Gene Symbol: Ptprz1
Description: protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type Z, polypeptide 1
Alias: AI850339, DSD-1-PG, PTPbeta, PTPzeta, Ptprz, Ptpz, R-PTP-zeta, RPTPz, Rptpbeta, receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase zeta, 3F8 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, 3H1 keratan sulfate proteoglycan, phosphacan
Species: mouse
Products:     Ptprz1

Top Publications

  1. Krueger N, Saito H. A human transmembrane protein-tyrosine-phosphatase, PTP zeta, is expressed in brain and has an N-terminal receptor domain homologous to carbonic anhydrases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:7417-21 pubmed
    ..Mutational analyses indicate that only the membrane-proximal PTPase domain is catalytically active. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses indicate that human PTP zeta is highly expressed in a glioblastoma cell line. ..
  2. Schinke T, Gebauer M, Schilling A, Lamprianou S, Priemel M, Mueldner C, et al. The protein tyrosine phosphatase Rptpzeta is expressed in differentiated osteoblasts and affects bone formation in mice. Bone. 2008;42:524-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In a genome-wide expression analysis approach we found that Ptprz1, the gene encoding Rptpzeta, is strongly induced upon terminal differentiation of murine primary calvarial ..
  3. Shintani T, Watanabe E, Maeda N, Noda M. Neurons as well as astrocytes express proteoglycan-type protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta/RPTPbeta: analysis of mice in which the PTPzeta/RPTPbeta gene was replaced with the LacZ gene. Neurosci Lett. 1998;247:135-8 pubmed
    PTPzeta/RPTPbeta is a receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed as a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. We generated mice in which the PTPzeta gene was replaced by the LacZ gene by gene targeting...
  4. Dino M, Harroch S, Hockfield S, Matthews R. Monoclonal antibody Cat-315 detects a glycoform of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/phosphacan early in CNS development that localizes to extrasynaptic sites prior to synapse formation. Neuroscience. 2006;142:1055-69 pubmed
    ..Using receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTPbeta/protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta) knock-out mice and immunoprecipitation techniques, we demonstrate here that in ..
  5. Fujikawa A, Shirasaka D, Yamamoto S, Ota H, Yahiro K, Fukada M, et al. Mice deficient in protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z are resistant to gastric ulcer induction by VacA of Helicobacter pylori. Nat Genet. 2003;33:375-81 pubmed
    ..Here we report that mice deficient in protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (Ptprz, also called PTP-zeta or RPTP-beta, encoded by Ptprz) do not show mucosal damage by VacA, although VacA is ..
  6. Harroch S, Palmeri M, Rosenbluth J, Custer A, Okigaki M, Shrager P, et al. No obvious abnormality in mice deficient in receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:7706-15 pubmed
    ..Receptor PTPbeta (RPTPbeta; also known as PTPzeta) is expressed predominantly in the nervous system and exhibits structural features common ..
  7. Levy J, Canoll P, Silvennoinen O, Barnea G, Morse B, Honegger A, et al. The cloning of a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed in the central nervous system. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:10573-81 pubmed
    ..The high level of expression of RPTP beta transcripts in the ventricular and subventricular zones of the embryonic mouse brain suggests the importance of this tyrosine phosphatase in the development of the central nervous system. ..
  8. Lafont D, Adage T, Greco B, Zaratin P. A novel role for receptor like protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta in modulation of sensorimotor responses to noxious stimuli: evidences from knockout mice studies. Behav Brain Res. 2009;201:29-40 pubmed publisher
    Receptor like protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta (RPTPz) (also known as RPTPbeta or PTPxi) is a tyrosine phosphatase widely expressed in the nervous system, thought to play a role in cell-cell communication...
  9. Chow J, Fujikawa A, Shimizu H, Suzuki R, Noda M. Metalloproteinase- and gamma-secretase-mediated cleavage of protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:30879-89 pubmed publisher
    Protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (Ptprz) is preferentially expressed in the brain as a major chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Three splicing variants, two receptor isoforms and one secretory isoform, are known...

More Information


  1. Chow J, Fujikawa A, Shimizu H, Noda M. Plasmin-mediated processing of protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z in the mouse brain. Neurosci Lett. 2008;442:208-12 pubmed publisher
    Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (Ptprz, also known as PTPzeta or RPTPbeta) is preferentially expressed in the CNS as a major chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG)...
