Pthlh

Summary

Gene Symbol: Pthlh
Description: parathyroid hormone-like peptide
Alias: PLP, PTH-like, Pthrp, parathyroid hormone-related protein, PTH-related peptide, parathyroid hormone-like hormone, parathyroid hormone-like protein, parathyroid hormone-related peptide
Species: mouse
Products:     Pthlh

Top Publications

  1. Chen X, Macica C, Nasiri A, Broadus A. Regulation of articular chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation by indian hedgehog and parathyroid hormone-related protein in mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:3788-97 pubmed publisher
    ..of the epiphyseal growth zone are regulated by the Indian hedgehog (IHH)-parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) axis...
  2. Long F, Zhang X, Karp S, Yang Y, McMahon A. Genetic manipulation of hedgehog signaling in the endochondral skeleton reveals a direct role in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation. Development. 2001;128:5099-108 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the present study establishes Ihh as a key mitogen in the endochondral skeleton. ..
  3. Tucci J, Hammond V, Senior P, Gibson A, Beck F. The role of fetal parathyroid hormone-related protein in transplacental calcium transport. J Mol Endocrinol. 1996;17:159-64 pubmed
    ..Based on experiments performed in the sheep, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has been implicated as the hormone responsible for maintaining the placental calcium pump...
  4. Simmonds C, Karsenty G, Karaplis A, Kovacs C. Parathyroid hormone regulates fetal-placental mineral homeostasis. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:594-605 pubmed publisher
    ..Although parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) acts in concert with PTH to regulate fetal mineral homeostasis and placental calcium transfer, unlike PTH, it ..
  5. Philbrick W, Wysolmerski J, Galbraith S, Holt E, Orloff J, Yang K, et al. Defining the roles of parathyroid hormone-related protein in normal physiology. Physiol Rev. 1996;76:127-73 pubmed
    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) was discovered as a result of a search for the circulating factor secreted by cancers which causes the common paraneoplastic syndrome humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy...
  6. Chatterjee O, Nakchbandi I, Philbrick W, Dreyer B, Zhang J, Kaczmarek L, et al. Endogenous parathyroid hormone-related protein functions as a neuroprotective agent. Brain Res. 2002;930:58-66 pubmed
    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) was discovered a dozen years ago as a product of malignant tumors. It is now known that PTHrP is a paracrine factor with multiple biological functions...
  7. Mak K, Kronenberg H, Chuang P, Mackem S, Yang Y. Indian hedgehog signals independently of PTHrP to promote chondrocyte hypertrophy. Development. 2008;135:1947-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and PTHrP signaling play crucial roles in regulating the onset of chondrocyte hypertrophy by forming a negative feedback ..
  8. Weir E, Philbrick W, Amling M, Neff L, Baron R, Broadus A. Targeted overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related peptide in chondrocytes causes chondrodysplasia and delayed endochondral bone formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10240-5 pubmed
    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) was initially identified as a product of malignant tumors that mediates paraneoplastic hypercalcemia...
  9. Karperien M, Lanser P, de Laat S, Boonstra J, Defize L. Parathyroid hormone related peptide mRNA expression during murine postimplantation development: evidence for involvement in multiple differentiation processes. Int J Dev Biol. 1996;40:599-608 pubmed
    In this study we describe the spatio-temporal expression of Parathyroid Hormone related Peptide (PTHrP) mRNA during murine postimplantation development from day 5.5 post coitum (pc) until day 12.5 pc. From day 5...

More Information

Publications64

  1. Kovacs C, Lanske B, Hunzelman J, Guo J, Karaplis A, Kronenberg H. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) regulates fetal-placental calcium transport through a receptor distinct from the PTH/PTHrP receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:15233-8 pubmed
    To determine the role of PTHrP in fetal calcium metabolism, blood calcium was measured in mice homozygous (HOM) for deletion of the PTHrP gene. On day 18...
