Gene Symbol: Pth1r
Description: parathyroid hormone 1 receptor
Alias: PPR, Pthr, Pthr1, parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor, PTH-related peptide receptor, PTH/PTHr receptor, PTH/PTHrP receptor, PTH/PTHrP type I receptor, PTH1 receptor, parathyroid hormone receptor 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Pth1r

Top Publications

  1. Mahon M, Bonacci T, Divieti P, Smrcka A. A docking site for G protein ?? subunits on the parathyroid hormone 1 receptor supports signaling through multiple pathways. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:136-46 pubmed
    The G protein-coupled receptor for PTH and PTH-related protein (PTH1R) signals via many intracellular pathways. The purpose of this work is to investigate a G protein binding site on an intracellular domain of the PTH1R...
  2. Vortkamp A, Lee K, Lanske B, Segre G, Kronenberg H, Tabin C. Regulation of rate of cartilage differentiation by Indian hedgehog and PTH-related protein. Science. 1996;273:613-22 pubmed
  3. Tavella S, Biticchi R, Schito A, Minina E, Di Martino D, Pagano A, et al. Targeted expression of SHH affects chondrocyte differentiation, growth plate organization, and Sox9 expression. J Bone Miner Res. 2004;19:1678-88 pubmed
    ..Transgenic mice show that continuous expression of SHH in chondrocytes interferes with cell differentiation and growth plate organization and induces high levels and diffuse expression of Sox9 in cartilaginous bones. ..
  4. Kobayashi T, Chung U, Schipani E, Starbuck M, Karsenty G, Katagiri T, et al. PTHrP and Indian hedgehog control differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes at multiple steps. Development. 2002;129:2977-86 pubmed
    ..peptide (PTHrP) which negatively regulates terminal chondrocyte differentiation through the PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR). However, the roles of PTHrP and Ihh in regulating earlier steps in chondrocyte differentiation are unclear...
  5. Bastepe M, Weinstein L, Ogata N, Kawaguchi H, Juppner H, Kronenberg H, et al. Stimulatory G protein directly regulates hypertrophic differentiation of growth plate cartilage in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14794-9 pubmed
    ..Gnas(E2-/E2-) chondrocytes phenocopied PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR)(-/-) cells by prematurely undergoing hypertrophy...
  6. Kobayashi T, Soegiarto D, Yang Y, Lanske B, Schipani E, McMahon A, et al. Indian hedgehog stimulates periarticular chondrocyte differentiation to regulate growth plate length independently of PTHrP. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:1734-42 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that Ihh acts on periarticular chondrocytes to stimulate their differentiation, thereby regulating the columnar cell mass independently of PTHrP. ..
  7. Calvi L, Sims N, Hunzelman J, Knight M, Giovannetti A, Saxton J, et al. Activated parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related protein receptor in osteoblastic cells differentially affects cortical and trabecular bone. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:277-86 pubmed
    ..To assess the role of the PTH/PTH-related protein receptor (PPR) in mediating the diverse actions of PTH on bone in vivo, we generated mice that express, in cells of the ..
  8. Jacob A, Smith C, Partanen J, Ornitz D. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 signaling in the osteo-chondrogenic cell lineage regulates sequential steps of osteoblast maturation. Dev Biol. 2006;296:315-28 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that signaling through FGFR1 in osteoblasts is necessary to maintain the balance between bone formation and remodeling through a direct effect on osteoblast maturation. ..
  9. St Jacques B, Hammerschmidt M, McMahon A. Indian hedgehog signaling regulates proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes and is essential for bone formation. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2072-86 pubmed
    ..Together, the results suggest a model in which Ihh coordinates diverse aspects of skeletal morphogenesis through PTHrP-dependent and independent processes. ..

More Information


  1. Lu J, Lian G, Lenkinski R, De Grand A, Vaid R, Bryce T, et al. Filamin B mutations cause chondrocyte defects in skeletal development. Hum Mol Genet. 2007;16:1661-75 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that disruption of the ECM-beta1-integrin-Flnb pathway contributes to defects in vertebral and distal limb development, similar to those seen in the human autosomal recessive SCT due to Flnb mutations. ..
