Pth

Summary

Gene Symbol: Pth
Description: parathyroid hormone
Alias: Pthp, parathyroid hormone
Species: mouse
Products:     Pth

Top Publications

  1. Liu J, Lv F, Sun W, Tao C, Ding G, Karaplis A, et al. The abnormal phenotypes of cartilage and bone in calcium-sensing receptor deficient mice are dependent on the actions of calcium, phosphorus, and PTH. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002294 pubmed publisher
    ..NSHPT) are homozygous for the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) mutation and have very high circulating PTH, abundant parathyroid hyperplasia, and severe life-threatening hypercalcemia...
  2. Fujita T, Meguro T, Fukuyama R, Nakamuta H, Koida M. New signaling pathway for parathyroid hormone and cyclic AMP action on extracellular-regulated kinase and cell proliferation in bone cells. Checkpoint of modulation by cyclic AMP. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22191-200 pubmed
    cAMP signaling, activated by extracellular stimuli such as parathyroid hormone, has cell type-specific effects important for cellular proliferation and differentiation in bone cells...
  3. Simmonds C, Karsenty G, Karaplis A, Kovacs C. Parathyroid hormone regulates fetal-placental mineral homeostasis. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:594-605 pubmed publisher
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays an essential role in regulating calcium and bone homeostasis in the adult, but whether PTH is required at all for regulating fetal-placental mineral homeostasis and skeletal development is uncertain...
  4. Shu L, Ji J, Zhu Q, Cao G, Karaplis A, Pollak M, et al. The calcium-sensing receptor mediates bone turnover induced by dietary calcium and parathyroid hormone in neonates. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:1057-71 pubmed publisher
    ..calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) mediates the effects of dietary calcium on bone turnover and/or modulates parathyroid hormone (PTH)-induced bone turnover...
  5. Liu Z, Yu S, Manley N. Gcm2 is required for the differentiation and survival of parathyroid precursor cells in the parathyroid/thymus primordia. Dev Biol. 2007;305:333-46 pubmed
    ..5 but underwent programmed cell death between E12 and 12.5. RNA and protein localization studies for parathyroid hormone (Pth) in wild-type embryos showed that the presumptive parathyroid domain in the parathyroid/thymus ..
  6. Xue Y, Karaplis A, Hendy G, Goltzman D, Miao D. Genetic models show that parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 play distinct and synergistic roles in postnatal mineral ion homeostasis and skeletal development. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:1515-28 pubmed
    In humans, loss-of-function mutations in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1alpha-hydroxylase [1alpha(OH)ase] genes lead to isolated hypoparathyroidism and vitamin D-dependent rickets type I, respectively...
  7. Macleod R. Extracellular calcium-sensing receptor/PTH knockout mice colons have increased Wnt/?-catenin signaling, reduced non-canonical Wnt signaling, and increased susceptibility to azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci. Lab Invest. 2013;93:520-7 pubmed publisher
    ..cancer, we induced formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) caused by azoxymethane (AOM) injection in 'rescued' CaSR-/PTH- (C-/P-) double knockout colons compared with colons from control CaSR+/PTH+ (C+/P+) mice...
  8. Swarthout J, D Alonzo R, Selvamurugan N, Partridge N. Parathyroid hormone-dependent signaling pathways regulating genes in bone cells. Gene. 2002;282:1-17 pubmed
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an 84-amino-acid polypeptide hormone functioning as a major mediator of bone remodeling and as an essential regulator of calcium homeostasis...
  9. Terauchi M, Li J, Bedi B, Baek K, Tawfeek H, Galley S, et al. T lymphocytes amplify the anabolic activity of parathyroid hormone through Wnt10b signaling. Cell Metab. 2009;10:229-40 pubmed publisher
    Intermittent administration of parathyroid hormone (iPTH) is used to treat osteoporosis because it improves bone architecture and strength, but the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are unclear...

More Information

Publications86

  1. Cao G, Gu Z, Ren Y, Shu L, Tao C, Karaplis A, et al. Parathyroid hormone contributes to regulating milk calcium content and modulates neonatal bone formation cooperatively with calcium. Endocrinology. 2009;150:561-9 pubmed publisher
    To determine whether PTH and calcium (Ca) interact in neonatal bone formation, female lactating mice either heterozygous (PTH(+/-)) or homozygous (PTH(-/-)) for targeted deletion of the pth gene were fed either a normal (1% Ca, 0...
