Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: Pth1r
Description: parathyroid hormone 1 receptor
Alias: PPR, Pthr, Pthr1, parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor, PTH-related peptide receptor, PTH/PTHr receptor, PTH/PTHrP receptor, PTH/PTHrP type I receptor, PTH1 receptor, parathyroid hormone receptor 1
- Lu J, Lian G, Lenkinski R, De Grand A, Vaid R, Bryce T, et al. Filamin B mutations cause chondrocyte defects in skeletal development. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:1661-75 pubmed..These data suggest that disruption of the ECM-beta1-integrin-Flnb pathway contributes to defects in vertebral and distal limb development, similar to those seen in the human autosomal recessive SCT due to Flnb mutations. ..
- Chung U, Lanske B, Lee K, Li E, Kronenberg H. The parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor coordinates endochondral bone development by directly controlling chondrocyte differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:13030-5 pubmed..Thus, the PTH/PTHrP receptor directly controls the pace and synchrony of chondrocyte differentiation and thereby coordinates development of the growth plate and adjacent bone. ..
- Lanske B, Karaplis A, Lee K, Luz A, Vortkamp A, Pirro A, et al. PTH/PTHrP receptor in early development and Indian hedgehog-regulated bone growth. Science. 1996;273:663-6 pubmed..These results suggest that the PTH/PTHrP receptor mediates the effects of Indian Hedgehog and PTHrP on chondrocyte differentiation. ..
- Maes C, Stockmans I, Moermans K, Van Looveren R, Smets N, Carmeliet P, et al. Soluble VEGF isoforms are essential for establishing epiphyseal vascularization and regulating chondrocyte development and survival. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:188-99 pubmed..These findings indicate that the insoluble VEGF(188) isoform is insufficient for establishing epiphyseal vascularization and regulating cartilage development during endochondral bone formation...
- Lanske B, Amling M, Neff L, Guiducci J, Baron R, Kronenberg H. Ablation of the PTHrP gene or the PTH/PTHrP receptor gene leads to distinct abnormalities in bone development. J Clin Invest. 1999;104:399-407 pubmed..In the double-homozygous knockout mice, the delay in vascular invasion did not occur. Thus, PTHrP must slow vascular invasion by a mechanism independent of the PTH/PTHrP receptor. ..
- Yang Y, Topol L, Lee H, Wu J. Wnt5a and Wnt5b exhibit distinct activities in coordinating chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Development. 2003;130:1003-15 pubmed..Our data indicate that Wnt5a and Wnt5b control the pace of transitions between different chondrocyte zones. ..
- Provot S, Kempf H, Murtaugh L, Chung U, Kim D, Chyung J, et al. Nkx3.2/Bapx1 acts as a negative regulator of chondrocyte maturation. Development. 2006;133:651-62 pubmed..Taken together, these results suggest that PTHrP signals block chondrocyte hypertrophy by, in part, maintaining the expression of Nkx3.2/Bapx1, which in turn represses the expression of genes required for chondrocyte maturation. ..
- Razzaque M, Soegiarto D, Chang D, Long F, Lanske B. Conditional deletion of Indian hedgehog from collagen type 2alpha1-expressing cells results in abnormal endochondral bone formation. J Pathol. 2005;207:453-61 pubmed..Understanding the exact functions of the molecules involved in endochondral bone formation will form the basis for further study to determine the molecular mechanisms of skeletal diseases involving various cellular components of bone. ..
- Smits P, Dy P, Mitra S, Lefebvre V. Sox5 and Sox6 are needed to develop and maintain source, columnar, and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the cartilage growth plate. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:747-58 pubmed..In conclusion, Sox5 and Sox6 are needed for the establishment of multilayered growth plates, and thereby for proper and timely development of endochondral bones. ..
- Wang W, Lian N, Li L, Moss H, Wang W, Perrien D, et al. Atf4 regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during endochondral ossification by activating Ihh transcription. Development. 2009;136:4143-53 pubmed publisher..whereas the expression of other chondrocyte marker genes, such as type II collagen (Col2a1), PTH/PTHrP receptor (Pth1r) and type X collagen (Col10a1), is normal...