  2. Tamura H, Fukada M, Fujikawa A, Noda M. Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z is involved in hippocampus-dependent memory formation through dephosphorylation at Y1105 on p190 RhoGAP. Neurosci Lett. 2006;399:33-8 pubmed
    b>Ptprz is a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase predominantly expressed in the brain as a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan...
  3. Niisato K, Fujikawa A, Komai S, Shintani T, Watanabe E, Sakaguchi G, et al. Age-dependent enhancement of hippocampal long-term potentiation and impairment of spatial learning through the Rho-associated kinase pathway in protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 2005;25:1081-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, we have examined the physiological functions of Ptprz, which is a receptor-type PTP expressed predominantly in the brain as a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan...
  4. Harroch S, Furtado G, Brueck W, Rosenbluth J, LaFaille J, Chao M, et al. A critical role for the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z in functional recovery from demyelinating lesions. Nat Genet. 2002;32:411-4 pubmed
    ..Ptprz encodes protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (Ptpz, also designated Rptpbeta), which is expressed primarily in the nervous system but also in oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and neurons...
  5. Garwood J, Schnädelbach O, Clement A, Schutte K, Bach A, Faissner A. DSD-1-proteoglycan is the mouse homolog of phosphacan and displays opposing effects on neurite outgrowth dependent on neuronal lineage. J Neurosci. 1999;19:3888-99 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these studies we have identified DSD-1-PG as the mouse homolog of phosphacan, a neural rat CSPG...
  6. Bekku Y, Rauch U, Ninomiya Y, Oohashi T. Brevican distinctively assembles extracellular components at the large diameter nodes of Ranvier in the CNS. J Neurochem. 2009;108:1266-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We herein show that brevican, tenascin-R (TN-R) and phosphacan are present at the nodes of Ranvier on myelinated axons with a particularly large diameter in the central ..
  7. Dwyer C, Katoh T, Tiemeyer M, Matthews R. Neurons and glia modify receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase ζ (RPTPζ)/phosphacan with cell-specific O-mannosyl glycans in the developing brain. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:10256-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous work demonstrated that receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase ζ (RPTPζ)/phosphacan is hypoglycosylated in a mouse model of one of these CMDs, known as muscle-eye-brain disease, a disorder that is ..
  8. Treloar H, Ray A, Dinglasan L, Schachner M, Greer C. Tenascin-C is an inhibitory boundary molecule in the developing olfactory bulb. J Neurosci. 2009;29:9405-16 pubmed publisher
    ..2006). Collectively, these data demonstrate that Tnc is an inhibitory boundary molecule in the developing OB during a key period of development. ..
  9. Klausmeyer A, Garwood J, Faissner A. Differential expression of phosphacan/RPTPbeta isoforms in the developing mouse visual system. J Comp Neurol. 2007;504:659-79 pubmed
    The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan DSD-1-PG/phosphacan represents one of four splice variants of receptor-protein-tyrosine-phosphatase-beta/zeta (RPTPbeta/zeta)...
  10. Bischof J, Wevrick R. Genome-wide analysis of gene transcription in the hypothalamus. Physiol Genomics. 2005;22:191-6 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate the feasibility of combined bioinformatics and molecular approaches to the identification of genes that are candidates for obesity-related disorders in humans and mice. ..
  11. Nagalakshmi V, Lindner V, Wessels A, Yu J. microRNA-dependent temporal gene expression in the ureteric bud epithelium during mammalian kidney development. Dev Dyn. 2015;244:444-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Developmental Dynamics 244:444-456, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  12. Lee J, Matthews R, Lim J, Swanier K, Wells L, Pierce J. Developmental expression of the neuron-specific N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase Vb (GnT-Vb/IX) and identification of its in vivo glycan products in comparison with those of its paralog, GnT-V. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:28526-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that GnT-V is involved in synthesizing branched O-mannosyl glycans in brain, but the function of these branched O-mannosyl structures is unresolved using mice that lack these glycosyltransferases. ..
  13. Clarris H, Rauch U, Key B. Dynamic spatiotemporal expression patterns of neurocan and phosphacan indicate diverse roles in the developing and adult mouse olfactory system. J Comp Neurol. 2000;423:99-111 pubmed
    The chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans neurocan and phosphacan are believed to modulate neurite outgrowth by binding to cell adhesion molecules, tenascin, and the differentiation factors heparin-binding growth-associated molecule and ..
