Gene Symbol: Rac2
Description: Rac family small GTPase 2
Alias: AI323801, AI452260, ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2, EN-7 protein, RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate 2, p21-Rac2, protein EN-7
Species: mouse
Products:     Rac2

Top Publications

  1. Glogauer M, Marchal C, Zhu F, Worku A, Clausen B, Foerster I, et al. Rac1 deletion in mouse neutrophils has selective effects on neutrophil functions. J Immunol. 2003;170:5652-7 pubmed
    Defects in myeloid cell function in Rac2 knockout mice underline the importance of this isoform in activation of NADPH oxidase and cell motility...
  2. Wheeler A, Wells C, Smith S, Vega F, Henderson R, Tybulewicz V, et al. Rac1 and Rac2 regulate macrophage morphology but are not essential for migration. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2749-57 pubmed
    ..Mammals have three closely related Rac isoforms, Rac1, Rac2 and Rac3, and it is widely assumed that cell migration requires the activity of these Rac GTPases...
  3. Arana E, Vehlow A, Harwood N, Vigorito E, Henderson R, Turner M, et al. Activation of the small GTPase Rac2 via the B cell receptor regulates B cell adhesion and immunological-synapse formation. Immunity. 2008;28:88-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that both isoforms of the small GTPase Rac expressed by primary B cells, Rac1 and Rac2, were activated rapidly downstream of Src-family kinases, guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Vav1 and Vav2, and ..
  4. Kim C, Dinauer M. Rac2 is an essential regulator of neutrophil nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activation in response to specific signaling pathways. J Immunol. 2001;166:1223-32 pubmed
    b>Rac2 is a hematopoietic-specific Rho family GTPase implicated as an important constituent of the NADPH oxidase complex and shares 92% amino acid identity with the ubiquitously expressed Rac1...
  5. Yu H, Leitenberg D, Li B, Flavell R. Deficiency of small GTPase Rac2 affects T cell activation. J Exp Med. 2001;194:915-26 pubmed
    b>Rac2 is a hematopoietic-specific GTPase acting as a molecular switch to mediate both transcriptional activation and cell morphological changes. We have examined the effect of Rac2 deficiency during T cell activation...
  6. Yamauchi A, Kim C, Li S, Marchal C, Towe J, Atkinson S, et al. Rac2-deficient murine macrophages have selective defects in superoxide production and phagocytosis of opsonized particles. J Immunol. 2004;173:5971-9 pubmed
    ..Mice deficient in hemopoietic-specific Rac2 exhibited agonist-specific defects in neutrophil functions including chemoattractant-stimulated filamentous actin ..
  7. Distasi M, Case J, Ziegler M, Dinauer M, Yoder M, Haneline L, et al. Suppressed hindlimb perfusion in Rac2-/- and Nox2-/- mice does not result from impaired collateral growth. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H877-86 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rac2 is a small GTPase that binds Nox2 and activates Nox2-based NAD(P)H oxidase but, unlike Nox2, is primarily ..
  8. Abdel Latif D, Steward M, Macdonald D, Francis G, Dinauer M, Lacy P. Rac2 is critical for neutrophil primary granule exocytosis. Blood. 2004;104:832-9 pubmed
    ..The Rho GTPase, Rac2, has been implicated in control of degranulation in earlier studies...
  9. Gu Y, Filippi M, Cancelas J, Siefring J, Williams E, Jasti A, et al. Hematopoietic cell regulation by Rac1 and Rac2 guanosine triphosphatases. Science. 2003;302:445-9 pubmed
    The Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) Rac1 and Rac2 are critical signaling regulators in mammalian cells...

More Information


  1. Dooley J, Abdel Latif D, St Laurent C, Puttagunta L, Befus D, Lacy P. Regulation of inflammation by Rac2 in immune complex-mediated acute lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;297:L1091-102 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rac2, a member of the Rho GTPase subfamily, is an essential regulator of neutrophil degranulation, superoxide release, ..