  2. Yuan Q, Sitara D, Sato T, Densmore M, Saito H, Schuler C, et al. PTH ablation ameliorates the anomalies of Fgf23-deficient mice by suppressing the elevated vitamin D and calcium levels. Endocrinology. 2011;152:4053-61 pubmed publisher
    ..elevated serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and marked decreased PTH levels...
  3. Miao D, He B, Lanske B, Bai X, Tong X, Hendy G, et al. Skeletal abnormalities in Pth-null mice are influenced by dietary calcium. Endocrinology. 2004;145:2046-53 pubmed
    We have examined the role of PTH in the postnatal state in a mouse model of PTH deficiency generated by targeting the Pth gene in embryonic stem cells...
  4. Quinn S, Thomsen A, Pang J, Kantham L, Brauner Osborne H, Pollak M, et al. Interactions between calcium and phosphorus in the regulation of the production of fibroblast growth factor 23 in vivo. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;304:E310-20 pubmed publisher
    ..roles of calcium and phosphorus in FGF23 production using genetic mouse models with targeted inactivation of PTH (PTH KO) or both PTH and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR; PTH-CaSR DKO)...
  5. Miao D, He B, Karaplis A, Goltzman D. Parathyroid hormone is essential for normal fetal bone formation. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:1173-82 pubmed
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a potent pharmacologic inducer of new bone formation, but no physiologic anabolic effect of PTH on adult bone has been described...
  6. Chen H, Demiralp B, Schneider A, Koh A, Silve C, Wang C, et al. Parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein exert both pro- and anti-apoptotic effects in mesenchymal cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:19374-81 pubmed
    ..Evidence suggests that the receptor for parathyroid hormone (PTH) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), the PTH-1 receptor (PTH-1R), plays an important role ..
  7. Sun W, Sun W, Liu J, Zhou X, Xiao Y, Karaplis A, et al. Alterations in phosphorus, calcium and PTHrP contribute to defects in dental and dental alveolar bone formation in calcium-sensing receptor-deficient mice. Development. 2010;137:985-92 pubmed publisher
    ..means, in mice doubly homozygous for CaR and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 1alpha-hydroxylase [1alpha(OH)ase] or parathyroid hormone (Pth)...
  8. Dooley J, Erickson M, Farr A. Lessons from thymic epithelial heterogeneity: FoxN1 and tissue-restricted gene expression by extrathymic, endodermally derived epithelium. J Immunol. 2009;183:5042-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this murine study, we evaluate the thymic expression of a subset of TRA, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and thyroglobulin, as part of an effort to better define the heterogeneity of medullary thymic ..
  9. Shinoda Y, Kawaguchi H, Higashikawa A, Hirata M, Miura T, Saito T, et al. Mechanisms underlying catabolic and anabolic functions of parathyroid hormone on bone by combination of culture systems of mouse cells. J Cell Biochem. 2010;109:755-63 pubmed publisher
    Since bone resorption and formation by continuous and intermittent parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatments involve various types of cells in bone, this study examined the underlying mechanism by combining culture systems using mouse primary ..
  10. Chung W, Goldberg Berman J, Power Kehoe L, Leibel R. Molecular mapping of the tubby (tub) mutation on mouse chromosome 7. Genomics. 1996;32:210-7 pubmed
    ..the interval defining tub was defined by D7Mit53; the order centromere-Hbb/tub-D7Mit53/ D7Mit328/D7Mit220-parathyroid hormone (Pth)-calcitonin (Calc)-zona pellucida 2 (2p2) was established...
  11. Gattineni J, Alphonse P, Zhang Q, Mathews N, Bates C, Baum M. Regulation of renal phosphate transport by FGF23 is mediated by FGFR1 and FGFR4. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014;306:F351-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are consistent with FGFR1 and FGFR4 being the critical receptors for the phosphaturic actions of FGF23. ..
  12. Liu Z, Farley A, Chen L, Kirby B, Kovacs C, Blackburn C, et al. Thymus-associated parathyroid hormone has two cellular origins with distinct endocrine and immunological functions. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001251 pubmed publisher
    In mammals, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a key regulator of extracellular calcium and inorganic phosphorus homeostasis...
  13. Raggatt L, Qin L, Tamasi J, Jefcoat S, Shimizu E, Selvamurugan N, et al. Interleukin-18 is regulated by parathyroid hormone and is required for its bone anabolic actions. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:6790-8 pubmed publisher
    ..technology, that IL-18 expression is increased in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic cells in response to parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment...