  2. Chung U, Lanske B, Lee K, Li E, Kronenberg H. The parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor coordinates endochondral bone development by directly controlling chondrocyte differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:13030-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, the PTH/PTHrP receptor directly controls the pace and synchrony of chondrocyte differentiation and thereby coordinates development of the growth plate and adjacent bone. ..
  3. Lanske B, Karaplis A, Lee K, Luz A, Vortkamp A, Pirro A, et al. PTH/PTHrP receptor in early development and Indian hedgehog-regulated bone growth. Science. 1996;273:663-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the PTH/PTHrP receptor mediates the effects of Indian Hedgehog and PTHrP on chondrocyte differentiation. ..
  4. Maes C, Stockmans I, Moermans K, Van Looveren R, Smets N, Carmeliet P, et al. Soluble VEGF isoforms are essential for establishing epiphyseal vascularization and regulating chondrocyte development and survival. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:188-99 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the insoluble VEGF(188) isoform is insufficient for establishing epiphyseal vascularization and regulating cartilage development during endochondral bone formation...
  5. Lanske B, Amling M, Neff L, Guiducci J, Baron R, Kronenberg H. Ablation of the PTHrP gene or the PTH/PTHrP receptor gene leads to distinct abnormalities in bone development. J Clin Invest. 1999;104:399-407 pubmed
    ..In the double-homozygous knockout mice, the delay in vascular invasion did not occur. Thus, PTHrP must slow vascular invasion by a mechanism independent of the PTH/PTHrP receptor. ..
  6. Yang Y, Topol L, Lee H, Wu J. Wnt5a and Wnt5b exhibit distinct activities in coordinating chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Development. 2003;130:1003-15 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that Wnt5a and Wnt5b control the pace of transitions between different chondrocyte zones. ..
  7. Provot S, Kempf H, Murtaugh L, Chung U, Kim D, Chyung J, et al. Nkx3.2/Bapx1 acts as a negative regulator of chondrocyte maturation. Development. 2006;133:651-62 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that PTHrP signals block chondrocyte hypertrophy by, in part, maintaining the expression of Nkx3.2/Bapx1, which in turn represses the expression of genes required for chondrocyte maturation. ..
  8. Razzaque M, Soegiarto D, Chang D, Long F, Lanske B. Conditional deletion of Indian hedgehog from collagen type 2alpha1-expressing cells results in abnormal endochondral bone formation. J Pathol. 2005;207:453-61 pubmed
    ..Understanding the exact functions of the molecules involved in endochondral bone formation will form the basis for further study to determine the molecular mechanisms of skeletal diseases involving various cellular components of bone. ..
  9. Smits P, Dy P, Mitra S, Lefebvre V. Sox5 and Sox6 are needed to develop and maintain source, columnar, and hypertrophic chondrocytes in the cartilage growth plate. J Cell Biol. 2004;164:747-58 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, Sox5 and Sox6 are needed for the establishment of multilayered growth plates, and thereby for proper and timely development of endochondral bones. ..
  10. Wang W, Lian N, Li L, Moss H, Wang W, Perrien D, et al. Atf4 regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during endochondral ossification by activating Ihh transcription. Development. 2009;136:4143-53 pubmed publisher
    ..whereas the expression of other chondrocyte marker genes, such as type II collagen (Col2a1), PTH/PTHrP receptor (Pth1r) and type X collagen (Col10a1), is normal...
  11. Akiyama H, Lyons J, Mori Akiyama Y, Yang X, Zhang R, Zhang Z, et al. Interactions between Sox9 and beta-catenin control chondrocyte differentiation. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1072-87 pubmed
    ..Our results strongly suggest that chondrogenesis is controlled by interactions between Sox9 and the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. ..
  12. Smits P, Li P, Mandel J, Zhang Z, Deng J, Behringer R, et al. The transcription factors L-Sox5 and Sox6 are essential for cartilage formation. Dev Cell. 2001;1:277-90 pubmed
    ..L-Sox5 and Sox6 are thus redundant, potent enhancers of chondroblast functions, thereby essential for endochondral skeleton formation. ..