  2. Shirsat N, Pignolo R, Kreider B, Rovera G. A member of the ras gene superfamily is expressed specifically in T, B and myeloid hemopoietic cells. Oncogene. 1990;5:769-72 pubmed
    ..Northern blot analysis indicates that the expression of the murine gene is restricted to the cells of hemopoietic lineages and the mRNA levels increase with the terminal differentiation of hemopoietic cells into granulocytes. ..
  3. Carstanjen D, Yamauchi A, Koornneef A, Zang H, Filippi M, Harris C, et al. Rac2 regulates neutrophil chemotaxis, superoxide production, and myeloid colony formation through multiple distinct effector pathways. J Immunol. 2005;174:4613-20 pubmed
    ..as well as some kinase signaling pathways are compromised in mice deficient in the Ras-related Rho GTPase Rac2. In this study, we demonstrate that Rac2 controls chemotaxis and superoxide production via distinct pathways and is ..
  4. Yamauchi A, Marchal C, Molitoris J, Pech N, Knaus U, Towe J, et al. Rac GTPase isoform-specific regulation of NADPH oxidase and chemotaxis in murine neutrophils in vivo. Role of the C-terminal polybasic domain. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:953-64 pubmed
    ..Mice deficient in the hematopoietic-specific Rac2 isoform exhibit agonist-specific defects in neutrophil chemotaxis and superoxide production, despite expression of ..
  5. Sun C, Downey G, Zhu F, Koh A, Thang H, Glogauer M. Rac1 is the small GTPase responsible for regulating the neutrophil chemotaxis compass. Blood. 2004;104:3758-65 pubmed
    Although both of the small Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) Rac1 and Rac2 have been demonstrated to play a role in chemotaxis, the precise and possible unique roles performed by each of these 2 Rac isoforms in neutrophil chemotaxis ..
  6. Zhang H, Sun C, Glogauer M, Bokoch G. Human neutrophils coordinate chemotaxis by differential activation of Rac1 and Rac2. J Immunol. 2009;183:2718-28 pubmed publisher
    Rac1 and Rac2, members of the small Rho GTPase family, play essential roles in coordinating directional migration and superoxide production during neutrophil responses to chemoattractants...
  7. Pradip D, Peng X, Durden D. Rac2 specificity in macrophage integrin signaling: potential role for Syk kinase. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:41661-9 pubmed
    Herein we report that, despite the similarity of Rac2 to Rac1 (92% amino acid identity), macrophages derived from Rac2-/- mice, which continue to express Rac1, display a marked defect in alphavbeta3/alphavbeta5 and alpha4beta1 integrin-..
  8. Li S, Yamauchi A, Marchal C, Molitoris J, Quilliam L, Dinauer M. Chemoattractant-stimulated Rac activation in wild-type and Rac2-deficient murine neutrophils: preferential activation of Rac2 and Rac2 gene dosage effect on neutrophil functions. J Immunol. 2002;169:5043-51 pubmed
    The hemopoietic-specific Rho family GTPase Rac2 shares 92% amino acid identity with ubiquitously expressed Rac1...
  9. Filippi M, Harris C, Meller J, Gu Y, Zheng Y, Williams D. Localization of Rac2 via the C terminus and aspartic acid 150 specifies superoxide generation, actin polarity and chemotaxis in neutrophils. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:744-51 pubmed
    Despite having a high degree of sequence similarity, the Rho guanosine triphosphatases Rac1 and Rac2 regulate distinct functions in neutrophils...
  10. Fattouh R, Guo C, Lam G, Gareau M, Ngan B, Glogauer M, et al. Rac2-deficiency leads to exacerbated and protracted colitis in response to Citrobacter rodentium infection. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61629 pubmed publisher
    ..Our recent genetic studies showed that RAC2 is associated with human IBD; however, its role in disease pathogenesis is unclear...
  11. Ramaswamy M, Dumont C, Cruz A, Muppidi J, Gomez T, Billadeau D, et al. Cutting edge: Rac GTPases sensitize activated T cells to die via Fas. J Immunol. 2007;179:6384-8 pubmed
    ..In this study we identify the Rho GTPases Rac1 and Rac2 as essential components in restimulation-induced cell death...
