Rac1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Rac1
Description: Rac family small GTPase 1
Alias: AL023026, D5Ertd559e, ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate 1, p21-Rac1
Species: mouse
Products:     Rac1

Top Publications

  1. Benninger Y, Thurnherr T, Pereira J, Krause S, Wu X, Chrostek Grashoff A, et al. Essential and distinct roles for cdc42 and rac1 in the regulation of Schwann cell biology during peripheral nervous system development. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:1051-61 pubmed
    ..We use tissue-specific conditional gene targeting to show that members of the Rho GTPases, cdc42 and rac1, have different and essential roles in axon sorting by Schwann cells...
  2. Fuchs S, Herzog D, Sumara G, Büchmann Møller S, Civenni G, Wu X, et al. Stage-specific control of neural crest stem cell proliferation by the small rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;4:236-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of either Cdc42 or Rac1 in the NC results in size reduction of multiple NC target structures because of increased cell-cycle exit, while NC ..
  3. Yao H, Chen L, Xu C, Wang J, Chen J, Xie Q, et al. Inhibition of Rac activity alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute pulmonary injury in mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1810:666-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the roles of Rac including Rac1 and Rac2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary injury...
  4. Zhu H, Shan L, Peng T. Rac1 mediates sex difference in cardiac tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression via NADPH oxidase-ERK1/2/p38 MAPK pathway in endotoxemia. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;47:264-74 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Rac1 and estrogen in sex difference of cardiac tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression during endotoxemia...
  5. Elfenbein A, Rhodes J, Meller J, Schwartz M, Matsuda M, Simons M. Suppression of RhoG activity is mediated by a syndecan 4-synectin-RhoGDI1 complex and is reversed by PKCalpha in a Rac1 activation pathway. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:75-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiogenesis requires polarized activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase Rac1, which involves localized dissociation from RhoGDI1 and association with the plasma membrane...
  6. Saci A, Cantley L, Carpenter C. Rac1 regulates the activity of mTORC1 and mTORC2 and controls cellular size. Mol Cell. 2011;42:50-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is a critical regulator of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 in response to growth-..
  7. Lee Y, Lee J, Jung J, Kim J, Park S, Park J, et al. Retinoic acid leads to cytoskeletal rearrangement through AMPK-Rac1 and stimulates glucose uptake through AMPK-p38 MAPK in skeletal muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33969-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we found that retinoic acid activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). RA induced Rac1-GTP formation and phosphorylation of its downstream target, p21-activated kinase (PAK), whereas the inhibition of ..
  8. Manchanda P, Jones G, Lee A, Pringle D, Zhang M, Yu L, et al. Rac1 is required for Prkar1a-mediated Nf2 suppression in Schwann cell tumors. Oncogene. 2013;32:3491-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of the NF2 tumor suppressor (encoding NF2, or Merlin) is associated with upregulation of the Rac1 small GTPase, which is thought to have a key role in mediating tumor formation...
  9. Castilho R, Squarize C, Patel V, Millar S, Zheng Y, Molinolo A, et al. Requirement of Rac1 distinguishes follicular from interfollicular epithelial stem cells. Oncogene. 2007;26:5078-85 pubmed
    ..Here, we observed that the conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in the mouse skin, including the potential follicular and epidermal stem cell compartments, results in ..
  10. Liu S, Kapoor M, Shi wen X, Kennedy L, Denton C, Glogauer M, et al. Role of Rac1 in a bleomycin-induced scleroderma model using fibroblast-specific Rac1-knockout mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:2189-95 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rac1 plays a key role in adhesive signaling...

Detail Information

Publications71

  1. Benninger Y, Thurnherr T, Pereira J, Krause S, Wu X, Chrostek Grashoff A, et al. Essential and distinct roles for cdc42 and rac1 in the regulation of Schwann cell biology during peripheral nervous system development. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:1051-61 pubmed
    ..We use tissue-specific conditional gene targeting to show that members of the Rho GTPases, cdc42 and rac1, have different and essential roles in axon sorting by Schwann cells...