  13. Naski M, Colvin J, Coffin J, Ornitz D. Repression of hedgehog signaling and BMP4 expression in growth plate cartilage by fibroblast growth factor receptor 3. Development. 1998;125:4977-88 pubmed
  14. Yoshida C, Yamamoto H, Fujita T, Furuichi T, Ito K, Inoue K, et al. Runx2 and Runx3 are essential for chondrocyte maturation, and Runx2 regulates limb growth through induction of Indian hedgehog. Genes Dev. 2004;18:952-63 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that Runx2 and Runx3 are essential for chondrocyte maturation and that Runx2 regulates limb growth by organizing chondrocyte maturation and proliferation through the induction of Ihh expression. ..
  15. Ohbayashi N, Shibayama M, Kurotaki Y, Imanishi M, Fujimori T, Itoh N, et al. FGF18 is required for normal cell proliferation and differentiation during osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. Genes Dev. 2002;16:870-9 pubmed
    ..Conversely, chondrocyte proliferation and the number of differentiated chondrocytes are increased. Therefore, FGF18 appears to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation positively in osteogenesis and negatively in chondrogenesis. ..
  16. Inada M, Wang Y, Byrne M, Rahman M, Miyaura C, Lopez Otin C, et al. Critical roles for collagenase-3 (Mmp13) in development of growth plate cartilage and in endochondral ossification. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:17192-7 pubmed
    ..Cartilaginous growth plate abnormalities persisted in adult mice and phenocopied defects observed in human hereditary chondrodysplasias. Our findings demonstrate a unique role of Mmp13 in skeletal development. ..
  17. Bi W, Huang W, Whitworth D, Deng J, Zhang Z, Behringer R, et al. Haploinsufficiency of Sox9 results in defective cartilage primordia and premature skeletal mineralization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6698-703 pubmed
    ..First, an early step presumably at the stage of mesenchymal condensation of cartilage primordia, and second, a later step preceding the transition of chondrocytes into hypertrophic chondrocytes...
  18. Guo X, Mak K, Taketo M, Yang Y. The Wnt/beta-catenin pathway interacts differentially with PTHrP signaling to control chondrocyte hypertrophy and final maturation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6067 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Wnt/beta-catenin signaling also controls final maturation of hypertrophic chondrocytes, but such regulation is PTHrP signaling-independent. ..
  19. Chen X, Macica C, Nasiri A, Broadus A. Regulation of articular chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation by indian hedgehog and parathyroid hormone-related protein in mice. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:3788-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the IHH-PTHrP axis participates in the maintenance of articular cartilage. Dysregulation of this system might contribute to the pathogenesis of arthritis. ..
  20. Inada M, Yasui T, Nomura S, Miyake S, Deguchi K, Himeno M, et al. Maturational disturbance of chondrocytes in Cbfa1-deficient mice. Dev Dyn. 1999;214:279-90 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that Cbfa1 is an important factor for chondrocyte differentiation. ..
  21. Blitz E, Viukov S, Sharir A, Shwartz Y, Galloway J, Pryce B, et al. Bone ridge patterning during musculoskeletal assembly is mediated through SCX regulation of Bmp4 at the tendon-skeleton junction. Dev Cell. 2009;17:861-73 pubmed publisher
    ..This study establishes a mechanistic basis for tendon-skeleton regulatory interactions during musculoskeletal assembly and bone secondary patterning. ..
  22. Powell W, Barry K, Tulum I, Kobayashi T, Harris S, Bringhurst F, et al. Targeted ablation of the PTH/PTHrP receptor in osteocytes impairs bone structure and homeostatic calcemic responses. J Endocrinol. 2011;209:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand the role of PTH signaling through the PTH/PTHrP receptors (PPR) in osteocytes and to determine the role(s) of these cells in mediating the effects of the hormone, we have ..
  23. Liu S, Zhu W, Li S, Ma J, Zhang H, Li Z, et al. Bovine parathyroid hormone enhances osteoclast bone resorption by modulating V-ATPase through PTH1R. Int J Mol Med. 2016;37:284-92 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we confirmed the existence of parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) in osteoclasts using three different methods (RT-qPCR, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining)...