  12. Koh A, Sun C, Zhu F, Glogauer M. The role of Rac1 and Rac2 in bacterial killing. Cell Immunol. 2005;235:92-7 pubmed
    The small Rho guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) Rac1 and Rac2 have distinct roles in regulating neutrophil chemotaxis; however, little is known about their possible unique roles in mediating bacterial killing...
  13. Guo F, Cancelas J, Hildeman D, Williams D, Zheng Y. Rac GTPase isoforms Rac1 and Rac2 play a redundant and crucial role in T-cell development. Blood. 2008;112:1767-75 pubmed publisher
    ..gene targeting to achieve hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)- or T-cell lineage-specific deletion of Rac1 or Rac1/Rac2 by crossbreeding the Mx-Cre or Lck-Cre transgenic mice with Rac1(loxp/loxp) or Rac1(loxp/loxp);Rac2(-/-) mice...
  14. Dumont C, Corsoni Tadrzak A, Ruf S, de Boer J, Williams A, Turner M, et al. Rac GTPases play critical roles in early T-cell development. Blood. 2009;113:3990-8 pubmed publisher
    The Rac1 and Rac2 GTPases play important roles in many processes including cytoskeletal reorganization, proliferation, and survival, and are required for B-cell development...
  15. Cancelas J, Jansen M, Williams D. The role of chemokine activation of Rac GTPases in hematopoietic stem cell marrow homing, retention, and peripheral mobilization. Exp Hematol. 2006;34:976-85 pubmed
  16. Yao H, Chen L, Xu C, Wang J, Chen J, Xie Q, et al. Inhibition of Rac activity alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute pulmonary injury in mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1810:666-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the roles of Rac including Rac1 and Rac2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary injury...
  17. Yang F, Kapur R, King A, Tao W, Kim C, Borneo J, et al. Rac2 stimulates Akt activation affecting BAD/Bcl-XL expression while mediating survival and actin function in primary mast cells. Immunity. 2000;12:557-68 pubmed
    Mast cells generated from Rac2-deficient (-/-) mice demonstrated defective actin-based functions, including adhesion, migration, and degranulation...
  18. Li B, Yu H, Zheng W, Voll R, Na S, Roberts A, et al. Role of the guanosine triphosphatase Rac2 in T helper 1 cell differentiation. Science. 2000;288:2219-22 pubmed
    ..DNA subtraction method, representational display analysis, to show that the small guanosine triphosphatase Rac2 is expressed selectively in murine TH1 cells...
  19. Croker B, Tarlinton D, Cluse L, Tuxen A, Light A, Yang F, et al. The Rac2 guanosine triphosphatase regulates B lymphocyte antigen receptor responses and chemotaxis and is required for establishment of B-1a and marginal zone B lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2002;168:3376-86 pubmed
    We have defined roles for the hemopoietic-specific Rho guanosine triphosphatase, Rac2, in B lymphocyte development and function through examination of rac2(-/-) mice...
  20. Croker B, Handman E, Hayball J, Baldwin T, Voigt V, Cluse L, et al. Rac2-deficient mice display perturbed T-cell distribution and chemotaxis, but only minor abnormalities in T(H)1 responses. Immunol Cell Biol. 2002;80:231-40 pubmed
    The haematopoietic-specific RhoGTPase, Rac2, has been indirectly implicated in T-lymphocyte development and function, and as a pivotal regulator of T Helper 1 (T(H)1) responses...
  21. Walmsley M, Ooi S, Reynolds L, Smith S, Ruf S, Mathiot A, et al. Critical roles for Rac1 and Rac2 GTPases in B cell development and signaling. Science. 2003;302:459-62 pubmed
    ..In the absence of both Rac1 and the highly related Rac2, B cell development was almost completely blocked...
  22. Pestonjamasp K, Forster C, Sun C, Gardiner E, Bohl B, Weiner O, et al. Rac1 links leading edge and uropod events through Rho and myosin activation during chemotaxis. Blood. 2006;108:2814-20 pubmed
    ..a critical role in cell migration, and recent work has focused on elucidating the specific roles played by Rac1, Rac2, Cdc42, and Rho during cellular chemotaxis...