  2. Wysolmerski J, Broadus A, Zhou J, Fuchs E, Milstone L, Philbrick W. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein in the skin of transgenic mice interferes with hair follicle development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:1133-7 pubmed
    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) was initially discovered as the cause of the syndrome of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy...
  3. Karp S, Schipani E, St Jacques B, Hunzelman J, Kronenberg H, McMahon A. Indian hedgehog coordinates endochondral bone growth and morphogenesis via parathyroid hormone related-protein-dependent and -independent pathways. Development. 2000;127:543-8 pubmed
    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein (PTHrP) play a critical role in the morphogenesis of the vertebrate skeleton...
  4. Miao D, He B, Karaplis A, Goltzman D. Parathyroid hormone is essential for normal fetal bone formation. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:1173-82 pubmed
    ..the role of PTH in fetal skeletal development by comparing newborn mice lacking either PTH, PTH-related peptide (PTHrP), or both peptides...
  5. Smits P, Li P, Mandel J, Zhang Z, Deng J, Behringer R, et al. The transcription factors L-Sox5 and Sox6 are essential for cartilage formation. Dev Cell. 2001;1:277-90 pubmed
    ..L-Sox5 and Sox6 are thus redundant, potent enhancers of chondroblast functions, thereby essential for endochondral skeleton formation. ..
  6. Yang Y, Topol L, Lee H, Wu J. Wnt5a and Wnt5b exhibit distinct activities in coordinating chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Development. 2003;130:1003-15 pubmed
    ..different chondrocyte zones independently of the Indian hedgehog (Ihh)/parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) negative feedback loop...
  7. Koziel L, Kunath M, Kelly O, Vortkamp A. Ext1-dependent heparan sulfate regulates the range of Ihh signaling during endochondral ossification. Dev Cell. 2004;6:801-13 pubmed
    ..Finally, we propose that the development of exostoses in the human Hereditary Multiple Exostoses syndrome can be attributed to activation of Ihh signaling...
  8. Datta N, Chen C, Berry J, McCauley L. PTHrP signaling targets cyclin D1 and induces osteoblastic cell growth arrest. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:1051-64 pubmed
    b>PTHrP control of the MC3T3-E1 cell cycle machinery showed that, during differentiation, PTHrP induced G1 growth arrest...
  9. Miao D, He B, Jiang Y, Kobayashi T, Sorocéanu M, Zhao J, et al. Osteoblast-derived PTHrP is a potent endogenous bone anabolic agent that modifies the therapeutic efficacy of administered PTH 1-34. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:2402-11 pubmed
    Mice heterozygous for targeted disruption of Pthrp exhibit, by 3 months of age, diminished bone volume and skeletal microarchitectural changes indicative of advanced osteoporosis...
  10. Mak K, Bi Y, Wan C, Chuang P, Clemens T, Young M, et al. Hedgehog signaling in mature osteoblasts regulates bone formation and resorption by controlling PTHrP and RANKL expression. Dev Cell. 2008;14:674-88 pubmed publisher
    ..showed that Hh signaling indirectly induced osteoclast differentiation by upregulating osteoblast expression of PTHrP, which promoted RANKL expression via PKA and its target transcription factor CREB...
  11. Guo X, Mak K, Taketo M, Yang Y. The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway interacts differentially with PTHrP signaling to control chondrocyte hypertrophy and final maturation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6067 pubmed publisher
    ..The canonical Wnt signaling pathway acts through beta-catenin to promote chondrocyte hypertrophy whereas PTHrP signaling inhibits it by holding chondrocytes in proliferating states...
  12. Wang W, Lian N, Li L, Moss H, Wang W, Perrien D, et al. Atf4 regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during endochondral ossification by activating Ihh transcription. Development. 2009;136:4143-53 pubmed publisher
    ..decreased, whereas the expression of other chondrocyte marker genes, such as type II collagen (Col2a1), PTH/PTHrP receptor (Pth1r) and type X collagen (Col10a1), is normal...