  14. Ohyama K, Ikeda E, Kawamura K, Maeda N, Noda M. Receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta/RPTP beta is expressed on tangentially aligned neurons in early mouse neocortex. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2004;148:121-7 pubmed
    Protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta (PTPzeta)/RPTPbeta is a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan predominantly expressed in the brain...
  15. Cohen S, Shoshana O, Zelman Toister E, Maharshak N, Binsky Ehrenreich I, Gordin M, et al. The cytokine midkine and its receptor RPTP? regulate B cell survival in a pathway induced by CD74. J Immunol. 2012;188:259-69 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice lacking PTPRZ, the proportion and number of the mature B cell population are reduced...
  16. Garwood J, Heck N, Reichardt F, Faissner A. Phosphacan short isoform, a novel non-proteoglycan variant of phosphacan/receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase-beta, interacts with neuronal receptors and promotes neurite outgrowth. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:24164-73 pubmed
    b>Phosphacan, one of the principal proteoglycans in the extracellular matrix of the central nervous system, is implicated in neuron-glia interactions associated with neuronal differentiation and myelination...
  17. Maddala R, Skiba N, Lalane R, Sherman D, Brophy P, Rao P. Periaxin is required for hexagonal geometry and membrane organization of mature lens fibers. Dev Biol. 2011;357:179-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, there may be functional parallels between the roles of Prx in membrane stabilization of the myelin sheath and the lens fiber cell. ..
  18. Abaskharoun M, Bellemare M, Lau E, Margolis R. Glypican-1, phosphacan/receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase-?/? and its ligand, tenascin-C, are expressed by neural stem cells and neural cells derived from embryonic stem cells. ASN Neuro. 2010;2:e00039 pubmed publisher
    The heparan sulfate proteoglycan glypican-1, the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan phosphacan/RPTP (receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase)-zeta/beta and the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-C were all found to be expressed by neural ..
  19. Fukazawa N, Yokoyama S, Eiraku M, Kengaku M, Maeda N. Receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta-pleiotrophin signaling controls endocytic trafficking of DNER that regulates neuritogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4494-506 pubmed publisher
    Protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta (PTPzeta) is a receptor type protein tyrosine phosphatase that uses pleiotrophin as a ligand...
  20. Himburg H, Harris J, Ito T, Daher P, Russell J, Quarmyne M, et al. Pleiotrophin regulates the retention and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow vascular niche. Cell Rep. 2012;2:964-75 pubmed publisher
    ..PTN is a secreted component of the BM vascular niche that regulates HSC self-renewal and retention in vivo. ..
  21. Lamprianou S, Chatzopoulou E, Thomas J, Bouyain S, Harroch S. A complex between contactin-1 and the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPRZ controls the development of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:17498-503 pubmed publisher
    ..Five of the six CNTNs bind to the homologous receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases gamma (PTPRG) and zeta (PTPRZ), but the biological roles of these interactions remain unclear...
  22. Hayashi N, Miyata S, Yamada M, Kamei K, Oohira A. Neuronal expression of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase beta and phosphacan. Neuroscience. 2005;131:331-48 pubmed
    Receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase beta (RPTPbeta) and its spliced variant phosphacan are major components of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the CNS...
  23. Kuboyama K, Fujikawa A, Masumura M, Suzuki R, Matsumoto M, Noda M. Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type z negatively regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48797 pubmed publisher
    ..To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether Ptprz, a receptor-like PTP (RPTP) expressed abuntantly in oligodendrocyte lineage cells, is involved in this process, ..
  24. Kuboyama K, Fujikawa A, Suzuki R, Tanga N, Noda M. Role of Chondroitin Sulfate (CS) Modification in the Regulation of Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type Z (PTPRZ) Activity: PLEIOTROPHIN-PTPRZ-A SIGNALING IS INVOLVED IN OLIGODENDROCYTE DIFFERENTIATION. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:18117-28 pubmed publisher
    Protein-tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (PTPRZ) is predominantly expressed in the developing brain as a CS proteoglycan. PTPRZ has long (PTPRZ-A) and short type (PTPRZ-B) receptor forms by alternative splicing...
  25. Abramova N, Charniga C, Goderie S, Temple S. Stage-specific changes in gene expression in acutely isolated mouse CNS progenitor cells. Dev Biol. 2005;283:269-81 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that progenitor cells change during development and that adult and embryonic neural progenitor cells are intrinsically different. ..
  26. Leung K, Margolis R, Chan S. Expression of phosphacan and neurocan during early development of mouse retinofugal pathway. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 2004;152:1-10 pubmed
    We have investigated whether the two major brain chondroitin sulfate (CS) proteoglycans (PGs), phosphacan and neurocan, are expressed in patterns that correlate to the axon order changes in the mouse retinofugal pathway...