  23. De P, Peng Q, Traktuev D, Traktuevc D, Li W, Yoder M, et al. Expression of RAC2 in endothelial cells is required for the postnatal neovascular response. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:248-63 pubmed
    Herein, we describe an obligate role for the hematopoietic specific GTPase, RAC2 in endothelial integrin signaling and the postnatal neovascularization response in vivo...
  24. Ramgolam V, Degregorio S, Rao G, Collinge M, Subaran S, Markovic Plese S, et al. T cell LFA-1 engagement induces HuR-dependent cytokine mRNA stabilization through a Vav-1, Rac1/2, p38MAPK and MKK3 signaling cascade. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e14450 pubmed publisher
    ..Engagement of LFA-1 to its ligand, ICAM-1, in human peripheral T cells resulted in rapid activation of Rac1 and Rac2. siRNA-mediated knockdown of either Rac1 or Rac2 prevented LFA-1-stimulated stabilization of the labile transcripts ..
  25. Roberts A, Kim C, Zhen L, Lowe J, Kapur R, Petryniak B, et al. Deficiency of the hematopoietic cell-specific Rho family GTPase Rac2 is characterized by abnormalities in neutrophil function and host defense. Immunity. 1999;10:183-96 pubmed
    In mammals, the Rho family GTPase Rac2 is restricted in expression to hematopoietic cells, where it is coexpressed with Rac1...
  26. Spencer N, Yan Z, Boudreau R, Zhang Y, Luo M, Li Q, et al. Control of hepatic nuclear superoxide production by glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADPH oxidase-4. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:8977-87 pubmed publisher
    ..resonance, we investigated whether several NADPH oxidases (NOX1, 2, and 4) and known activators of NOX (Rac1, Rac2, p22(phox), and p47(phox)) contribute to nuclear O(2)(·-) production in isolated hepatic nuclei...
  27. Zhu M, Sun B, Saar K, Simpson C, Troiano N, Dallas S, et al. Deletion of Rac in Mature Osteoclasts Causes Osteopetrosis, an Age-Dependent Change in Osteoclast Number, and a Reduced Number of Osteoblasts In Vivo. J Bone Miner Res. 2016;31:864-73 pubmed publisher
    Rac1 and Rac2 are thought to have important roles in osteoclasts...
  28. McCarty O, Larson M, Auger J, Kalia N, Atkinson B, Pearce A, et al. Rac1 is essential for platelet lamellipodia formation and aggregate stability under flow. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:39474-84 pubmed
    ..Murine platelets form filopodia and undergo limited spreading on fibrinogen independent of Rac1 and Rac2. In the presence of thrombin, marked lamellipodia formation is observed on fibrinogen, which is abrogated in the ..
  29. Bruder Nascimento T, Callera G, Montezano A, He Y, Antunes T, Nguyen Dinh Cat A, et al. Vascular injury in diabetic db/db mice is ameliorated by atorvastatin: role of Rac1/2-sensitive Nox-dependent pathways. Clin Sci (Lond). 2015;128:411-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings elucidate redox-sensitive and Rac1/2-dependent mechanisms whereby statins protect against vascular injury in diabetes. ..
  30. Cancelas J, Lee A, Prabhakar R, Stringer K, Zheng Y, Williams D. Rac GTPases differentially integrate signals regulating hematopoietic stem cell localization. Nat Med. 2005;11:886-91 pubmed
    ..We have examined the role of the Rho GTPases Rac1 and Rac2 in HSC engraftment and mobilization...
  31. Tan B, Yazicioglu M, Ingram D, McCarthy J, Borneo J, Williams D, et al. Genetic evidence for convergence of c-Kit- and alpha4 integrin-mediated signals on class IA PI-3kinase and the Rac pathway in regulating integrin-directed migration in mast cells. Blood. 2003;101:4725-32 pubmed
    ..dominant-negative Rac (RacN17), as well as in mast cells deficient in the hematopoietic-specific small G protein, Rac2. In addition, a PI-3kinase inhibitor inhibited alpha4- as well as SCF-induced migration in a dose-dependent fashion...