  2. Fuchs S, Herzog D, Sumara G, Büchmann Møller S, Civenni G, Wu X, et al. Stage-specific control of neural crest stem cell proliferation by the small rho GTPases Cdc42 and Rac1. Cell Stem Cell. 2009;4:236-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Deletion of either Cdc42 or Rac1 in the NC results in size reduction of multiple NC target structures because of increased cell-cycle exit, while NC ..
  3. Yao H, Chen L, Xu C, Wang J, Chen J, Xie Q, et al. Inhibition of Rac activity alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute pulmonary injury in mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1810:666-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the roles of Rac including Rac1 and Rac2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pulmonary injury...
  4. Zhu H, Shan L, Peng T. Rac1 mediates sex difference in cardiac tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression via NADPH oxidase-ERK1/2/p38 MAPK pathway in endotoxemia. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;47:264-74 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Rac1 and estrogen in sex difference of cardiac tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression during endotoxemia...
  5. Elfenbein A, Rhodes J, Meller J, Schwartz M, Matsuda M, Simons M. Suppression of RhoG activity is mediated by a syndecan 4-synectin-RhoGDI1 complex and is reversed by PKCalpha in a Rac1 activation pathway. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:75-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Angiogenesis requires polarized activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase Rac1, which involves localized dissociation from RhoGDI1 and association with the plasma membrane...
  6. Saci A, Cantley L, Carpenter C. Rac1 regulates the activity of mTORC1 and mTORC2 and controls cellular size. Mol Cell. 2011;42:50-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that Rac1, a member of the Rho family of GTPases, is a critical regulator of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 in response to growth-..
  7. Lee Y, Lee J, Jung J, Kim J, Park S, Park J, et al. Retinoic acid leads to cytoskeletal rearrangement through AMPK-Rac1 and stimulates glucose uptake through AMPK-p38 MAPK in skeletal muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33969-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we found that retinoic acid activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). RA induced Rac1-GTP formation and phosphorylation of its downstream target, p21-activated kinase (PAK), whereas the inhibition of ..
  8. Manchanda P, Jones G, Lee A, Pringle D, Zhang M, Yu L, et al. Rac1 is required for Prkar1a-mediated Nf2 suppression in Schwann cell tumors. Oncogene. 2013;32:3491-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Loss of the NF2 tumor suppressor (encoding NF2, or Merlin) is associated with upregulation of the Rac1 small GTPase, which is thought to have a key role in mediating tumor formation...
  9. Castilho R, Squarize C, Patel V, Millar S, Zheng Y, Molinolo A, et al. Requirement of Rac1 distinguishes follicular from interfollicular epithelial stem cells. Oncogene. 2007;26:5078-85 pubmed
    ..Here, we observed that the conditional deletion of the Rac1 gene in the mouse skin, including the potential follicular and epidermal stem cell compartments, results in ..
  10. Liu S, Kapoor M, Shi wen X, Kennedy L, Denton C, Glogauer M, et al. Role of Rac1 in a bleomycin-induced scleroderma model using fibroblast-specific Rac1-knockout mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:2189-95 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Rac1 plays a key role in adhesive signaling...
  11. Sylow L, Jensen T, Kleinert M, Mouatt J, Maarbjerg S, Jeppesen J, et al. Rac1 is a novel regulator of contraction-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Diabetes. 2013;62:1139-51 pubmed publisher
    In skeletal muscle, the actin cytoskeleton-regulating GTPase, Rac1, is necessary for insulin-dependent GLUT4 translocation. Muscle contraction increases glucose transport and represents an alternative signaling pathway to insulin...
  12. Akhtar N, Streuli C. An integrin-ILK-microtubule network orients cell polarity and lumen formation in glandular epithelium. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:17-27 pubmed
    ..Downstream of basement membrane ?1 integrins, Rac1 is not involved; however, ILK is needed to polarize microtubule plus ends at the basolateral membrane and ..
  13. Jennissen K, Siegel F, Liebig Gonglach M, Hermann M, Kipschull S, van Dooren S, et al. A VASP-Rac-soluble guanylyl cyclase pathway controls cGMP production in adipocytes. Sci Signal. 2012;5:ra62 pubmed publisher
    ..VASP-deficient cells showed increased activation of Rac1, which in turn increased the abundance of the cGMP-producing enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), the main ..