  24. Singh M, Petry M, Haenig B, Lescher B, Leitges M, Kispert A. The T-box transcription factor Tbx15 is required for skeletal development. Mech Dev. 2005;122:131-44 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Tbx15 plays an important role in the development of the skeleton of the limb, vertebral column and head by controlling the number of mesenchymal precursor cells and chondrocytes. ..
  25. Noonan W, Qian J, Stuart W, Clemens T, Lorenz J. Altered renal hemodynamics in mice overexpressing the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide type 1 receptor in smooth muscle. Endocrinology. 2003;144:4931-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that endogenous PTHrP can act as an endogenous vasorelaxant factor to modulate renal responses to vasoactive stimuli. ..
  26. Lee K, Lanske B, Karaplis A, Deeds J, Kohno H, Nissenson R, et al. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide delays terminal differentiation of chondrocytes during endochondral bone development. Endocrinology. 1996;137:5109-18 pubmed
  27. Guo J, Chung U, Kondo H, Bringhurst F, Kronenberg H. The PTH/PTHrP receptor can delay chondrocyte hypertrophy in vivo without activating phospholipase C. Dev Cell. 2002;3:183-94 pubmed
  28. Albrecht A, Schwabe G, Stricker S, Böddrich A, Wanker E, Mundlos S. The synpolydactyly homolog (spdh) mutation in the mouse -- a defect in patterning and growth of limb cartilage elements. Mech Dev. 2002;112:53-67 pubmed
    ..Abnormal chondrocyte differentiation and proliferation persisted after birth and correlated with the expression of the mutant Hoxd13 and other Hox-genes during late-embryonic and postnatal growth. ..
  29. Kovacs C, Manley N, Moseley J, Martin T, Kronenberg H. Fetal parathyroids are not required to maintain placental calcium transport. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:1007-15 pubmed
    ..Because we had previously observed an increase in placental calcium transfer in PTH/PTHrP receptor 1-null (Pthr1-null) fetuses, we assayed plasma PTHrP in those mice...
  30. Patra D, Xing X, Davies S, Bryan J, Franz C, Hunziker E, et al. Site-1 protease is essential for endochondral bone formation in mice. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:687-700 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that S1P activity is necessary for a specialized ER stress response required by chondrocytes for the genesis of normal cartilage and thus endochondral ossification. ..
  31. Fan Y, Bi R, Densmore M, Sato T, Kobayashi T, Yuan Q, et al. Parathyroid hormone 1 receptor is essential to induce FGF23 production and maintain systemic mineral ion homeostasis. FASEB J. 2016;30:428-40 pubmed publisher
    Parathyroid-hormone-type 1 receptor (PTH1R) is extensively expressed in key regulatory organs for systemic mineral ion homeostasis, including kidney and bone...
  32. Liu Z, Lavine K, Hung I, Ornitz D. FGF18 is required for early chondrocyte proliferation, hypertrophy and vascular invasion of the growth plate. Dev Biol. 2007;302:80-91 pubmed
    ..FGF18 thus coordinates neovascularization of the growth plate with chondrocyte and osteoblast growth and differentiation. ..
  33. Bellon E, Luyten F, Tylzanowski P. delta-EF1 is a negative regulator of Ihh in the developing growth plate. J Cell Biol. 2009;187:685-99 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we have identified delta-EF1 as an in vivo negative regulator of Ihh expression in the growth plate. ..
  34. Dunbar M, Young P, Zhang J, McCaughern Carucci J, Lanske B, Orloff J, et al. Stromal cells are critical targets in the regulation of mammary ductal morphogenesis by parathyroid hormone-related protein. Dev Biol. 1998;203:75-89 pubmed
  35. Bounoutas G, Tawfeek H, Fröhlich L, Chung U, Abou Samra A. Impact of impaired receptor internalization on calcium homeostasis in knock-in mice expressing a phosphorylation-deficient parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor. Endocrinology. 2006;147:4674-9 pubmed
    ..These data show for the first time the role of G protein receptor phosphorylation and internalization per se in the regulatory function of an endocrine system controlled by a GPCR. ..