  32. Kalfa T, Pushkaran S, Zhang X, Johnson J, Pan D, Daria D, et al. Rac1 and Rac2 GTPases are necessary for early erythropoietic expansion in the bone marrow but not in the spleen. Haematologica. 2010;95:27-35 pubmed publisher
    The small Rho GTPases Rac1 and Rac2 have both overlapping and distinct roles in actin organization, cell survival, and proliferation in various hematopoietic cell lineages...
  33. Ojha N, Roy S, He G, Biswas S, Velayutham M, Khanna S, et al. Assessment of wound-site redox environment and the significance of Rac2 in cutaneous healing. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;44:682-91 pubmed
    ..b>Rac2 regulates inducible NADPH oxidase activation and other functional responses in neutrophils...
  34. Chang K, Sanchez Aguilera A, Shen S, Sengupta A, Madhu M, Ficker A, et al. Vav3 collaborates with p190-BCR-ABL in lymphoid progenitor leukemogenesis, proliferation, and survival. Blood. 2012;120:800-11 pubmed publisher
    ..of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav3 delays leukemogenesis by p190-BCR-ABL and phenocopies the effect of Rac2 deficiency, a downstream effector of Vav3...
  35. Morrison A, Yarovinsky T, Young B, Moraes F, Ross T, Ceneri N, et al. Chemokine-coupled β2 integrin-induced macrophage Rac2-Myosin IIA interaction regulates VEGF-A mRNA stability and arteriogenesis. J Exp Med. 2014;211:1957-68 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor (CCR2) and adhesion receptor (β2 integrin) engagement leads to an interaction between activated Rac2 and Myosin 9 (Myh9), the heavy chain of Myosin IIA, resulting in augmented vascular endothelial growth factor A (..
  36. Kalfa T, Pushkaran S, Mohandas N, Hartwig J, Fowler V, Johnson J, et al. Rac GTPases regulate the morphology and deformability of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton. Blood. 2006;108:3637-45 pubmed
    Actin oligomers are a significant structural component of the erythrocyte cytoskeleton. Rac1 and Rac2 GTPases regulate actin structures and have multiple overlapping as well as distinct roles in hematopoietic cells; therefore, we studied ..
  37. Spencer N, Zhou W, Li Q, Zhang Y, Luo M, Yan Z, et al. Hepatocytes produce TNF-? following hypoxia-reoxygenation and liver ischemia-reperfusion in a NADPH oxidase- and c-Src-dependent manner. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2013;305:G84-94 pubmed publisher
    ..I/R, we performed additional in vivo experiments in knockout mice deficient for NOX1, NOX2, p47phox, Rac1, and/or Rac2. Cumulatively, these results demonstrate that NOX2 and its activator subunits (p47phox and Rac) control the ..
  38. Gu Y, Byrne M, Paranavitana N, Aronow B, Siefring J, D souza M, et al. Rac2, a hematopoiesis-specific Rho GTPase, specifically regulates mast cell protease gene expression in bone marrow-derived mast cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:7645-57 pubmed
    ..To understand the role of the closely related but hematopoiesis-specific Rho GTPase, Rac2, in regulation of gene transcription, we compared the gene expression profiles between wild-type and Rac2(-/-) bone ..
  39. Savina A, Peres A, Cebrian I, Carmo N, Moita C, Hacohen N, et al. The small GTPase Rac2 controls phagosomal alkalinization and antigen crosspresentation selectively in CD8(+) dendritic cells. Immunity. 2009;30:544-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We now show that the small GTPase Rac2 plays a critical role in antigen crosspresentation selectively in this DC subpopulation...