- Akiyama H, Lyons J, Mori Akiyama Y, Yang X, Zhang R, Zhang Z, et al. Interactions between Sox9 and beta-catenin control chondrocyte differentiation. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1072-87 pubmed..Our results strongly suggest that chondrogenesis is controlled by interactions between Sox9 and the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. ..
- Smits P, Li P, Mandel J, Zhang Z, Deng J, Behringer R, et al. The transcription factors L-Sox5 and Sox6 are essential for cartilage formation. Dev Cell. 2001;1:277-90 pubmed..L-Sox5 and Sox6 are thus redundant, potent enhancers of chondroblast functions, thereby essential for endochondral skeleton formation. ..
- Naski M, Colvin J, Coffin J, Ornitz D. Repression of hedgehog signaling and BMP4 expression in growth plate cartilage by fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. Development. 1998;125:4977-88 pubmed
- Yoshida C, Yamamoto H, Fujita T, Furuichi T, Ito K, Inoue K, et al. Runx2 and Runx3 are essential for chondrocyte maturation, and Runx2 regulates limb growth through induction of Indian hedgehog. Genes Dev. 2004;18:952-63 pubmed..These findings demonstrate that Runx2 and Runx3 are essential for chondrocyte maturation and that Runx2 regulates limb growth by organizing chondrocyte maturation and proliferation through the induction of Ihh expression. ..
- Ohbayashi N, Shibayama M, Kurotaki Y, Imanishi M, Fujimori T, Itoh N, et al. FGF18 is required for normal cell proliferation and differentiation during osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. Genes Dev. 2002;16:870-9 pubmed..Conversely, chondrocyte proliferation and the number of differentiated chondrocytes are increased. Therefore, FGF18 appears to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation positively in osteogenesis and negatively in chondrogenesis. ..
- Inada M, Wang Y, Byrne M, Rahman M, Miyaura C, Lopez Otin C, et al. Critical roles for collagenase-3 (Mmp13) in development of growth plate cartilage and in endochondral ossification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:17192-7 pubmed..Cartilaginous growth plate abnormalities persisted in adult mice and phenocopied defects observed in human hereditary chondrodysplasias. Our findings demonstrate a unique role of Mmp13 in skeletal development. ..
- Bi W, Huang W, Whitworth D, Deng J, Zhang Z, Behringer R, et al. Haploinsufficiency of Sox9 results in defective cartilage primordia and premature skeletal mineralization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6698-703 pubmed..First, an early step presumably at the stage of mesenchymal condensation of cartilage primordia, and second, a later step preceding the transition of chondrocytes into hypertrophic chondrocytes...
- Guo X, Mak K, Taketo M, Yang Y. The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway interacts differentially with PTHrP signaling to control chondrocyte hypertrophy and final maturation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6067 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling also controls final maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes, but such regulation is PTHrP signaling-independent. ..
- Chen X, Macica C, Nasiri A, Broadus A. Regulation of articular chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation by indian hedgehog and parathyroid hormone-related protein in mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:3788-97 pubmed publisher..We conclude that the IHH-PTHrP axis participates in the maintenance of articular cartilage. Dysregulation of this system might contribute to the pathogenesis of arthritis. ..
- Inada M, Yasui T, Nomura S, Miyake S, Deguchi K, Himeno M, et al. Maturational disturbance of chondrocytes in Cbfa1-deficient mice. Dev Dyn. 1999;214:279-90 pubmed..These findings demonstrate that Cbfa1 is an important factor for chondrocyte differentiation. ..
- Blitz E, Viukov S, Sharir A, Shwartz Y, Galloway J, Pryce B, et al. Bone ridge patterning during musculoskeletal assembly is mediated through SCX regulation of Bmp4 at the tendon-skeleton junction. Dev Cell. 2009;17:861-73 pubmed publisher..This study establishes a mechanistic basis for tendon-skeleton regulatory interactions during musculoskeletal assembly and bone secondary patterning. ..