  36. Satokata I, Ma L, Ohshima H, Bei M, Woo I, Nishizawa K, et al. Msx2 deficiency in mice causes pleiotropic defects in bone growth and ectodermal organ formation. Nat Genet. 2000;24:391-5 pubmed
    ..In the axial and appendicular skeleton, post-natal deficits in Pth/Pthrp receptor (Pthr) signalling and in expression of marker genes for bone differentiation indicate that Msx2 is required for both ..
  37. Hu J, Lu J, Lian G, Zhang J, Hecht J, Sheen V. Filamin B regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation through Cdk1 signaling. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e89352 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings begin to define a role for filamin proteins in directing both cell proliferation and differentiation through indirect regulation of cell cycle associated proteins. ..
  38. Wang Y, Yang S, Tu P, Zhang B, Ma S. Expression of parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in mice hair cycle. J Dermatol Sci. 2002;30:136-41 pubmed
    ..The variety of the PTH/PTHrP receptor mRNA expression during hair cycling suggest that PTH, PTHrP and their receptors might participate in the regulation of hair cycle in mice skin. ..
  39. Maeda Y, Schipani E, Densmore M, Lanske B. Partial rescue of postnatal growth plate abnormalities in Ihh mutants by expression of a constitutively active PTH/PTHrP receptor. Bone. 2010;46:472-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that Ihh has both PTHrP-dependent and -independent functions during postnatal endochondral bone development. ..
  40. Foley J, Dann P, Hong J, Cosgrove J, Dreyer B, Rimm D, et al. Parathyroid hormone-related protein maintains mammary epithelial fate and triggers nipple skin differentiation during embryonic breast development. Development. 2001;128:513-25 pubmed
    ..Finally, PTHrP signaling regulates the epidermal and mesenchymal expression of LEF1 and (&bgr;)-catenin, suggesting that these changes in cell fate involve an interaction between the PTHrP and Wnt signaling pathways. ..
  41. Colnot C, Sidhu S, Balmain N, Poirier F. Uncoupling of chondrocyte death and vascular invasion in mouse galectin 3 null mutant bones. Dev Biol. 2001;229:203-14 pubmed
  42. Nishioka K, Itoh S, Suemoto H, Kanno S, Gai Z, Kawakatsu M, et al. Trps1 deficiency enlarges the proliferative zone of growth plate cartilage by upregulation of Pthrp. Bone. 2008;43:64-71 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of Trps1 protein was found to overlap with that of mRNAs for Indian hedgehog (Ihh), PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR), and PTHrP, we hypothesized that Trps1 may inhibit the hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes by interacting ..
  43. Mitchem K, Hibbard E, Beyer L, Bosom K, Dootz G, Dolan D, et al. Mutation of the novel gene Tmie results in sensory cell defects in the inner ear of spinner, a mouse model of human hearing loss DFNB6. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:1887-98 pubmed
    ..The spinner mutant is thus a valuable model for insight into mechanisms of human deafness and development of sensory cell function. ..
  44. Young B, Minugh Purvis N, Shimo T, St Jacques B, Iwamoto M, Enomoto Iwamoto M, et al. Indian and sonic hedgehogs regulate synchondrosis growth plate and cranial base development and function. Dev Biol. 2006;299:272-82 pubmed
    ..The cranial base appears to be a skeletal structure in which growth and ossification patterns along its antero-posterior axis are orchestrated by both Ihh and Shh. ..
  45. Joun H, Lanske B, Karperien M, Qian F, Defize L, Abou Samra A. Tissue-specific transcription start sites and alternative splicing of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) receptor gene: a new PTH/PTHrP receptor splice variant that lacks the signal peptide. Endocrinology. 1997;138:1742-9 pubmed
    ..One of these transcripts, the type III splice variant, is expressed in kidney and lacks the signal peptide. ..
  46. Tawfeek H, Bedi B, Li J, Adams J, Kobayashi T, Weitzmann M, et al. Disruption of PTH receptor 1 in T cells protects against PTH-induced bone loss. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12290 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that silencing of PTH receptor 1 (PPR) in T cells blocks the bone loss and the osteoclastic expansion induced by cPTH, thus demonstrating that PPR ..