  14. Kissil J, Walmsley M, Hanlon L, Haigis K, Bender Kim C, Sweet Cordero A, et al. Requirement for Rac1 in a K-ras induced lung cancer in the mouse. Cancer Res. 2007;67:8089-94 pubmed
    ..To directly assess the requirement for Rac1 in K-ras-induced tumorigenesis, we employed a model of lung cancer in which an oncogenic allele of K-ras could be ..
  15. Attias O, Jiang R, Aoudjit L, Kawachi H, Takano T. Rac1 contributes to actin organization in glomerular podocytes. Nephron Exp Nephrol. 2010;114:e93-e106 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we studied the role of the small Rho-GTPase, Rac1, in actin organization in podocytes...
  16. Dise R, Frey M, Whitehead R, Polk D. Epidermal growth factor stimulates Rac activation through Src and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase to promote colonic epithelial cell migration. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;294:G276-85 pubmed
    ..Either Rac1 small interfering (si)RNA or a Rac1 inhibitor completely blocked EGF-stimulated wound closure...
  17. Wang Z, Thurmond D. Differential phosphorylation of RhoGDI mediates the distinct cycling of Cdc42 and Rac1 to regulate second-phase insulin secretion. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:6186-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that RhoGDI also regulates Rac1 activation in beta cells, and that Rac1 activation occurs in a Cdc42-dependent manner, the question as to how the ..
  18. Mizukawa B, Wei J, Shrestha M, Wunderlich M, Chou F, Griesinger A, et al. Inhibition of Rac GTPase signaling and downstream prosurvival Bcl-2 proteins as combination targeted therapy in MLL-AF9 leukemia. Blood. 2011;118:5235-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Using an in vivo gene targeting approach, we demonstrate that Rac2, but not Rac1, is critical to the initiation of acute myeloid leukemia in a retroviral expression model of MLL-AF9 leukemogenesis...
  19. Li A, Ma Y, Yu X, Mort R, Lindsay C, Stevenson D, et al. Rac1 drives melanoblast organization during mouse development by orchestrating pseudopod- driven motility and cell-cycle progression. Dev Cell. 2011;21:722-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeted deletion of Rac1 in melanoblasts during embryogenesis causes defects in migration, cell-cycle progression, and cytokinesis...
  20. Bosco E, Nakai Y, Hennigan R, Ratner N, Zheng Y. NF2-deficient cells depend on the Rac1-canonical Wnt signaling pathway to promote the loss of contact inhibition of proliferation. Oncogene. 2010;29:2540-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of Rac1, the activity of which is inversely regulated by NF2, through the use of a dominant-negative mutant, small hairpin ..
  21. Migeotte I, Omelchenko T, Hall A, Anderson K. Rac1-dependent collective cell migration is required for specification of the anterior-posterior body axis of the mouse. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000442 pubmed publisher
    ..Because Rac proteins are crucial regulators of cell migration and mouse Rac1 mutants die early in development, we tested whether Rac1 plays a role in AVE migration...
  22. Cerezo A, Guadamillas M, Goetz J, Sánchez Perales S, Klein E, Assoian R, et al. The absence of caveolin-1 increases proliferation and anchorage- independent growth by a Rac-dependent, Erk-independent mechanism. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5046-59 pubmed publisher
    ..AIG was induced in Cav1-expressing cells by forced membrane targeting of Rac1 or by inhibiting Cav1-mediated internalization of plasma membrane ordered domains at which Rac1 accumulates...
  23. Meller J, Vidali L, Schwartz M. Endogenous RhoG is dispensable for integrin-mediated cell spreading but contributes to Rac-independent migration. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:1981-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, RhoG was not detectably activated by adhesion to fibronectin. Using Rac1(-/-) cells, we found that constitutively active RhoG induced membrane ruffling via both Rac-dependent and -..
  24. Wu X, Tu X, Joeng K, Hilton M, Williams D, Long F. Rac1 activation controls nuclear localization of beta-catenin during canonical Wnt signaling. Cell. 2008;133:340-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in response to Wnt requires Rac1 activation...