- Powell W, Barry K, Tulum I, Kobayashi T, Harris S, Bringhurst F, et al. Targeted ablation of the PTH/PTHrP receptor in osteocytes impairs bone structure and homeostatic calcemic responses. J Endocrinol. 2011;209:21-32 pubmed publisher..To understand the role of PTH signaling through the PTH/PTHrP receptors (PPR) in osteocytes and to determine the role(s) of these cells in mediating the effects of the hormone, we have ..
- Liu S, Zhu W, Li S, Ma J, Zhang H, Li Z, et al. Bovine parathyroid hormone enhances osteoclast bone resorption by modulating V-ATPase through PTH1R. Int J Mol Med. 2016;37:284-92 pubmed publisher..In addition, we confirmed the existence of parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) in osteoclasts using three different methods (RT-qPCR, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining)...
- Singh M, Petry M, Haenig B, Lescher B, Leitges M, Kispert A. The T-box transcription factor Tbx15 is required for skeletal development. Mech Dev. 2005;122:131-44 pubmed..These data suggest that Tbx15 plays an important role in the development of the skeleton of the limb, vertebral column and head by controlling the number of mesenchymal precursor cells and chondrocytes. ..
- Noonan W, Qian J, Stuart W, Clemens T, Lorenz J. Altered renal hemodynamics in mice overexpressing the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide type 1 receptor in smooth muscle. Endocrinology. 2003;144:4931-8 pubmed..We conclude that endogenous PTHrP can act as an endogenous vasorelaxant factor to modulate renal responses to vasoactive stimuli. ..
- Lee K, Lanske B, Karaplis A, Deeds J, Kohno H, Nissenson R, et al. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide delays terminal differentiation of chondrocytes during endochondral bone development. Endocrinology. 1996;137:5109-18 pubmed
- Guo J, Chung U, Kondo H, Bringhurst F, Kronenberg H. The PTH/PTHrP receptor can delay chondrocyte hypertrophy in vivo without activating phospholipase C. Dev Cell. 2002;3:183-94 pubmed
- Albrecht A, Schwabe G, Stricker S, Böddrich A, Wanker E, Mundlos S. The synpolydactyly homolog (spdh) mutation in the mouse -- a defect in patterning and growth of limb cartilage elements. Mech Dev. 2002;112:53-67 pubmed..Abnormal chondrocyte differentiation and proliferation persisted after birth and correlated with the expression of the mutant Hoxd13 and other Hox-genes during late-embryonic and postnatal growth. ..
- Kovacs C, Manley N, Moseley J, Martin T, Kronenberg H. Fetal parathyroids are not required to maintain placental calcium transport. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:1007-15 pubmed..Because we had previously observed an increase in placental calcium transfer in PTH/PTHrP receptor 1-null (Pthr1-null) fetuses, we assayed plasma PTHrP in those mice...
- Patra D, Xing X, Davies S, Bryan J, Franz C, Hunziker E, et al. Site-1 protease is essential for endochondral bone formation in mice. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:687-700 pubmed..These data suggest that S1P activity is necessary for a specialized ER stress response required by chondrocytes for the genesis of normal cartilage and thus endochondral ossification. ..
- Fan Y, Bi R, Densmore M, Sato T, Kobayashi T, Yuan Q, et al. Parathyroid hormone 1 receptor is essential to induce FGF23 production and maintain systemic mineral ion homeostasis. FASEB J. 2016;30:428-40 pubmed publisherParathyroid-hormone-type 1 receptor (PTH1R) is extensively expressed in key regulatory organs for systemic mineral ion homeostasis, including kidney and bone...
- Liu Z, Lavine K, Hung I, Ornitz D. FGF18 is required for early chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy and vascular invasion of the growth plate. Dev Biol. 2007;302:80-91 pubmed..FGF18 thus coordinates neovascularization of the growth plate with chondrocyte and osteoblast growth and differentiation. ..