  47. Maeda A, Okazaki M, Baron D, Dean T, Khatri A, Mahon M, et al. Critical role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor-1 phosphorylation in regulating acute responses to PTH. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5864-9 pubmed publisher
    Agonist-induced phosphorylation of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor 1 (PTHR1) regulates receptor signaling in vitro, but the role of this phosphorylation in vivo is uncertain...
  48. Kawaki H, Kubota S, Suzuki A, Lazar N, Yamada T, Matsumura T, et al. Cooperative regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by CCN2 and CCN3 shown by a comprehensive analysis of the CCN family proteins in cartilage. J Bone Miner Res. 2008;23:1751-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The involvement of the PTHrP-Ihh loop in the regulation of CCN3 expression is also suggested. ..
  49. Amizuka N, Lee H, Kwan M, Arazani A, Warshawsky H, Hendy G, et al. Cell-specific expression of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide receptor gene in kidney from kidney-specific and ubiquitous promoters. Endocrinology. 1997;138:469-81 pubmed
    The kidney is the major site of expression of the PTH/PTH-related peptide receptor (PTHR) gene...
  50. Tsutsui T, Riminucci M, Holmbeck K, Bianco P, Robey P. Development of craniofacial structures in transgenic mice with constitutively active PTH/PTHrP receptor. Bone. 2008;42:321-31 pubmed
  51. El Hashash A, Esbrit P, Kimber S. PTHrP promotes murine secondary trophoblast giant cell differentiation through induction of endocycle, upregulation of giant-cell-promoting transcription factors and suppression of other trophoblast cell types. Differentiation. 2005;73:154-74 pubmed
    ..5 p.c. ectoplacental cone explant culture. Secondary TGCs expressed PTHrP and PTHR1 receptor in vivo and in vitro...
  52. Hirai T, Kobayashi T, Nishimori S, Karaplis A, Goltzman D, Kronenberg H. Bone Is a Major Target of PTH/PTHrP Receptor Signaling in Regulation of Fetal Blood Calcium Homeostasis. Endocrinology. 2015;156:2774-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings that endochondral bone-specific PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR) knockout (KO) mice showed significant reduction of fetal blood calcium concentration compared with that of control ..
  53. Shung C, Ota S, Zhou Z, Keene D, Hurlin P. Disruption of a Sox9-?-catenin circuit by mutant Fgfr3 in thanatophoric dysplasia type II. Hum Mol Genet. 2012;21:4628-44 pubmed publisher
  54. McCuaig K, Clarke J, White J. Molecular cloning of the gene encoding the mouse parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:5051-5 pubmed
    The parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor (PTHR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor containing seven predicted transmembrane domains...
  55. Probst S, Zeller R, Zuniga A. The hedgehog target Vlk genetically interacts with Gli3 to regulate chondrocyte differentiation during mouse long bone development. Differentiation. 2013;85:121-30 pubmed publisher
    ..level, these morphological alterations are reflected by delayed activation and lowered expression of Ihh, Pth1r and Col10a1 in long bone rudiments of double mutant limbs...
  56. Smits P, Bolton A, Funari V, Hong M, Boyden E, Lu L, et al. Lethal skeletal dysplasia in mice and humans lacking the golgin GMAP-210. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:206-16 pubmed publisher
  57. Maycas M, Ardura J, de Castro L, Bravo B, Gortázar A, Esbrit P. Role of the Parathyroid Hormone Type 1 Receptor (PTH1R) as a Mechanosensor in Osteocyte Survival. J Bone Miner Res. 2015;30:1231-44 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PTH1R ablation or overexpression in osteocytes in mice produces trabecular bone loss or increases bone mass, ..
  58. Zhang F, Xu L, Xu L, Xu Q, Li D, Yang Y, et al. JMJD3 promotes chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy during endochondral bone formation in mice. J Mol Cell Biol. 2015;7:23-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that JMJD3 is a key epigenetic regulator in the process of cartilage maturation during endochondral bone formation. ..
  59. Kovacs C, Lanske B, Hunzelman J, Guo J, Karaplis A, Kronenberg H. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) regulates fetal-placental calcium transport through a receptor distinct from the PTH/PTHrP receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:15233-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, the bioactivity of PTHrP for placental calcium transport is specified by a mid-molecular region that does not use the PTH/PTHrP receptor. ..
