organs, with special attention to their expression in gonads...
  9. Xu H, Beasley M, Verschoor S, Inselman A, Handel M, McKay M. A new role for the mitotic RAD21/SCC1 cohesin in meiotic chromosome cohesion and segregation in the mouse. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:378-84 pubmed
    ..b>RAD21/SCC1 is a regulatory subunit of the mitotic cohesin complex, as it links together all other subunits of the ..

More Information


  1. Seitan V, Hao B, Tachibana Konwalski K, Lavagnolli T, Mira Bontenbal H, Brown K, et al. A role for cohesin in T-cell-receptor rearrangement and thymocyte differentiation. Nature. 2011;476:467-71 pubmed publisher
    ..To address this, here we deleted the cohesin locus Rad21 in mouse thymocytes at a time in development when these cells stop cycling and rearrange their T-cell receptor (..
  2. Novak I, Wang H, Revenkova E, Jessberger R, Scherthan H, Hoog C. Cohesin Smc1beta determines meiotic chromatin axis loop organization. J Cell Biol. 2008;180:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that in addition to its role in sister chromatid cohesion, Smc1beta determines meiotic chromatin loop organization. ..
  3. Pati D, Zhang N, Plon S. Linking sister chromatid cohesion and apoptosis: role of Rad21. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:8267-77 pubmed
    b>Rad21 is one of the major cohesin subunits that holds sister chromatids together until anaphase, when proteolytic cleavage by separase, a caspase-like enzyme, allows chromosomal separation...
  4. Degner S, Wong T, Jankevicius G, Feeney A. Cutting edge: developmental stage-specific recruitment of cohesin to CTCF sites throughout immunoglobulin loci during B lymphocyte development. J Immunol. 2009;182:44-8 pubmed
    ..Because cohesin can colocalize with CTCF, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation for the cohesin subunit Rad21 and found lineage and stage-specific Rad21 recruitment to CTCF in all Ig loci...
  5. MONAHAN K, Rudnick N, Kehayova P, Pauli F, Newberry K, Myers R, et al. Role of CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) and cohesin in the generation of single-cell diversity of protocadherin-? gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:9125-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that both the insulator-binding protein CTCF and the cohesin complex subunit Rad21 bind to two highly conserved DNA sequences, the first within and the second downstream of transcriptionally active ..
  6. Darwiche N, Freeman L, Strunnikov A. Characterization of the components of the putative mammalian sister chromatid cohesion complex. Gene. 1999;233:39-47 pubmed
    ..The mSMCB and mSMCD proteins, as well as the PW29 protein, a mouse homolog of Mcd1pS.c./Rad21S.p., form a complex similar to cohesin in X. laevis...
  7. Faure A, Schmidt D, Watt S, Schwalie P, Wilson M, Xu H, et al. Cohesin regulates tissue-specific expression by stabilizing highly occupied cis-regulatory modules. Genome Res. 2012;22:2163-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence from these statistical analyses in wild-type cells, and comparisons to maps of TF binding in Rad21-cohesin haploinsufficient mouse liver, suggests that cohesin helps to stabilize large protein-DNA complexes...
  8. Sofueva S, Yaffe E, Chan W, Georgopoulou D, Vietri Rudan M, Mira Bontenbal H, et al. Cohesin-mediated interactions organize chromosomal domain architecture. EMBO J. 2013;32:3119-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data thereby support a role for cohesin in the global organization of domain structure and suggest that domains function to stabilize the transcriptional programmes within them. ..
  9. Houlihan S, Feng Y. The scaffold protein Nde1 safeguards the brain genome during S phase of early neural progenitor differentiation. elife. 2014;3:e03297 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that NDE1-mediated heterochromatin replication is indispensible for neuronal differentiation, and that the loss of NDE1 function may lead to genomic neurological disorders. ..
  10. Kwintkiewicz J, Padilla Banks E, Jefferson W, Jacobs I, Wade P, Williams C. Metastasis-associated protein 3 (MTA3) regulates G2/M progression in proliferating mouse granulosa cells. Biol Reprod. 2012;86:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the ovary, MTA3 interacted with NuRD proteins CHD4 and HDAC1 and the core cohesin complex protein RAD21. In cultured mouse primary granulosa cells, depletion of endogenous MTA3 using RNA interference slowed cell ..
  11. Lavagnolli T, Gupta P, Hörmanseder E, Mira Bontenbal H, Dharmalingam G, Carroll T, et al. Initiation and maintenance of pluripotency gene expression in the absence of cohesin. Genes Dev. 2015;29:23-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These results redefine cohesin's role in pluripotency and reveal a novel function for Myc in promoting the replication-dependent reprogramming of somatic nuclei. ..
  12. Fisher J, Peterson J, Reimer M, Stelloh C, Pulakanti K, Gerbec Z, et al. The cohesin subunit Rad21 is a negative regulator of hematopoietic self-renewal through epigenetic repression of Hoxa7 and Hoxa9. Leukemia. 2017;31:712-719 pubmed publisher
    ..We verified that RNAi against the cohesin subunit Rad21 causes enhanced self-renewal of HSPCs in vitro through derepression of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) target ..