- Bellon E, Luyten F, Tylzanowski P. delta-EF1 is a negative regulator of Ihh in the developing growth plate. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:685-99 pubmed publisher..In summary, we have identified delta-EF1 as an in vivo negative regulator of Ihh expression in the growth plate. ..
- Dunbar M, Young P, Zhang J, McCaughern Carucci J, Lanske B, Orloff J, et al. Stromal cells are critical targets in the regulation of mammary ductal morphogenesis by parathyroid hormone-related protein. Dev Biol. 1998;203:75-89 pubmed
- Bounoutas G, Tawfeek H, Fröhlich L, Chung U, Abou Samra A. Impact of impaired receptor internalization on calcium homeostasis in knock-in mice expressing a phosphorylation-deficient parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor. Endocrinology. 2006;147:4674-9 pubmed..These data show for the first time the role of G protein receptor phosphorylation and internalization per se in the regulatory function of an endocrine system controlled by a GPCR. ..
- Satokata I, Ma L, Ohshima H, Bei M, Woo I, Nishizawa K, et al. Msx2 deficiency in mice causes pleiotropic defects in bone growth and ectodermal organ formation. Nat Genet. 2000;24:391-5 pubmed..In the axial and appendicular skeleton, post-natal deficits in Pth/Pthrp receptor (Pthr) signalling and in expression of marker genes for bone differentiation indicate that Msx2 is required for both ..
- Hu J, Lu J, Lian G, Zhang J, Hecht J, Sheen V. Filamin B regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation through Cdk1 signaling. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e89352 pubmed publisher..These findings begin to define a role for filamin proteins in directing both cell proliferation and differentiation through indirect regulation of cell cycle associated proteins. ..
- Wang Y, Yang S, Tu P, Zhang B, Ma S. Expression of parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in mice hair cycle. J Dermatol Sci. 2002;30:136-41 pubmed..The variety of the PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA expression during hair cycling suggest that PTH, PTHrP and their receptors might participate in the regulation of hair cycle in mice skin. ..
- Maeda Y, Schipani E, Densmore M, Lanske B. Partial rescue of postnatal growth plate abnormalities in Ihh mutants by expression of a constitutively active PTH/PTHrP receptor. Bone. 2010;46:472-8 pubmed publisher..Taken together, our findings suggest that Ihh has both PTHrP-dependent and -independent functions during postnatal endochondral bone development. ..
- Foley J, Dann P, Hong J, Cosgrove J, Dreyer B, Rimm D, et al. Parathyroid hormone-related protein maintains mammary epithelial fate and triggers nipple skin differentiation during embryonic breast development. Development. 2001;128:513-25 pubmed..Finally, PTHrP signaling regulates the epidermal and mesenchymal expression of LEF1 and (&bgr;)-catenin, suggesting that these changes in cell fate involve an interaction between the PTHrP and Wnt signaling pathways. ..
- Colnot C, Sidhu S, Balmain N, Poirier F. Uncoupling of chondrocyte death and vascular invasion in mouse galectin 3 null mutant bones. Dev Biol. 2001;229:203-14 pubmed
- Nishioka K, Itoh S, Suemoto H, Kanno S, Gai Z, Kawakatsu M, et al. Trps1 deficiency enlarges the proliferative zone of growth plate cartilage by upregulation of Pthrp. Bone. 2008;43:64-71 pubmed publisher..expression of Trps1 protein was found to overlap with that of mRNAs for Indian hedgehog (Ihh), PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR), and PTHrP, we hypothesized that Trps1 may inhibit the hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes by interacting ..
- Mitchem K, Hibbard E, Beyer L, Bosom K, Dootz G, Dolan D, et al. Mutation of the novel gene Tmie results in sensory cell defects in the inner ear of spinner, a mouse model of human hearing loss DFNB6. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:1887-98 pubmed..The spinner mutant is thus a valuable model for insight into mechanisms of human deafness and development of sensory cell function. ..