  60. Cho Y, Woodard G, Dunbar M, Gocken T, Jimenez J, Foley J. Hair-cycle-dependent expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein and its type I receptor: evidence for regulation at the anagen to catagen transition. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120:715-27 pubmed
    ..It appears that parathyroid hormone-related protein and fibroblast growth factor-5 regulate the anagen to catagen transition by independent pathways. ..
  61. Matsushita T, Chan Y, Kawanami A, Balmes G, Landreth G, Murakami S. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 play essential roles in osteoblast differentiation and in supporting osteoclastogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5843-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results indicate that ERK1 and ERK2 not only play essential roles in the lineage specification of osteo-chondroprogenitor cells but also support osteoclast formation in vivo. ..
  62. Ganss B, Kobayashi H. The zinc finger transcription factor Zfp60 is a negative regulator of cartilage differentiation. J Bone Miner Res. 2002;17:2151-60 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a role for Zfp60 as a negative regulator of gene transcription, specifically during the development and/or differentiation of chondrocytes. ..
  63. MacLean H, Kronenberg H. Localization of Indian hedgehog and PTH/PTHrP receptor expression in relation to chondrocyte proliferation during mouse bone development. Dev Growth Differ. 2005;47:59-63 pubmed
    ..Using this system, we examined the expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR) mRNA in relation to chondrocyte proliferation during embryonic mouse bone development...
  64. Chung U, Schipani E, McMahon A, Kronenberg H. Indian hedgehog couples chondrogenesis to osteogenesis in endochondral bone development. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:295-304 pubmed
    ..By comparing PTH/PTHrP receptor(-/-)/wild-type (PPR(-/-)/wild-type) chimeric mice with IHH(-/-);PPR(-/-)/wild-type chimeric and IHH(-/-)/wild-type chimeric mice, we ..
  65. Diamond A, Gonterman R, Anderson A, Menon K, Offutt C, Weaver C, et al. Parathyroid hormone hormone-related protein and the PTH receptor regulate angiogenesis of the skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126:2127-34 pubmed
    In developing organs, parathyroid hormone (PTH)/parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) receptor (PPR) signaling inhibits proliferation and differentiation of mesenchyme-derived cell types resulting in control of morphogenic events...
  66. Ono N, Nakashima K, Schipani E, Hayata T, Ezura Y, Soma K, et al. Constitutively active parathyroid hormone receptor signaling in cells in osteoblastic lineage suppresses mechanical unloading-induced bone resorption. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25509-16 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that constitutive activation of PTH/PTHrP receptor signaling in osteoblastic cells suppresses unloading-induced bone loss specifically through the regulation of osteoclastic activity. ..
  67. Gao B, Hu J, Stricker S, Cheung M, Ma G, Law K, et al. A mutation in Ihh that causes digit abnormalities alters its signalling capacity and range. Nature. 2009;458:1196-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that in a mouse model that recapitulates the E95K mutation, there is a change in the potency and range of signalling. The mice have digit abnormalities consistent with the human disorder. ..
  68. Verheijen M, Karperien M, Chung U, van Wijuen M, Heystek H, Hendriks J, et al. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) induces parietal endoderm formation exclusively via the type I PTH/PTHrP receptor. Mech Dev. 1999;81:151-61 pubmed
    ..Based upon these observations, we propose that PTHrP and the type I PTH/PTHrP receptor, although not required for the initial formation of PE, are required for its proper differentiation and/or functioning. ..
  69. Saito T, Fukai A, Mabuchi A, Ikeda T, Yano F, Ohba S, et al. Transcriptional regulation of endochondral ossification by HIF-2alpha during skeletal growth and osteoarthritis development. Nat Med. 2010;16:678-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, HIF-2alpha is a central transactivator that targets several crucial genes for endochondral ossification and may represent a therapeutic target for osteoarthritis. ..
  70. Ramirez M, Chung U, Williams M. Aquaporin-5 expression, but not other peripheral lung marker genes, is reduced in PTH/PTHrP receptor null mutant fetal mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2000;22:367-72 pubmed
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