  13. Hiremath M, Dann P, Fischer J, Butterworth D, Boras Granic K, Hens J, et al. Parathyroid hormone-related protein activates Wnt signaling to specify the embryonic mammary mesenchyme. Development. 2012;139:4239-49 pubmed publisher
    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) regulates cell fate and specifies the mammary mesenchyme during embryonic development...
  14. Lanske B, Amling M, Neff L, Guiducci J, Baron R, Kronenberg H. Ablation of the PTHrP gene or the PTH/PTHrP receptor gene leads to distinct abnormalities in bone development. J Clin Invest. 1999;104:399-407 pubmed
    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) bind to and activate the same PTH/PTHrP receptor...
  15. Wai A, Ng L, Watanabe H, Yamada Y, Tam P, Cheah K. Disrupted expression of matrix genes in the growth plate of the mouse cartilage matrix deficiency (cmd) mutant. Dev Genet. 1998;22:349-58 pubmed
    ..The discordance of gene expression in cmd chondrocytes may be additional factors contributing to the disrupted cellular architecture of the growth plate resulting from the primary absence of aggrecan. ..
  16. St Jacques B, Hammerschmidt M, McMahon A. Indian hedgehog signaling regulates proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes and is essential for bone formation. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2072-86 pubmed
    ..chondrocyte maturation by way of feedback control of a second secreted factor parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) at the articular surfaces...
  17. Akiyama H, Lyons J, Mori Akiyama Y, Yang X, Zhang R, Zhang Z, et al. Interactions between Sox9 and beta-catenin control chondrocyte differentiation. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1072-87 pubmed
    ..Our results strongly suggest that chondrogenesis is controlled by interactions between Sox9 and the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. ..
  18. Smits P, Dy P, Mitra S, Lefebvre V. Sox5 and Sox6 are needed to develop and maintain source, columnar, and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the cartilage growth plate. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:747-58 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, Sox5 and Sox6 are needed for the establishment of multilayered growth plates, and thereby for proper and timely development of endochondral bones. ..
  19. VanHouten J, Dann P, McGeoch G, Brown E, Krapcho K, Neville M, et al. The calcium-sensing receptor regulates mammary gland parathyroid hormone-related protein production and calcium transport. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:598-608 pubmed
    ..In this report, we demonstrate that parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) production and calcium transport in mammary epithelial cells are regulated by extracellular calcium acting ..
  20. Kovacs C, Woodland M, Fudge N, Friel J. The vitamin D receptor is not required for fetal mineral homeostasis or for the regulation of placental calcium transfer in mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2005;289:E133-44 pubmed
    ..but not placenta; a small increase was also noted in placental expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)...
  21. Provot S, Kempf H, Murtaugh L, Chung U, Kim D, Chyung J, et al. Nkx3.2/Bapx1 acts as a negative regulator of chondrocyte maturation. Development. 2006;133:651-62 pubmed
    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is essential to maintain a pool of dividing, immature chondrocytes in the growth plate of long bones. In chick and mouse, expression of Nkx3...
  22. Vasavada R, Cavaliere C, D Ercole A, Dann P, Burtis W, Madlener A, et al. Overexpression of parathyroid hormone-related protein in the pancreatic islets of transgenic mice causes islet hyperplasia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypoglycemia. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:1200-8 pubmed
    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is produced by the pancreatic islet. It also has receptors on islet cells, suggesting that it may serve a paracrine or autocrine role within the islet...
  23. Amizuka N, Warshawsky H, Henderson J, Goltzman D, Karaplis A. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide-depleted mice show abnormal epiphyseal cartilage development and altered endochondral bone formation. J Cell Biol. 1994;126:1611-23 pubmed
    To elucidate the role of PTHrP in skeletal development, we examined the proximal tibial epiphysis and metaphysis of wild-type (PTHrP-normal) 18-19-d-old fetal mice and of chondrodystrophic litter mates homozygous for a disrupted PTHrP ..