  40. Mondal S, Ghosh Roy S, Loison F, Li Y, Jia Y, Harris C, et al. PTEN negatively regulates engulfment of apoptotic cells by modulating activation of Rac GTPase. J Immunol. 2011;187:5783-94 pubmed publisher
  41. Gomez J, Soltys J, Okano K, Dinauer M, Doerschuk C. The role of Rac2 in regulating neutrophil production in the bone marrow and circulating neutrophil counts. Am J Pathol. 2008;173:507-17 pubmed publisher
    Circulating neutrophils are persistently higher in mice deficient in the small GTPase Rac2 than in wild-type (WT) mice. Therefore, we examined the mechanisms through which the small GTPase Rac2 regulates neutrophil production and release...
  42. D Amico G, Jones D, Nye E, Sapienza K, Ramjuan A, Reynolds L, et al. Regulation of lymphatic-blood vessel separation by endothelial Rac1. Development. 2009;136:4043-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies identify Rac1 as a crucial part of the migratory machinery required for endothelial cells to separate and form lymphatic vasculature. ..
  43. Grimsley Myers C, Sipe C, Géléoc G, Lu X. The small GTPase Rac1 regulates auditory hair cell morphogenesis. J Neurosci. 2009;29:15859-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results reveal a critical function of Rac1 in morphogenesis of the auditory sensory epithelium and stereociliary bundle...
  44. Croke M, Ross F, Korhonen M, Williams D, Zou W, Teitelbaum S. Rac deletion in osteoclasts causes severe osteopetrosis. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3811-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that whereas deletion of Rac1 or Rac2 alone has no effect, variable reduction of Rac1 in osteoclastic cells of Rac2(-/-) mice causes severe osteopetrosis...
  45. Anderson K, Chessa T, Davidson K, Henderson R, Walker S, Tolmachova T, et al. PtdIns3P and Rac direct the assembly of the NADPH oxidase on a novel, pre-phagosomal compartment during FcR-mediated phagocytosis in primary mouse neutrophils. Blood. 2010;116:4978-89 pubmed publisher
    ..base of the emerging phagosome; oxidase assembly and activation is highly dependent on both PtdIns3P-p40(phox) and Rac2-p67(phox) interactions and delivery to the phagosome is regulated by Rab27a...
  46. Faroudi M, Hons M, Zachacz A, Dumont C, Lyck R, Stein J, et al. Critical roles for Rac GTPases in T-cell migration to and within lymph nodes. Blood. 2010;116:5536-47 pubmed publisher
    ..By using both 3-dimensional intravital and in vitro approaches, we show that Rac1- and Rac2-deficient T cells have multiple defects in this recirculation process...
  47. Joshi S, Singh A, Zulcic M, Bao L, Messer K, Ideker T, et al. Rac2 controls tumor growth, metastasis and M1-M2 macrophage differentiation in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e95893 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we demonstrate that the small GTPase, Rac2 controls macrophage M1 to M2 differentiation and the metastatic phenotype in vivo...
  48. Sengupta A, Arnett J, Dunn S, Williams D, Cancelas J. Rac2 GTPase deficiency depletes BCR-ABL+ leukemic stem cells and progenitors in vivo. Blood. 2010;116:81-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that the deficiency of Rac2 GTPase signaling, but not Rac1, in p210-BCR-ABL-transduced hematopoietic cells prolonged survival of mice with MPD...
  49. Grill B, Schrader J. Activation of Rac-1, Rac-2, and Cdc42 by hemopoietic growth factors or cross-linking of the B-lymphocyte receptor for antigen. Blood. 2002;100:3183-92 pubmed
    ..The activation of Rac-1, Rac-2, and Cdc42 by IL-3 and other hemopoietic growth factors is likely to be an important component of their actions in promoting growth, survival, and function. ..
  50. Vinolo M, Ferguson G, Kulkarni S, Damoulakis G, Anderson K, Bohlooly Y M, et al. SCFAs induce mouse neutrophil chemotaxis through the GPR43 receptor. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21205 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic and pharmacological intervention identified important roles for PI3K?, Rac2, p38 and ERK, but not mTOR, in GPR43-dependent chemotaxis...
  51. Mahankali M, Peng H, Henkels K, Dinauer M, Gomez Cambronero J. Phospholipase D2 (PLD2) is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the GTPase Rac2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:19617-22 pubmed publisher
    We have discovered that the enzyme phospholipase D2 (PLD2) binds directly to the small GTPase Rac2, resulting in PLD2 functioning as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), because it switches Rac2 from the GDP-bound to the GTP-bound ..