  14. Jay F, Vaidya M, Porada S, Andrukhova O, Schneider M, Erben R. Amphiregulin lacks an essential role for the bone anabolic action of parathyroid hormone. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015;417:158-65 pubmed publisher
    Although parathyroid hormone (PTH) has long been known to act as a bone anabolic agent when administered intermittently, the exact underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown...
  15. Jiang D, Franceschi R, Boules H, Xiao G. Parathyroid hormone induction of the osteocalcin gene. Requirement for an osteoblast-specific element 1 sequence in the promoter and involvement of multiple-signaling pathways. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:5329-37 pubmed
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an important peptide hormone regulator of bone formation and osteoblast activity. However, its mechanism of action in bone cells is largely unknown...
  16. Huang H, Chikazu D, Voznesensky O, Herschman H, Kream B, Drissi H, et al. Parathyroid hormone induction of cyclooxygenase-2 in murine osteoblasts: role of the calcium-calcineurin-NFAT pathway. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:819-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Single mutation of CRE, AP-1, or NFAT sites decreased parathyroid hormone (PTH)-stimulated COX-2 promoter activity 40% to 60%, whereas joint mutation of NFAT and AP-1 abrogated the ..
  17. Pirih F, Michalski M, Cho S, Koh A, Berry J, Ghaname E, et al. Parathyroid hormone mediates hematopoietic cell expansion through interleukin-6. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13657 pubmed publisher
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates hematopoietic cells through mechanisms of action that remain elusive. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is upregulated by PTH and stimulates hematopoiesis...
  18. Al Dujaili S, Koh A, Dang M, Mi X, Chang W, Ma P, et al. Calcium Sensing Receptor Function Supports Osteoblast Survival and Acts as a Co-Factor in PTH Anabolic Actions in Bone. J Cell Biochem. 2016;117:1556-67 pubmed publisher
    Anabolic actions of PTH in bone involve increased deposition of mineralizing matrix. Regulatory feedback of the process may be important to maintain calcium homeostasis and, in turn, calcium may inform the process...
  19. Portal Núñez S, Lozano D, de Castro L, de Gortázar A, Nogues X, Esbrit P. Alterations of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway and its target genes for the N- and C-terminal domains of parathyroid hormone-related protein in bone from diabetic mice. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:3095-100 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that both N- and C-terminal parathyroid hormone-related peptide fragments might exert osteogenic effects in this setting by targeting several genes of this ..
  20. Kovacs C, Chafe L, Fudge N, Friel J, Manley N. PTH regulates fetal blood calcium and skeletal mineralization independently of PTHrP. Endocrinology. 2001;142:4983-93 pubmed
    b>PTH and PTHrP both act in the regulation of fetal mineral metabolism. PTHrP regulates placental calcium transfer, fetal blood calcium, and differentiation of the cartilaginous growth plate into endochondral bone...
  21. Wang J, Wang X, Holz J, Rutkowski T, Wang Y, Zhu Z, et al. Runx1 is critical for PTH-induced onset of mesenchymal progenitor cell chondrogenic differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74255 pubmed publisher
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) plays a critical role in the regulation of chondrogenesis. In this study, we have found for the first time that Runt-related transcription factor 1 (Runx1) contributes to PTH-induced chondrogenesis...
  22. Tobimatsu T, Kaji H, Sowa H, Naito J, Canaff L, Hendy G, et al. Parathyroid hormone increases beta-catenin levels through Smad3 in mouse osteoblastic cells. Endocrinology. 2006;147:2583-90 pubmed
    b>PTH, via the PTH/PTH-related protein receptor type 1 that couples to both protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC) pathways, and the canonical Wnt-beta-catenin signaling pathway play important roles in bone formation...
  23. Alos N, Ecarot B. Downregulation of osteoblast Phex expression by PTH. Bone. 2005;37:589-98 pubmed
    ..The purpose of the present study was to assess whether PTH, a major regulator of bone development and turnover, modulates osteoblastic Phex expression...
  24. Murray E, Tram K, Spencer M, Tidball J, Murray S, Lee D. PTH-mediated osteoblast retraction: possible participation of the calpain pathway. Miner Electrolyte Metab. 1995;21:184-8 pubmed
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH)-induced osteoblast retraction may play a pivotal role a role in bone resorption by providing osteoclasts direct access to mineralized bone surface...
  25. Shirakawa J, Harada H, Noda M, Ezura Y. PTH-Induced Osteoblast Proliferation Requires Upregulation of the Ubiquitin-Specific Peptidase 2 (Usp2) Expression. Calcif Tissue Int. 2016;98:306-15 pubmed publisher
    Osteoporosis is a common disease that increases individual's fragility fracture risk. PTH is the only therapeutic agent for severe osteoporosis that requires anabolic action of bone formation...