  13. Xu H, Balakrishnan K, Malaterre J, Beasley M, Yan Y, Essers J, et al. Rad21-cohesin haploinsufficiency impedes DNA repair and enhances gastrointestinal radiosensitivity in mice. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12112 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rad21 is an integral subunit of the cohesin complex, which regulates chromosome segregation and DNA damage responses in ..
  14. Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson A. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977;74:5463-7 pubmed
    ..The technique has been applied to the DNA of bacteriophage varphiX174 and is more rapid and more accurate than either the plus or the minus method. ..
  15. Nitzsche A, Paszkowski Rogacz M, Matarese F, Janssen Megens E, Hubner N, Schulz H, et al. RAD21 cooperates with pluripotency transcription factors in the maintenance of embryonic stem cell identity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19470 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the cohesin component RAD21 exhibits a functional role in maintaining ESC identity through association with the pluripotency transcriptional ..
  16. Xue X, Taylor M, Anderson E, Hao C, Qu A, Greenson J, et al. Hypoxia-inducible factor-2α activation promotes colorectal cancer progression by dysregulating iron homeostasis. Cancer Res. 2012;72:2285-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings show that a chronic increase in HIF-2α in the colon initiates protumorigenic signaling, which may have important implications in developing preventive and therapeutic strategies for colon cancer. ..
  17. Llano E, Herrán Y, García Tuñón I, Gutiérrez Caballero C, de Alava E, Barbero J, et al. Meiotic cohesin complexes are essential for the formation of the axial element in mice. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:877-85 pubmed publisher
  18. Parra M, Viera A, Gómez R, Page J, Benavente R, Santos J, et al. Involvement of the cohesin Rad21 and SCP3 in monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores during mouse meiosis I. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:1221-34 pubmed
    ..We have analysed the behaviour of SCP3 and the cohesin subunit Rad21 in mouse spermatocytes by means of a squashing technique...
  19. Remeseiro S, Cuadrado A, Kawauchi S, Calof A, Lander A, Losada A. Reduction of Nipbl impairs cohesin loading locally and affects transcription but not cohesion-dependent functions in a mouse model of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1832:2097-102 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide further support for the idea that developmental defects in CdLS are caused by deregulated transcription and not by malfunction of cohesion-related processes. ..
  20. Uehara K, Muramatsu T. Molecular cloning and characterization of beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase expressed in mouse testis. Eur J Biochem. 1997;244:706-12 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that the 46-kDa protein is a beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase. ..
  21. Fukuda T, Fukuda N, Agostinho A, Hernández Hernández A, Kouznetsova A, Hoog C. STAG3-mediated stabilization of REC8 cohesin complexes promotes chromosome synapsis during meiosis. EMBO J. 2014;33:1243-55 pubmed publisher
  22. Yu S, Ozawa M, Naved A, Miyauchi T, Muramatsu H, Muramatsu T. cDNA cloning and sequence analysis of a novel calcium binding protein with oligoproline motif. Cell Struct Funct. 1995;20:263-8 pubmed
    ..antibodies against pokeweed agglutinin-binding proteins from F9 embryonal carcinoma cells, we isolated a cDNA clone PW29 reacting with the antibody. mRNA hybridizing with the cDNA was 4...
  23. Ding C, Li Y, Kim B, Malovannaya A, Jung S, Wang Y, et al. Quantitative analysis of cohesin complex stoichiometry and SMC3 modification-dependent protein interactions. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:3652-9 pubmed publisher
    ..complex consists of four core components including structure maintenance of chromosomes proteins SMC1 and SMC3, RAD21, and SA2/SA1...
  24. Poterlowicz K, Yarker J, Malashchuk I, Lajoie B, Mardaryev A, Gdula M, et al. 5C analysis of the Epidermal Differentiation Complex locus reveals distinct chromatin interaction networks between gene-rich and gene-poor TADs in skin epithelial cells. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006966 pubmed publisher
    ..the gene-rich transcriptionally active TADs are enriched for the binding of chromatin architectural proteins CTCF, Rad21 and chromatin remodeler Brg1...
  25. Gassler J, Brandão H, Imakaev M, Flyamer I, Ladstätter S, Bickmore W, et al. A mechanism of cohesin-dependent loop extrusion organizes zygotic genome architecture. EMBO J. 2017;36:3600-3618 pubmed publisher
    ..knockout embryos, we demonstrate that the zygotic genome folds into loops and domains that critically depend on Scc1-cohesin and that are regulated in size and linear density by Wapl...
  26. Ladstätter S, Tachibana Konwalski K. A Surveillance Mechanism Ensures Repair of DNA Lesions during Zygotic Reprogramming. Cell. 2016;167:1774-1787.e13 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose the zygotic checkpoint senses DNA lesions generated during paternal DNA demethylation and ensures reprogrammed loci are repaired before mitosis to prevent chromosome fragmentation, embryo loss, and infertility. ..
  27. Haaf T, Golub E, Reddy G, Radding C, Ward D. Nuclear foci of mammalian Rad51 recombination protein in somatic cells after DNA damage and its localization in synaptonemal complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:2298-302 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the mammalian proteins homologous to yeast Rad51 are involved in repair of DNA damage and recombinational repair during meiosis. ..