  52. Yan J, Chen S, Zhang Y, Li X, Li Y, Wu X, et al. Rac1 mediates the osteoclast gains-in-function induced by haploinsufficiency of Nf1. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:936-48 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data demonstrate that Rac1 critically contributes to increased osteoclast function induced by haploinsufficiency of Nf1 and implicate Rac1 as a rational therapeutic target for osteoporosis. ..
  53. Wang Y, Belsham D, Glogauer M. Rac1 and Rac2 in osteoclastogenesis: a cell immortalization model. Calcif Tissue Int. 2009;85:257-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, bone marrow monocytes from wild-type (WT), Rac1 null, and Rac2 null mice were primed with macrophage colony-stimulating factor and soluble receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand ..
  54. Wang Q, Li H, Oliver T, Glogauer M, Guo J, He Y. Integrin beta 1 regulates phagosome maturation in macrophages through Rac expression. J Immunol. 2008;180:2419-28 pubmed
    ..We found that the expression of the Rho family GTPases Rac1, Rac2, and Cdc42 was reduced in integrin beta(1)-deficient macrophages...
  55. Hall A, Gakidis M, Glogauer M, Wilsbacher J, Gao S, Swat W, et al. Requirements for Vav guanine nucleotide exchange factors and Rho GTPases in FcgammaR- and complement-mediated phagocytosis. Immunity. 2006;24:305-16 pubmed
    ..The genetic deletion of Rac1 and Rac2 prevents phagocytosis mediated by integrin and Fcgamma receptors (FcgammaR), whereas the genetic deletion of Vav1 ..
  56. Ou X, Pollock J, Dinauer M, Gharehbaghi Schnell E, Skalnik D. Identification and functional characterization of the murine Rac2 gene promoter. DNA Cell Biol. 1999;18:253-63 pubmed
    b>Rac2, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is highly expressed in myeloid cells and is a regulator of the NADPH-oxidase complex. A murine genomic clone was isolated that contains the 5' end and putative promoter region of the Rac2 gene...
  57. Lawson C, Donald S, Anderson K, Patton D, Welch H. P-Rex1 and Vav1 cooperate in the regulation of formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-dependent neutrophil responses. J Immunol. 2011;186:1467-76 pubmed publisher
    ..P1V1) double-deficient cells also showed the strongest reduction in fMLF-stimulated activation of Rac1 and Rac2. This reduction in Rac activity may be sufficient to cause the defects observed in fMLF-stimulated P1V1 neutrophil ..
  58. Shimomura Y, Ogawa A, Kawada M, Sugimoto K, Mizoguchi E, Shi H, et al. A unique B2 B cell subset in the intestine. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1343-55 pubmed publisher
    ..These results describe the existence of an alternative pathway of B cell maturation in the periphery that gives rise to a tissue-specific B cell subset. ..
  59. Utomo A, Hirahashi J, Mekala D, Asano K, Glogauer M, Cullere X, et al. Requirement for Vav proteins in post-recruitment neutrophil cytotoxicity in IgG but not complement C3-dependent injury. J Immunol. 2008;180:6279-87 pubmed
    ..Thus, FcgammaR signaling through the Vav and Rac proteins in neutrophils is critical for stimulating immune complex disease while Vav- and Rac-independent pathways promote Mac-1/complement C3-dependent functions...
  60. Goldberg S, Georgiou J, Glogauer M, Grynpas M. A 3D scanning confocal imaging method measures pit volume and captures the role of Rac in osteoclast function. Bone. 2012;51:145-52 pubmed publisher
    Modulation of Rho GTPases Rac1 and Rac2 impacts bone development, remodeling, and disease. In addition, GTPases are considered treatment targets for dysplastic and erosive bone diseases including Neurofibromatosis type 1...