- Young B, Minugh Purvis N, Shimo T, St Jacques B, Iwamoto M, Enomoto Iwamoto M, et al. Indian and sonic hedgehogs regulate synchondrosis growth plate and cranial base development and function. Dev Biol. 2006;299:272-82 pubmed..The cranial base appears to be a skeletal structure in which growth and ossification patterns along its antero-posterior axis are orchestrated by both Ihh and Shh. ..
- Joun H, Lanske B, Karperien M, Qian F, Defize L, Abou Samra A. Tissue-specific transcription start sites and alternative splicing of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) receptor gene: a new PTH/PTHrP receptor splice variant that lacks the signal peptide. Endocrinology. 1997;138:1742-9 pubmed..One of these transcripts, the type III splice variant, is expressed in kidney and lacks the signal peptide. ..
- Tawfeek H, Bedi B, Li J, Adams J, Kobayashi T, Weitzmann M, et al. Disruption of PTH receptor 1 in T cells protects against PTH-induced bone loss. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12290 pubmed publisher..Here we show that silencing of PTH receptor 1 (PPR) in T cells blocks the bone loss and the osteoclastic expansion induced by cPTH, thus demonstrating that PPR ..
- Maeda A, Okazaki M, Baron D, Dean T, Khatri A, Mahon M, et al. Critical role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor-1 phosphorylation in regulating acute responses to PTH. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5864-9 pubmed publisherAgonist-induced phosphorylation of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor 1 (PTHR1) regulates receptor signaling in vitro, but the role of this phosphorylation in vivo is uncertain...
- Kawaki H, Kubota S, Suzuki A, Lazar N, Yamada T, Matsumura T, et al. Cooperative regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by CCN2 and CCN3 shown by a comprehensive analysis of the CCN family proteins in cartilage. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23:1751-64 pubmed publisher..The involvement of the PTHrP-Ihh loop in the regulation of CCN3 expression is also suggested. ..
- Amizuka N, Lee H, Kwan M, Arazani A, Warshawsky H, Hendy G, et al. Cell-specific expression of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor gene in kidney from kidney-specific and ubiquitous promoters. Endocrinology. 1997;138:469-81 pubmedThe kidney is the major site of expression of the PTH/PTH-related peptide receptor (PTHR) gene...
- Tsutsui T, Riminucci M, Holmbeck K, Bianco P, Robey P. Development of craniofacial structures in transgenic mice with constitutively active PTH/PTHrP receptor. Bone. 2008;42:321-31 pubmed
- El Hashash A, Esbrit P, Kimber S. PTHrP promotes murine secondary trophoblast giant cell differentiation through induction of endocycle, upregulation of giant-cell-promoting transcription factors and suppression of other trophoblast cell types. Differentiation. 2005;73:154-74 pubmed..5 p.c. ectoplacental cone explant culture. Secondary TGCs expressed PTHrP and PTHR1 receptor in vivo and in vitro...
- Hirai T, Kobayashi T, Nishimori S, Karaplis A, Goltzman D, Kronenberg H. Bone Is a Major Target of PTH/PTHrP Receptor Signaling in Regulation of Fetal Blood Calcium Homeostasis. Endocrinology. 2015;156:2774-80 pubmed publisher..Our findings that endochondral bone-specific PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR) knockout (KO) mice showed significant reduction of fetal blood calcium concentration compared with that of control ..
- McCuaig K, Clarke J, White J. Molecular cloning of the gene encoding the mouse parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:5051-5 pubmedThe parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor (PTHR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor containing seven predicted transmembrane domains...
- Probst S, Zeller R, Zuniga A. The hedgehog target Vlk genetically interacts with Gli3 to regulate chondrocyte differentiation during mouse long bone development. Differentiation. 2013;85:121-30 pubmed publisher..level, these morphological alterations are reflected by delayed activation and lowered expression of Ihh, Pth1r and Col10a1 in long bone rudiments of double mutant limbs...