  24. Minina E, Wenzel H, Kreschel C, Karp S, Gaffield W, McMahon A, et al. BMP and Ihh/PTHrP signaling interact to coordinate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Development. 2001;128:4523-34 pubmed
    ..endochondral ossification, two secreted signals, Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), have been shown to form a negative feedback loop regulating the onset of hypertrophic differentiation of ..
  25. Inada M, Yasui T, Nomura S, Miyake S, Deguchi K, Himeno M, et al. Maturational disturbance of chondrocytes in Cbfa1-deficient mice. Dev Dyn. 1999;214:279-90 pubmed
    ..Chondrocyte differentiation was severely disturbed in the rest of the skeleton. The expression of PTH/PTHrP receptor, Indian hedgehog, type X collagen, and BMP6 was not detected in humerus and femur, indicating that ..
  26. Correa D, Hesse E, Seriwatanachai D, Kiviranta R, Saito H, Yamana K, et al. Zfp521 is a target gene and key effector of parathyroid hormone-related peptide signaling in growth plate chondrocytes. Dev Cell. 2010;19:533-46 pubmed publisher
    In the growth plate, the interplay between parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) and Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling tightly regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during longitudinal bone growth...
  27. Sicari B, Troxell R, Salim F, Tanwir M, Takane K, Fiaschi Taesch N. c-myc and skp2 coordinate p27 degradation, vascular smooth muscle proliferation, and neointima formation induced by the parathyroid hormone-related protein. Endocrinology. 2012;153:861-72 pubmed publisher
    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) contains a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal. Nuclear PTHrP induces proliferation of arterial vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC)...
  28. Dunbar M, Dann P, Robinson G, Hennighausen L, Zhang J, Wysolmerski J. Parathyroid hormone-related protein signaling is necessary for sexual dimorphism during embryonic mammary development. Development. 1999;126:3485-93 pubmed
    ..We show that this process involves apoptosis and that, in the absence of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) or its receptor, the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR1), it fails due to a lack of mesenchymal AR expression...
  29. Kozhemyakina E, Cohen T, Yao T, Lassar A. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide represses chondrocyte hypertrophy through a protein phosphatase 2A/histone deacetylase 4/MEF2 pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5751-62 pubmed publisher
    ..of immature chondrocytes to hypertrophic chondrocytes is regulated by parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP)...
  30. Hens J, Dann P, Hiremath M, Pan T, Chodosh L, Wysolmerski J. Analysis of gene expression in PTHrP-/- mammary buds supports a role for BMP signaling and MMP2 in the initiation of ductal morphogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2713-24 pubmed publisher
    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) acts on the mammary mesenchyme and is required for proper embryonic mammary development...
  31. Schipani E, Lanske B, Hunzelman J, Luz A, Kovacs C, Lee K, et al. Targeted expression of constitutively active receptors for parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide delays endochondral bone formation and rescues mice that lack parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:13689-94 pubmed
    Mice in which the genes encoding the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide (PTHrP) or the PTH/PTHrP receptor have been ablated by homologous recombination show skeletal dysplasia due to accelerated endochondral bone formation, and ..
  32. Wysolmerski J, Philbrick W, Dunbar M, Lanske B, Kronenberg H, Broadus A. Rescue of the parathyroid hormone-related protein knockout mouse demonstrates that parathyroid hormone-related protein is essential for mammary gland development. Development. 1998;125:1285-94 pubmed
    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) was originally discovered as a tumor product that causes humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy...
  33. Maes C, Stockmans I, Moermans K, Van Looveren R, Smets N, Carmeliet P, et al. Soluble VEGF isoforms are essential for establishing epiphyseal vascularization and regulating chondrocyte development and survival. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:188-99 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the insoluble VEGF(188) isoform is insufficient for establishing epiphyseal vascularization and regulating cartilage development during endochondral bone formation...
  34. VanHouten J, Dann P, Stewart A, Watson C, Pollak M, Karaplis A, et al. Mammary-specific deletion of parathyroid hormone-related protein preserves bone mass during lactation. J Clin Invest. 2003;112:1429-36 pubmed
    ..Several studies have suggested that parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) might be secreted into the circulation by the lactating mammary gland and regulate bone turnover during lactation...