  25. Chen L, Liao G, Waclaw R, Burns K, Linquist D, Campbell K, et al. Rac1 controls the formation of midline commissures and the competency of tangential migration in ventral telencephalic neurons. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3884-93 pubmed
    Previous studies using dominant-mutant constructs have implicated Rac1 GTPase in neuritogenesis and neuronal migration...
  26. Liu S, Kapoor M, Leask A. Rac1 expression by fibroblasts is required for tissue repair in vivo. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:1847-56 pubmed publisher
    ..specific components of adhesive signaling in fibrogenic responses is unclear, but may involve small GTPases such as Rac1. To address the functions of Rac1 in fibroblasts, we generated mice containing a fibroblast-specific deletion of ..
  27. Tscharntke M, Pofahl R, Chrostek Grashoff A, Smyth N, Niessen C, Niemann C, et al. Impaired epidermal wound healing in vivo upon inhibition or deletion of Rac1. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:1480-90 pubmed
    To address the functions of Rac1 in keratinocytes of the basal epidermal layer and in the outer root sheath of hair follicles, we generated transgenic mice expressing a dominant inhibitory mutant of Rac, N17Rac1, under the control of the ..
  28. Hassanain H, Gregg D, Marcelo M, Zweier J, Souza H, Selvakumar B, et al. Hypertension caused by transgenic overexpression of Rac1. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2007;9:91-100 pubmed
    ..An hypothesis is that Rac1 may act as an important regulator of vascular O2*- production, contributing to the balance between O2*- and NO* and ..
  29. Velaithan R, Kang J, Hirpara J, Loh T, Goh B, Le Bras M, et al. The small GTPase Rac1 is a novel binding partner of Bcl-2 and stabilizes its antiapoptotic activity. Blood. 2011;117:6214-26 pubmed publisher
    The small GTPase Rac1 is involved in the activation of the reduced NAD phosphate oxidase complex resulting in superoxide production...
  30. Guo F, Cancelas J, Hildeman D, Williams D, Zheng Y. Rac GTPase isoforms Rac1 and Rac2 play a redundant and crucial role in T-cell development. Blood. 2008;112:1767-75 pubmed publisher
    ..out conditional gene targeting to achieve hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)- or T-cell lineage-specific deletion of Rac1 or Rac1/Rac2 by crossbreeding the Mx-Cre or Lck-Cre transgenic mice with Rac1(loxp/loxp) or Rac1(loxp/loxp);Rac2(-/-..
  31. Navarro Lérida I, Sánchez Perales S, Calvo M, Rentero C, Zheng Y, Enrich C, et al. A palmitoylation switch mechanism regulates Rac1 function and membrane organization. EMBO J. 2012;31:534-51 pubmed publisher
    The small GTPase Rac1 plays important roles in many processes, including cytoskeletal reorganization, cell migration, cell-cycle progression and gene expression...
  32. Dietz D, Sun H, Lobo M, Cahill M, Chadwick B, Gao V, et al. Rac1 is essential in cocaine-induced structural plasticity of nucleus accumbens neurons. Nat Neurosci. 2012;15:891-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that repeated exposure to cocaine negatively regulates the active form of Rac1, a small GTPase that controls actin remodeling in other systems...
  33. Wolters M, Boyle E, Lardong K, Trulzsch K, Steffen A, Rottner K, et al. Cytotoxic necrotizing factor-Y boosts Yersinia effector translocation by activating Rac protein. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:23543-53 pubmed publisher
    ..CNF-Y strongly activated RhoA and also delayed in time Rac1 and Cdc42, but when individually expressed, constitutively active mutants of Rac1, but not of RhoA, increased Yop ..
  34. Samuel M, Lourenco F, Olson M. K-Ras mediated murine epidermal tumorigenesis is dependent upon and associated with elevated Rac1 activity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17143 pubmed publisher
    ..is the Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade, previous research in model systems has revealed that the Rac1 GTP-binding protein is also required for Ras-induced biological responses...
  35. Sabbatini M, Bi Y, Ji B, Ernst S, Williams J. CCK activates RhoA and Rac1 differentially through Galpha13 and Galphaq in mouse pancreatic acini. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;298:C592-601 pubmed publisher
    Cholecystokinin (CCK) has been shown to activate RhoA and Rac1, as well as reorganize the actin cytoskeleton and, thereby, modify acinar morphology and amylase secretion in mouse pancreatic acini...