  27. Blackshear P, Silver J, Nairn A, Sulik K, Squier M, Stumpo D, et al. Widespread neuronal ectopia associated with secondary defects in cerebrocortical chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans and basal lamina in MARCKS-deficient mice. Exp Neurol. 1997;145:46-61 pubmed
  28. Hikake T, Mori T, Iseki K, Hagino S, Zhang Y, Takagi H, et al. Comparison of expression patterns between CREB family transcription factor OASIS and proteoglycan core protein genes during murine tooth development. Anat Embryol (Berl). 2003;206:373-80 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the OASIS gene might be related to proteoglycan expression and may play an important role in the differentiation of the odontoblast and cells in inner enamel epithelium. ..
  29. Karus M, Hennen E, Safina D, Klausmeyer A, Wiese S, Faissner A. Differential expression of micro-heterogeneous LewisX-type glycans in the stem cell compartment of the developing mouse spinal cord. Neurochem Res. 2013;38:1285-94 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion our study gives some novel insights into the complex expression of LeX glycans and potential carrier proteins during the development of the mouse spinal cord. ..
  30. Horvat Bröcker A, Reinhard J, Illes S, Paech T, Zoidl G, Harroch S, et al. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases are expressed by cycling retinal progenitor cells and involved in neuronal development of mouse retina. Neuroscience. 2008;152:618-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional studies in RPTPgamma(-/-) and RPTPbeta/zeta(-/-) (also known as PTPRZ1, RPTPbeta or RPTPzeta) mice at postnatal stage P1 reveal no apparent differences ..
  31. Himburg H, Yan X, Doan P, Quarmyne M, Micewicz E, McBride W, et al. Pleiotrophin mediates hematopoietic regeneration via activation of RAS. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:4753-8 pubmed publisher
    ..regeneration via activation of the RAS pathway in mice that expressed protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor-zeta (PTPRZ), whereas PTN treatment did not induce RAS signaling in PTPRZ-deficient mice, suggesting that PTN-mediated ..
  32. Haunsø A, Ibrahim M, Bartsch U, Letiembre M, Celio M, Menoud P. Morphology of perineuronal nets in tenascin-R and parvalbumin single and double knockout mice. Brain Res. 2000;864:142-5 pubmed
    Recently identified chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in perineuronal nets include neurocan and phosphacan. However, the function and assembly of these components has yet to be resolved...
  33. Kuboyama K, Fujikawa A, Suzuki R, Noda M. Inactivation of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type Z by Pleiotrophin Promotes Remyelination through Activation of Differentiation of Oligodendrocyte Precursor Cells. J Neurosci. 2015;35:12162-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (PTPRZ), one of the most abundant protein tyrosine phosphatases expressed in OPCs, is known to suppress oligodendrocyte ..
  34. Huang J, Ferrari C, Monteiro de Castro G, Lafont D, Zhao C, Zaratin P, et al. Accelerated axonal loss following acute CNS demyelination in mice lacking protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z. Am J Pathol. 2012;181:1518-23 pubmed publisher
    Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (Ptprz) is widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system and has been suggested to regulate oligodendrocyte survival and differentiation...
  35. Nandi S, Cioce M, Yeung Y, Nieves E, Tesfa L, Lin H, et al. Receptor-type protein-tyrosine phosphatase ? is a functional receptor for interleukin-34. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:21972-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies an alternate receptor for IL-34 that may mediate its action on novel cellular targets. ..
  36. Takahashi N, Sakurai T, Bozdagi Gunal O, Dorr N, Moy J, Krug L, et al. Increased expression of receptor phosphotyrosine phosphatase-?/? is associated with molecular, cellular, behavioral and cognitive schizophrenia phenotypes. Transl Psychiatry. 2011;1:e8 pubmed publisher
    ..signaling is inhibited by receptor phosphotyrosine phosphatase-?/? (RPTP ?/?) and that the gene encoding RPTP?/? (PTPRZ1) is genetically associated with schizophrenia...
  37. Baldauf C, Jeschke A, Kanbach V, Catala Lehnen P, Baumhoer D, Gerull H, et al. The Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Rptp? Suppresses Osteosarcoma Development in Trp53-Heterozygous Mice. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0137745 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore analyzed the skeletal phenotype of mice lacking Ptprz1, the gene encoding Rptp? on a tumor-prone genetic background, i.e. Trp53-heterozygosity...