  35. Dunbar M, Young P, Zhang J, McCaughern Carucci J, Lanske B, Orloff J, et al. Stromal cells are critical targets in the regulation of mammary ductal morphogenesis by parathyroid hormone-related protein. Dev Biol. 1998;203:75-89 pubmed
    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) was originally identified as the tumor product responsible for humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy...
  36. Tavella S, Biticchi R, Schito A, Minina E, Di Martino D, Pagano A, et al. Targeted expression of SHH affects chondrocyte differentiation, growth plate organization, and Sox9 expression. J Bone Miner Res. 2004;19:1678-88 pubmed
    ..Ptc1), was greatly increased in all cartilage, as well as the expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) at the articular surface; while the expression of Indian Hedgehog (Ihh), another member of Hh family that ..
  37. Gillespie M, Martin T. The parathyroid hormone-related protein gene and its expression. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1994;100:143-7 pubmed
    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) was originally identified as a tumor product, but it is now established that PTHrP is expressed in many tissues where it exerts paracrine functions...
  38. Karaplis A, Luz A, Glowacki J, Bronson R, Tybulewicz V, Kronenberg H, et al. Lethal skeletal dysplasia from targeted disruption of the parathyroid hormone-related peptide gene. Genes Dev. 1994;8:277-89 pubmed
    The parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) gene was disrupted in murine embryonic stem cells by homologous recombination, and the null allele was introduced into the mouse germ line...
  39. Fleming N, Trivett M, George J, Slavin J, Murray W, Moseley J, et al. Parathyroid hormone-related protein protects against mammary tumor emergence and is associated with monocyte infiltration in ductal carcinoma in situ. Cancer Res. 2009;69:7473-9 pubmed publisher
    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is required for mammary gland development and promotes the growth of breast cancer metastases within bone...
  40. Chung U, Lanske B, Lee K, Li E, Kronenberg H. The parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor coordinates endochondral bone development by directly controlling chondrocyte differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:13030-5 pubmed
    ..Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP), its receptor, the PTH/PTHrP receptor, and Indian hedgehog are implicated in the regulation of chondrocyte ..
  41. Vortkamp A, Lee K, Lanske B, Segre G, Kronenberg H, Tabin C. Regulation of rate of cartilage differentiation by Indian hedgehog and PTH-related protein. Science. 1996;273:613-22 pubmed
    ..Ihh induces the expression of a second signal, parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), in the periarticular perichondrium...
  42. Hens J, Dann P, Zhang J, Harris S, Robinson G, Wysolmerski J. BMP4 and PTHrP interact to stimulate ductal outgrowth during embryonic mammary development and to inhibit hair follicle induction. Development. 2007;134:1221-30 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have shown that parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP; also known as parathyroid hormone-like peptide, Pthlh) is produced by mammary epithelial cells and acts on ..
  43. Chen X, Macica C, Dreyer B, Hammond V, Hens J, Philbrick W, et al. Initial characterization of PTH-related protein gene-driven lacZ expression in the mouse. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21:113-23 pubmed
    The PTHrP gene generates low-abundance mRNA and protein products that are not easily localized by in situ hybridization histochemistry or immunohistochemistry...
  44. Amling M, Neff L, Tanaka S, Inoue D, Kuida K, Weir E, et al. Bcl-2 lies downstream of parathyroid hormone-related peptide in a signaling pathway that regulates chondrocyte maturation during skeletal development. J Cell Biol. 1997;136:205-13 pubmed
    Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) appears to play a major role in skeletal development. Targeted disruption of the PTHrP gene in mice causes skeletal dysplasia with accelerated chondrocyte maturation (Amizuka, N., H...
  45. Kobayashi T, Soegiarto D, Yang Y, Lanske B, Schipani E, McMahon A, et al. Indian hedgehog stimulates periarticular chondrocyte differentiation to regulate growth plate length independently of PTHrP. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:1734-42 pubmed
    ..Parathyroid hormone-related (PTH-related) protein (PTHrP), regulated by Indian hedgehog (Ihh), prevents premature hypertrophic differentiation, thereby maintaining the ..