  36. Shen E, Li Y, Li Y, Shan L, Zhu H, Feng Q, et al. Rac1 is required for cardiomyocyte apoptosis during hyperglycemia. Diabetes. 2009;58:2386-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study was to investigate the role of Rac1 in ROS production and cardiomyocyte apoptosis during hyperglycemia...
  37. Sawada N, Salomone S, Kim H, Kwiatkowski D, Liao J. Regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and postnatal angiogenesis by Rac1. Circ Res. 2008;103:360-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Because Rac1, a Rho family member, mediates cellular motility and generation of reactive oxygen species, it could be involved in ..
  38. Chen L, Melendez J, Campbell K, Kuan C, Zheng Y. Rac1 deficiency in the forebrain results in neural progenitor reduction and microcephaly. Dev Biol. 2009;325:162-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examine the role of Rac1 in mammalian neural progenitors and forebrain development by a conditional gene-targeting strategy using the Foxg1-..
  39. Briançon Marjollet A, Ghogha A, Nawabi H, Triki I, Auziol C, Fromont S, et al. Trio mediates netrin-1-induced Rac1 activation in axon outgrowth and guidance. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:2314-23 pubmed publisher
    ..cue netrin-1 promotes neurite outgrowth through its receptor Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) via activation of Rac1. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) linking netrin-1/DCC to Rac1 activation has not yet been identified...
  40. Benitah S, Watt F. Epidermal deletion of Rac1 causes stem cell depletion, irrespective of whether deletion occurs during embryogenesis or adulthood. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:1555-7 pubmed
  41. Backer S, Hidalgo Sanchez M, Offner N, Portales Casamar E, Debant A, Fort P, et al. Trio controls the mature organization of neuronal clusters in the hindbrain. J Neurosci. 2007;27:10323-32 pubmed
    ..We report that the absence of the Rho-guanine exchange factor Trio, which can activate both RhoG and Rac1 in vivo, prevents the proper formation of ION and fMN subnuclei...
  42. Heid I, Lubeseder Martellato C, Sipos B, Mazur P, Lesina M, Schmid R, et al. Early requirement of Rac1 in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer. Gastroenterology. 2011;141:719-30, 730.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate 1 (Rac1), which controls actin reorganization, can be activated by Ras, is up-regulated in several human cancers, and is ..
  43. Montenegro Venegas C, Tortosa E, Rosso S, Peretti D, Bollati F, Bisbal M, et al. MAP1B regulates axonal development by modulating Rho-GTPase Rac1 activity. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3518-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that MAP1B deficiency results in a significant decrease in Rac1 and cdc42 activity and a significant increase in Rho activity...
  44. Charrasse S, Comunale F, Fortier M, Portales Casamar E, Debant A, Gauthier Rouvière C. M-cadherin activates Rac1 GTPase through the Rho-GEF trio during myoblast fusion. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:1734-43 pubmed
    ..We found that the Rac1 GTPase activity is increased at the time of myoblast fusion and it is required for this process...
  45. Corbetta S, Gualdoni S, Ciceri G, Monari M, Zuccaro E, Tybulewicz V, et al. Essential role of Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases in neuronal development. FASEB J. 2009;23:1347-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Ubiquitous Rac1 and neuron-specific Rac3 GTPases are coexpressed in the developing mammalian brain...
  46. Vasyutina E, Martarelli B, Brakebusch C, Wende H, Birchmeier C. The small G-proteins Rac1 and Cdc42 are essential for myoblast fusion in the mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:8935-40 pubmed publisher
    b>Rac1 and Cdc42 are small G-proteins that regulate actin dynamics and affect plasma membrane protrusion and vesicle traffic...
  47. Wang G, Woods A, Agoston H, Ulici V, Glogauer M, Beier F. Genetic ablation of Rac1 in cartilage results in chondrodysplasia. Dev Biol. 2007;306:612-23 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the effects of cartilage-specific inactivation of the Rac1 gene in mice...