- Maycas M, Ardura J, de Castro L, Bravo B, GortÃ¡zar A, Esbrit P. Role of the Parathyroid Hormone Type 1 Receptor (PTH1R) as a Mechanosensor in Osteocyte Survival. J Bone Miner Res. 2015;30:1231-44 pubmed publisher..b>PTH1R ablation or overexpression in osteocytes in mice produces trabecular bone loss or increases bone mass, ..
- Zhang F, Xu L, Xu L, Xu Q, Li D, Yang Y, et al. JMJD3 promotes chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy during endochondral bone formation in mice. J Mol Cell Biol. 2015;7:23-34 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate that JMJD3 is a key epigenetic regulator in the process of cartilage maturation during endochondral bone formation. ..
- Kovacs C, Lanske B, Hunzelman J, Guo J, Karaplis A, Kronenberg H. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) regulates fetal-placental calcium transport through a receptor distinct from the PTH/PTHrP receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:15233-8 pubmed..In addition, the bioactivity of PTHrP for placental calcium transport is specified by a mid-molecular region that does not use the PTH/PTHrP receptor. ..
- Cho Y, Woodard G, Dunbar M, Gocken T, Jimenez J, Foley J. Hair-cycle-dependent expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein and its type I receptor: evidence for regulation at the anagen to catagen transition. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120:715-27 pubmed..It appears that parathyroid hormone-related protein and fibroblast growth factor-5 regulate the anagen to catagen transition by independent pathways. ..
- Matsushita T, Chan Y, Kawanami A, Balmes G, Landreth G, Murakami S. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 play essential roles in osteoblast differentiation and in supporting osteoclastogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5843-57 pubmed publisher..Thus, our results indicate that ERK1 and ERK2 not only play essential roles in the lineage specification of osteo-chondroprogenitor cells but also support osteoclast formation in vivo. ..
- Ganss B, Kobayashi H. The zinc finger transcription factor Zfp60 is a negative regulator of cartilage differentiation. J Bone Miner Res. 2002;17:2151-60 pubmed..These results suggest a role for Zfp60 as a negative regulator of gene transcription, specifically during the development and/or differentiation of chondrocytes. ..
- MacLean H, Kronenberg H. Localization of Indian hedgehog and PTH/PTHrP receptor expression in relation to chondrocyte proliferation during mouse bone development. Dev Growth Differ. 2005;47:59-63 pubmed..Using this system, we examined the expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR) mRNA in relation to chondrocyte proliferation during embryonic mouse bone development...
- Chung U, Schipani E, McMahon A, Kronenberg H. Indian hedgehog couples chondrogenesis to osteogenesis in endochondral bone development. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:295-304 pubmed..By comparing PTH/PTHrP receptor(-/-)/wild-type (PPR(-/-)/wild-type) chimeric mice with IHH(-/-);PPR(-/-)/wild-type chimeric and IHH(-/-)/wild-type chimeric mice, we ..
- Diamond A, Gonterman R, Anderson A, Menon K, Offutt C, Weaver C, et al. Parathyroid hormone hormone-related protein and the PTH receptor regulate angiogenesis of the skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:2127-34 pubmedIn developing organs, parathyroid hormone (PTH)/parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) receptor (PPR) signaling inhibits proliferation and differentiation of mesenchyme-derived cell types resulting in control of morphogenic events...
- Ono N, Nakashima K, Schipani E, Hayata T, Ezura Y, Soma K, et al. Constitutively active parathyroid hormone receptor signaling in cells in osteoblastic lineage suppresses mechanical unloading-induced bone resorption. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25509-16 pubmed..These results indicated that constitutive activation of PTH/PTHrP receptor signaling in osteoblastic cells suppresses unloading-induced bone loss specifically through the regulation of osteoclastic activity. ..