  46. Miao D, Su H, He B, Gao J, Xia Q, Zhu M, et al. Severe growth retardation and early lethality in mice lacking the nuclear localization sequence and C-terminus of PTH-related protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:20309-14 pubmed publisher
    ..role in the regulation of serum calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, while parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has important developmental roles...
  47. Hoogendam J, Farih Sips H, van Beek E, Lowik C, Wit J, Karperien M. Novel late response genes of PTHrP in chondrocytes. Horm Res. 2007;67:159-70 pubmed
    To gain more insight into the downstream effectors of parathyroid hormone (PTH) related peptide (PTHrP) signaling in chondrocytes, we performed microarray analysis to identify late PTHrP response genes using the chondrogenic ATDC5 cell ..
  48. Kobayashi T, Chung U, Schipani E, Starbuck M, Karsenty G, Katagiri T, et al. PTHrP and Indian hedgehog control differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes at multiple steps. Development. 2002;129:2977-86 pubmed
    ..expressed in prehypertrophic cells, stimulates expression of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide (PTHrP) which negatively regulates terminal chondrocyte differentiation through the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR)...
  49. Kovacs C, Chafe L, Woodland M, McDonald K, Fudge N, Wookey P. Calcitropic gene expression suggests a role for the intraplacental yolk sac in maternal-fetal calcium exchange. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;282:E721-32 pubmed
    ..Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), the PTH/PTHrP receptor, calcium receptor, calbindin-D(9k), Ca(2+)-ATPase, and vitamin D receptor were all highly ..
  50. Nowak R, Haimovici F, Biggers J, Erbach G. Transforming growth factor-beta stimulates mouse blastocyst outgrowth through a mechanism involving parathyroid hormone-related protein. Biol Reprod. 1999;60:85-93 pubmed
    ..1) to compare the effects of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) on mouse blastocyst attachment and outgrowth in vitro, 2) to determine whether TGF-beta acts through a mechanism ..
  51. Toribio R, Brown H, Novince C, Marlow B, Hernon K, Lanigan L, et al. The midregion, nuclear localization sequence, and C terminus of PTHrP regulate skeletal development, hematopoiesis, and survival in mice. FASEB J. 2010;24:1947-57 pubmed publisher
    The functions of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) on morphogenesis, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and calcium homeostasis have been attributed to its N terminus...
  52. Kovacs C, Manley N, Moseley J, Martin T, Kronenberg H. Fetal parathyroids are not required to maintain placental calcium transport. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:1007-15 pubmed
    ..Both the rate of placental calcium transfer and the plasma PTHrP level were normal in Hoxa3 mutants and their heterozygous siblings...
  53. Foley J, Dann P, Hong J, Cosgrove J, Dreyer B, Rimm D, et al. Parathyroid hormone-related protein maintains mammary epithelial fate and triggers nipple skin differentiation during embryonic breast development. Development. 2001;128:513-25 pubmed
    Prior reports have demonstrated that both parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and the type I PTH/PTHrP receptor are necessary for the proper development of the embryonic mammary gland in mice...
  54. Lanske B, Karaplis A, Lee K, Luz A, Vortkamp A, Pirro A, et al. PTH/PTHrP receptor in early development and Indian hedgehog-regulated bone growth. Science. 1996;273:663-6 pubmed
    The PTH/PTHrP receptor binds to two ligands with distinct functions: the calcium-regulating hormone, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and the paracrine factor, PTH-related protein (PTHrP)...
  55. Amizuka N, Karaplis A, Henderson J, Warshawsky H, Lipman M, Matsuki Y, et al. Haploinsufficiency of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) results in abnormal postnatal bone development. Dev Biol. 1996;175:166-76 pubmed
    ..normal at birth, mice heterozygous for inactivation of the gene encoding parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) develop haplotype insufficiency by 3 months of age...