  48. Arana E, Vehlow A, Harwood N, Vigorito E, Henderson R, Turner M, et al. Activation of the small GTPase Rac2 via the B cell receptor regulates B cell adhesion and immunological-synapse formation. Immunity. 2008;28:88-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that both isoforms of the small GTPase Rac expressed by primary B cells, Rac1 and Rac2, were activated rapidly downstream of Src-family kinases, guanine-nucleotide exchange factors Vav1 and ..
  49. Shibata S, Mu S, Kawarazaki H, Muraoka K, Ishizawa K, Yoshida S, et al. Rac1 GTPase in rodent kidneys is essential for salt-sensitive hypertension via a mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent pathway. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3233-43 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor (MR), a nuclear transcription factor regulated by the steroid aldosterone, and the small GTPase Rac1, which is implicated in proteinuric kidney disease...
  50. Nodari A, Zambroni D, Quattrini A, Court F, D Urso A, Recchia A, et al. Beta1 integrin activates Rac1 in Schwann cells to generate radial lamellae during axonal sorting and myelination. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:1063-75 pubmed
    ..integrin migrate to and elongate on axons but cannot extend radial lamellae of cytoplasm, similar to cells with low Rac1 activation...
  51. Chang F, Lemmon C, Lietha D, Eck M, Romer L. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Rac1: a role in regulation of cell spreading. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28587 pubmed publisher
    b>Rac1 influences a multiplicity of vital cellular- and tissue-level control functions, making it an important candidate for targeted therapeutics...
  52. Andersson E, Prakash N, Cajanek L, Minina E, Bryja V, Bryjova L, et al. Wnt5a regulates ventral midbrain morphogenesis and the development of A9-A10 dopaminergic cells in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3517 pubmed publisher
    ..We hereby report that Wnt5a activated the GTPase Rac1 in DA cells and that Rac1 inhibitors blocked the Wnt5a-induced DA neuron differentiation of ventral midbrain (VM) ..
  53. Kassai H, Terashima T, Fukaya M, Nakao K, Sakahara M, Watanabe M, et al. Rac1 in cortical projection neurons is selectively required for midline crossing of commissural axonal formation. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;28:257-67 pubmed publisher
    b>Rac1 is a member of Rho family GTPases and regulates multiple cellular functions through actin cytoskeleton reorganization...
  54. Wang Z, Pedersen E, Basse A, Lefever T, Peyrollier K, Kapoor S, et al. Rac1 is crucial for Ras-dependent skin tumor formation by controlling Pak1-Mek-Erk hyperactivation and hyperproliferation in vivo. Oncogene. 2010;29:3362-73 pubmed publisher
    b>Rac1 has a role in proliferation and survival of tumor cells in vitro. The exact effects of Rac1 on growth, apoptosis and corresponding signaling pathways during tumorigenesis in vivo, however, have not been explored yet...
  55. Dumont C, Corsoni Tadrzak A, Ruf S, de Boer J, Williams A, Turner M, et al. Rac GTPases play critical roles in early T-cell development. Blood. 2009;113:3990-8 pubmed publisher
    The Rac1 and Rac2 GTPases play important roles in many processes including cytoskeletal reorganization, proliferation, and survival, and are required for B-cell development...
  56. Yoshida S, Hoppe A, Araki N, Swanson J. Sequential signaling in plasma-membrane domains during macropinosome formation in macrophages. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3250-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Ratiometric and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy determined that Rac1 activity and phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3)] levels increased transiently, peaking ..
  57. Griner E, Caino M, Sosa M, Colon Gonzalez F, Chalmers M, Mischak H, et al. A novel cross-talk in diacylglycerol signaling: the Rac-GAP beta2-chimaerin is negatively regulated by protein kinase Cdelta-mediated phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:16931-41 pubmed publisher
  58. Abramovici H, Mojtabaie P, Parks R, Zhong X, Koretzky G, Topham M, et al. Diacylglycerol kinase zeta regulates actin cytoskeleton reorganization through dissociation of Rac1 from RhoGDI. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:2049-59 pubmed publisher
    Activation of Rac1 GTPase signaling is stimulated by phosphorylation and release of RhoGDI by the effector p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), but it is unclear what initiates this potential feed-forward mechanism for regulation of Rac ..