- Gao B, Hu J, Stricker S, Cheung M, Ma G, Law K, et al. A mutation in Ihh that causes digit abnormalities alters its signalling capacity and range. Nature. 2009;458:1196-200 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, we show that in a mouse model that recapitulates the E95K mutation, there is a change in the potency and range of signalling. The mice have digit abnormalities consistent with the human disorder. ..
- Verheijen M, Karperien M, Chung U, van Wijuen M, Heystek H, Hendriks J, et al. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) induces parietal endoderm formation exclusively via the type I PTH/PTHrP receptor. Mech Dev. 1999;81:151-61 pubmed..Based upon these observations, we propose that PTHrP and the type I PTH/PTHrP receptor, although not required for the initial formation of PE, are required for its proper differentiation and/or functioning. ..
- Saito T, Fukai A, Mabuchi A, Ikeda T, Yano F, Ohba S, et al. Transcriptional regulation of endochondral ossification by HIF-2alpha during skeletal growth and osteoarthritis development. Nat Med. 2010;16:678-86 pubmed publisher..Hence, HIF-2alpha is a central transactivator that targets several crucial genes for endochondral ossification and may represent a therapeutic target for osteoarthritis. ..
- Ramirez M, Chung U, Williams M. Aquaporin-5 expression, but not other peripheral lung marker genes, is reduced in PTH/PTHrP receptor null mutant fetal mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2000;22:367-72 pubmed..We conclude therefore that, although signaling through this receptor may influence expression of specific lung genes, it does not play a major role in the general regulation of lung development and growth. ..
- Okazaki M, Ferrandon S, Vilardaga J, Bouxsein M, Potts J, Gardella T. Prolonged signaling at the parathyroid hormone receptor by peptide ligands targeted to a specific receptor conformation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:16525-30 pubmed publisherThe parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR) is a class B G protein-coupled receptor that plays critical roles in bone and mineral ion metabolism...
- Hu J, Lu J, Lian G, Ferland R, Dettenhofer M, Sheen V. Formin 1 and filamin B physically interact to coordinate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation in the growth plate. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:4663-73 pubmed publisher..Both proteins, however, regulate chondrocyte proliferation, and FlnB may regulate Fmn1 function at the hypertrophic-to-ossification border, thereby explaining the overall delay in ossification. ..
- Chen H, Demiralp B, Schneider A, Koh A, Silve C, Wang C, et al. Parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein exert both pro- and anti-apoptotic effects in mesenchymal cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:19374-81 pubmed..Both of these actions occur at least in part via the protein kinase A pathway. ..
- MacLean H, Guo J, Knight M, Zhang P, Cobrinik D, Kronenberg H. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57(Kip2) mediates proliferative actions of PTHrP in chondrocytes. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:1334-43 pubmed..These studies suggest that the effects of PTHrP on both the rate and extent of chondrocyte proliferation are mediated, at least in part, through suppression of p57 expression. ..
- Saito A, Hino S, Murakami T, Kanemoto S, Kondo S, Saitoh M, et al. Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress response by a BBF2H7-mediated Sec23a pathway is essential for chondrogenesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1197-204 pubmed publisher..Our findings provide a new link by which ER stress is converted to signalling for the activation of ER-to-Golgi trafficking. ..
- Schwabe G, Trepczik B, Süring K, Brieske N, Tucker A, Sharpe P, et al. Ror2 knockout mouse as a model for the developmental pathology of autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome. Dev Dyn. 2004;229:400-10 pubmed..The Ror2(-/-) mouse provides a suitable model that may help to explain many of the underlying developmental malformations in individuals with Robinow syndrome. ..
- Qian J, Colbert M, Witte D, Kuan C, Gruenstein E, Osinska H, et al. Midgestational lethality in mice lacking the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor is associated with abrupt cardiomyocyte death. Endocrinology. 2003;144:1053-61 pubmed..Previous studies have shown that mice lacking either the Pthrp or the PTH type 1 receptor (Pth1r) gene exhibit severe chondrodysplasia...