  61. Fulkerson P, Zhu H, Williams D, Zimmermann N, Rothenberg M. CXCL9 inhibits eosinophil responses by a CCR3- and Rac2-dependent mechanism. Blood. 2005;106:436-43 pubmed
    ..Mig pretreatment inhibits eotaxin-induced activation of the Rho-guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) Rac, and Rac2-deficient eosinophils demonstrate an impaired transmigration and actin polymerization response to eotaxin ..
  62. Benvenuti F, Hugues S, Walmsley M, Ruf S, Fetler L, Popoff M, et al. Requirement of Rac1 and Rac2 expression by mature dendritic cells for T cell priming. Science. 2004;305:1150-3 pubmed
    ..The Rho family guanosine triphosphatases Rac1 and Rac2 but not Rho itself control the formation of dendrites in mature DCs, their polarized short-range migration toward T ..
  63. Sima C, Gastfreund S, Sun C, Glogauer M. Rac-null leukocytes are associated with increased inflammation-mediated alveolar bone loss. Am J Pathol. 2014;184:472-82 pubmed publisher
    ..during attachment in conditional Rac1-null (granulocyte/monocyte lineage) mice and during rolling and attachment in Rac2-null (all blood cells) mice...
  64. Arizmendi N, Puttagunta L, Chung K, Davidson C, Rey Parra J, Chao D, et al. Rac2 is involved in bleomycin-induced lung inflammation leading to pulmonary fibrosis. Respir Res. 2014;15:71 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rac2, a ras-related guanosine triphosphatase expressed mainly in hematopoietic cells, is a crucial molecule regulating a ..
  65. Ceneri N, Zhao L, Young B, Healy A, Coskun S, Vasavada H, et al. Rac2 Modulates Atherosclerotic Calcification by Regulating Macrophage Interleukin-1? Production. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:328-340 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we identify Rac2 as a major inflammatory regulator of signaling that directs plaque osteogenesis...
  66. Lane S, De Vita S, Alexander K, Karaman R, Milsom M, Dorrance A, et al. Rac signaling in osteoblastic cells is required for normal bone development but is dispensable for hematopoietic development. Blood. 2012;119:736-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These data have implications for therapeutic strategies to target Rac signaling in HSC mobilization and in the treatment of leukemia and provide clarification to our evolving concepts of HSC-HM interactions. ..
  67. Itokowa T, Zhu M, Troiano N, Bian J, Kawano T, Insogna K. Osteoclasts lacking Rac2 have defective chemotaxis and resorptive activity. Calcif Tissue Int. 2011;88:75-86 pubmed publisher
    The role of the small Rho GTPase Rac2 in mature osteoclasts has not been extensively studied. Rac2(-/-) mice are of normal size and have normal tooth eruption...
  68. Corbetta S, Gualdoni S, Ciceri G, Monari M, Zuccaro E, Tybulewicz V, et al. Essential role of Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases in neuronal development. FASEB J. 2009;23:1347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show for the first time that both Rac1 and Rac3 are important for the development of the nervous system, wherein they play complementary roles during late stages of neuronal and brain development. ..
  69. Ji P, Jayapal S, Lodish H. Enucleation of cultured mouse fetal erythroblasts requires Rac GTPases and mDia2. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:314-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Rac1 and Rac2 bind to mDia2 in a GTP-dependent manner and that downregulation of mDia2, but not mDia1, by small interfering RNA (..
  70. Thomas E, Cancelas J, Chae H, Cox A, Keller P, Perrotti D, et al. Rac guanosine triphosphatases represent integrating molecular therapeutic targets for BCR-ABL-induced myeloproliferative disease. Cancer Cell. 2007;12:467-78 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate in a murine model of p210-BCR-ABL-induced MPD that gene targeting of Rac1 and Rac2 significantly delays or abrogates disease development...
  71. Wang Y, Lebowitz D, Sun C, Thang H, Grynpas M, Glogauer M. Identifying the relative contributions of Rac1 and Rac2 to osteoclastogenesis. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23:260-70 pubmed
    ..Our in vitro and in vivo results show that both Rac1 and Rac2 are required for optimal osteoclast differentiation, but Rac1 is more critical...