  26. Takeshita K, Fujimori T, Kurotaki Y, Honjo H, Tsujikawa H, Yasui K, et al. Sinoatrial node dysfunction and early unexpected death of mice with a defect of klotho gene expression. Circulation. 2004;109:1776-82 pubmed
    ..In the heart, klotho is expressed solely at the sinoatrial node. klotho gene expression is essential for the sinoatrial node to function as a dependable pacemaker under conditions of stress. ..
  27. Ogata N, Shinoda Y, Wettschureck N, Offermanns S, Takeda S, Nakamura K, et al. G alpha(q) signal in osteoblasts is inhibitory to the osteoanabolic action of parathyroid hormone. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:13733-40 pubmed publisher
    ..by G?(q) and G?(11) (encoded by Gn?(q) and Gn?(11), respectively), a major intracellular pathway of parathyroid hormone (PTH), in the PTH osteoanabolic action by the gain- and loss-of-function analyses...
  28. Aggarwal A, Prinz Wohlgenannt M, Tennakoon S, Höbaus J, Boudot C, Mentaverri R, et al. The calcium-sensing receptor: A promising target for prevention of colorectal cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015;1853:2158-67 pubmed publisher
    ..of proliferation markers and decreased levels of differentiation and apoptotic markers in the colons of CaSR/PTH double knock-out mice confirming the tumor suppressive functions of CaSR...
  29. Wang J, Nagy A, Larsson J, Dudas M, Sucov H, Kaartinen V. Defective ALK5 signaling in the neural crest leads to increased postmigratory neural crest cell apoptosis and severe outflow tract defects. BMC Dev Biol. 2006;6:51 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that ALK5-mediated signaling in neural crest cells plays an essential cell-autonomous role in the pharyngeal and cardiac outflow tract development. ..
  30. Xue Y, Xiao Y, Liu J, Karaplis A, Pollak M, Brown E, et al. The calcium-sensing receptor complements parathyroid hormone-induced bone turnover in discrete skeletal compartments in mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;302:E841-51 pubmed publisher
    Although the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) may each exert skeletal effects, it is uncertain how CaSR and PTH interact at the level of bone in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT)...
  31. Meyer M, Benkusky N, Onal M, Pike J. Selective regulation of Mmp13 by 1,25(OH)2D3, PTH, and Osterix through distal enhancers. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016;164:258-264 pubmed publisher
    ..Most notably, Mmp13 is regulated by the vitamin D hormone (1,25(OH)2D3), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and several cytokines...
  32. Li P, Pashmforoush M, Sucov H. Mesodermal retinoic acid signaling regulates endothelial cell coalescence in caudal pharyngeal arch artery vasculogenesis. Dev Biol. 2012;361:116-24 pubmed publisher
  33. Ren Y, Liu B, Feng Y, Shu L, Cao X, Karaplis A, et al. Endogenous PTH deficiency impairs fracture healing and impedes the fracture-healing efficacy of exogenous PTH(1-34). PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23060 pubmed publisher
    ..enhance the rate of bone repair is well established in animal models, our understanding of the mechanism(s) whereby PTH induces an anabolic response during skeletal repair remains limited...
  34. Hirai T, Kobayashi T, Nishimori S, Karaplis A, Goltzman D, Kronenberg H. Bone Is a Major Target of PTH/PTHrP Receptor Signaling in Regulation of Fetal Blood Calcium Homeostasis. Endocrinology. 2015;156:2774-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings that endochondral bone-specific PTH/PTHrP receptor (PPR) knockout (KO) mice showed significant reduction of fetal blood calcium concentration compared ..
  35. Kir S, Komaba H, García A, Economopoulos K, Liu W, Lanske B, et al. PTH/PTHrP Receptor Mediates Cachexia in Models of Kidney Failure and Cancer. Cell Metab. 2016;23:315-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that PTH is involved in stimulating a thermogenic gene program in 5/6 nephrectomized mice that suffer from cachexia...
  36. Yuan Q, Sato T, Densmore M, Saito H, Schüler C, Erben R, et al. Deletion of PTH rescues skeletal abnormalities and high osteopontin levels in Klotho-/- mice. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002726 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH), Klotho, and FGF23 have been shown to act as key regulators of serum calcium and phosphate ..