  59. Li A, Ma Y, Jin M, Mason S, Mort R, Blyth K, et al. Activated mutant NRas(Q61K) drives aberrant melanocyte signaling, survival, and invasiveness via a Rac1-dependent mechanism. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:2610-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The Ras oncogene also activates signaling via the related Rho GTPase Rac1, which can mediate growth, survival, and motility signaling...
  60. Roepstorff K, Rasmussen I, Sawada M, Cudre Maroux C, Salmon P, Bokoch G, et al. Stimulus-dependent regulation of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase by a VAV1, Rac1, and PAK1 signaling axis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:7983-93 pubmed
    ..Both Rac1 and the GTP exchange factor VAV1 were required as upstream signaling proteins in the formyl-methionyl-leucyl-..
  61. Machacek M, Hodgson L, Welch C, Elliott H, Pertz O, Nalbant P, et al. Coordination of Rho GTPase activities during cell protrusion. Nature. 2009;461:99-103 pubmed publisher
    The GTPases Rac1, RhoA and Cdc42 act together to control cytoskeleton dynamics...
  62. Rahman A, Davis B, Lövdahl C, Hanumaiah V, Feil R, Brakebusch C, et al. The small GTPase Rac1 is required for smooth muscle contraction. J Physiol. 2014;592:915-26 pubmed publisher
    The role of the small GTP-binding protein Rac1 in smooth muscle contraction was examined using small molecule inhibitors (EHT1864, NSC23766) and a novel smooth muscle-specific, conditional, Rac1 knockout mouse strain...
  63. Croke M, Ross F, Korhonen M, Williams D, Zou W, Teitelbaum S. Rac deletion in osteoclasts causes severe osteopetrosis. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:3811-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that whereas deletion of Rac1 or Rac2 alone has no effect, variable reduction of Rac1 in osteoclastic cells of Rac2(-/-) mice causes severe ..
  64. Pennucci R, Tavano S, Tonoli D, Gualdoni S, de Curtis I. Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases regulate the development of hilar mossy cells by affecting the migration of their precursors to the hilus. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24819 pubmed publisher
    We have previously shown that double deletion of the genes for Rac1 and Rac3 GTPases during neuronal development affects late developmental events that perturb the circuitry of the hippocampus, with ensuing epileptic phenotype...
  65. Bongmba O, Martinez L, Elhardt M, Butler K, Tejada Simon M. Modulation of dendritic spines and synaptic function by Rac1: a possible link to Fragile X syndrome pathology. Brain Res. 2011;1399:79-95 pubmed publisher
    b>Rac1, a protein of the Rho GTPase subfamily, has been implicated in neuronal and spine development as well as the formation of synapses with appropriate partners...
  66. Tan W, Palmby T, Gavard J, Amornphimoltham P, Zheng Y, Gutkind J. An essential role for Rac1 in endothelial cell function and vascular development. FASEB J. 2008;22:1829-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have used a conditional Cre/Flox approach, enabling the deletion of the Rac1 gene in endothelial cells, to examine the role of the Rho-related GTPase Rac1 in endothelial cell function and ..
  67. Tahirovic S, Hellal F, Neukirchen D, Hindges R, Garvalov B, FLYNN K, et al. Rac1 regulates neuronal polarization through the WAVE complex. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6930-43 pubmed publisher
    ..To study the physiological function of Rac1 in neuronal development, we have generated a conditional knock-out mouse, in which Rac1 is ablated in the whole ..
  68. Ueda S, Kitazawa S, Ishida K, Nishikawa Y, Matsui M, Matsumoto H, et al. Crucial role of the small GTPase Rac1 in insulin-stimulated translocation of glucose transporter 4 to the mouse skeletal muscle sarcolemma. FASEB J. 2010;24:2254-61 pubmed publisher
    The Rho family GTPase Rac1 has been implicated in the regulation of glucose uptake in myoblast cell lines. However, no evidence for the role of Rac1 has been provided by a mouse model...
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    ..Here we have developed a new approach to produce genetically encoded photoactivatable derivatives of Rac1, a key GTPase regulating actin cytoskeletal dynamics in metazoan cells...