  38. Bouyain S, Watkins D. The protein tyrosine phosphatases PTPRZ and PTPRG bind to distinct members of the contactin family of neural recognition molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2443-8 pubmed publisher
    The receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases gamma (PTPRG) and zeta (PTPRZ) are expressed primarily in the nervous system and mediate cell adhesion and signaling events during development...
  39. Ohyama K, Kawano H, Asou H, Fukuda T, Oohira A, Uyemura K, et al. Coordinate expression of L1 and 6B4 proteoglycan/phosphacan is correlated with the migration of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons in mice. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1998;107:219-26 pubmed
    ..expression was not observed in DA neurons, they expressed a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, 6B4 proteoglycan/phosphacan, which has been shown to bind to L1/Ng-CAM in vitro...
  40. Parent A, Mungenast A, Lomniczi A, Sandau U, Peles E, Bosch M, et al. A contactin-receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase beta complex mediates adhesive communication between astroglial cells and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone neurones. J Neuroendocrinol. 2007;19:847-59 pubmed
    ..GT1-7 immortalised GnRH neurones adhere to the CAH domain of RPTPbeta, and this adhesiveness is blocked when contactin GPI anchoring is disrupted or contactin binding capacity is ..
  41. Fujikawa A, Chow J, Matsumoto M, Suzuki R, Kuboyama K, Yamamoto N, et al. Identification of novel splicing variants of protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z. J Biochem. 2017;162:381-390 pubmed publisher
    Protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type Z (PTPRZ, also known as PTP? or RPTP?) is preferentially expressed in the central nervous system (CNS)...
  42. Diamantopoulou Z, Kitsou P, Menashi S, Courty J, Katsoris P. Loss of receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ?/? (RPTP?/?) promotes prostate cancer metastasis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:40339-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that the loss of RPTP?/? may contribute to the metastasis of prostate cancer cells by inducing EMT and promoting pleiotrophin activity through the syndecan-3 pathway. ..
  43. Dwyer C, Baker E, Hu H, Matthews R. RPTP?/phosphacan is abnormally glycosylated in a model of muscle-eye-brain disease lacking functional POMGnT1. Neuroscience. 2012;220:47-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we identify receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ? (RPTP?) and its secreted variant, phosphacan, as another potentially important substrate for protein O-mannosylation in the brain...
  44. Besser M, Jagatheaswaran M, Reinhard J, Schaffelke P, Faissner A. Tenascin C regulates proliferation and differentiation processes during embryonic retinogenesis and modulates the de-differentiation capacity of Müller glia by influencing growth factor responsiveness and the extracellular matrix compartment. Dev Biol. 2012;369:163-76 pubmed publisher
    ..It was possible to note a significant increase of this particular chondroitin sulfate in the Tnc-deficient ECM. ..
  45. Karus M, Samtleben S, Busse C, Tsai T, Dietzel I, Faissner A, et al. Normal sulfation levels regulate spinal cord neural precursor cell proliferation and differentiation. Neural Dev. 2012;7:20 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data suggest that sulfation is an important regulator of both neural precursor cell proliferation and maturation of the neural precursor cell progeny in the developing mouse spinal cord. ..
  46. Nayak G, Goodyear R, Legan P, Noda M, Richardson G. Evidence for multiple, developmentally regulated isoforms of Ptprq on hair cells of the inner ear. Dev Neurobiol. 2011;71:129-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Hair bundles in the mature chick ear that do not express the H10 epitope have longer shaft connectors than those that do, indicating the presence or absence of the H10 epitope on Ptprq may modulate the spacing of stereocilia. ..
  47. Nguyen Ba Charvet K, von Boxberg Y, Guazzi S, Boncinelli E, Godement P. A potential role for the OTX2 homeoprotein in creating early 'highways' for axon extension in the rostral brain. Development. 1998;125:4273-82 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Otx2 might be involved in defining local substrata for axon extension in the forebrain. ..
  48. Sakaguchi N, Muramatsu H, Ichihara Tanaka K, Maeda N, Noda M, Yamamoto T, et al. Receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta as a component of the signaling receptor complex for midkine-dependent survival of embryonic neurons. Neurosci Res. 2003;45:219-24 pubmed
    ..The survival-promoting activity of MK was abolished by PP1, an inhibitor of src protein kinase, pertussis toxin, an inhibitor of G protein-linked signaling and sodium orthovanadate, an inhibitor of PTPs. ..