  37. Seldin M, Mattei M, Hendy G. Localization of mouse parathyroid hormone-like peptide gene (Pthlh) to distal chromosome 6 using interspecific backcross mice and in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1992;60:252-4 pubmed
    The single copy parathyroid hormone-like peptide gene (Pthlh) was mapped to distal mouse chromosome 6 using genetic linkage analysis with a panel of DNA samples from interspecific backcross mice...
  38. Fortunati D, Reppe S, Fjeldheim A, Nielsen M, Gautvik V, Gautvik K. Periostin is a collagen associated bone matrix protein regulated by parathyroid hormone. Matrix Biol. 2010;29:594-601 pubmed publisher
    ..the regulation of periostin mRNA in hFOB after siRNA treatment and in mouse primary osteoblasts (mOB) treated with PTH. Knock-down of periostin mRNA, down-regulated PTHrP, but did not affect the expression of other important markers ..
  39. Onal M, St John H, Danielson A, Pike J. Deletion of the Distal Tnfsf11 RL-D2 Enhancer That Contributes to PTH-Mediated RANKL Expression in Osteoblast Lineage Cells Results in a High Bone Mass Phenotype in Mice. J Bone Miner Res. 2016;31:416-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this, the parathyroid hormone (PTH) induction of RANKL expression was significantly blunted in RL-D2(-/-) mice in vivo...
  40. Ma Y, Kirby B, Fairbridge N, Karaplis A, Lanske B, Kovacs C. FGF23 Is Not Required to Regulate Fetal Phosphorus Metabolism but Exerts Effects Within 12 Hours After Birth. Endocrinology. 2017;158:252-263 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Parathyroid hormone remained normal...
  41. Kantham L, Quinn S, Egbuna O, Baxi K, Butters R, Pang J, et al. The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) defends against hypercalcemia independently of its regulation of parathyroid hormone secretion. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E915-23 pubmed publisher
    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) controls parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion, which, in turn, via direct and indirect actions on kidney, bone, and intestine, maintains a normal extracellular ionized calcium concentration (Ca(2+)(o))...
  42. Pathak B, Shaughnessy J, Meneton P, Greeb J, Shull G, Jenkins N, et al. Mouse chromosomal location of three epithelial sodium channel subunit genes and an apical sodium chloride cotransporter gene. Genomics. 1996;33:124-7 pubmed
    ..These loci map to previously defined homologous regions between human and mouse chromosomes and provide additional information regarding human/mouse comparative mapping. ..
  43. Okazaki T, Ogawa Y, Tamura N, Mori K, Isse N, Aoki T, et al. Genomic organization, expression, and chromosomal mapping of the mouse adrenomedullin gene. Genomics. 1996;37:395-9 pubmed
    ..Using restriction fragment length variants on a DNA panel of interspecific backcross mice, we mapped Adm to a distal region of mouse chromosome 7. ..
  44. Li Y, Pirro A, Amling M, Delling G, Baron R, Bronson R, et al. Targeted ablation of the vitamin D receptor: an animal model of vitamin D-dependent rickets type II with alopecia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:9831-5 pubmed
    ..They become hypocalcemic at 21 days of age, at which time their parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels begin to rise...
  45. Klein R, Mitchell S, Phillips T, Belknap J, Orwoll E. Quantitative trait loci affecting peak bone mineral density in mice. J Bone Miner Res. 1998;13:1648-56 pubmed
    ..Confirmation of these findings will likely result in the understanding of which genes control skeletal health. ..
  46. He B, Tong T, Hiou Tim F, Al Akad B, Kronenberg H, Karaplis A. The murine gene encoding parathyroid hormone: genomic organization, nucleotide sequence and transcriptional regulation. J Mol Endocrinol. 2002;29:193-203 pubmed
    The type 1 parathyroid hormone receptor (PTHR1) binds, with equal affinity, two ligands with distinct biological functions: PTH, the major peptide hormone controlling calcium homeostasis, and the paracrine factor, PTH-related peptide (..
  47. Kazmers N, Ma S, Yoshida T, Stern P. Rho GTPase signaling and PTH 3-34, but not PTH 1-34, maintain the actin cytoskeleton and antagonize bisphosphonate effects in mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Bone. 2009;45:52-60 pubmed publisher
    ..previously that RhoA is expressed in osteoblastic cells and is translocated to the plasma membrane and activated by PTH 1-34 as well as by Nleu(8,18) Tyr(34) PTH 3-34 amide, a PTH analog that does not increase cAMP...
  48. Sowa H, Kaji H, Iu M, Tsukamoto T, Sugimoto T, Chihara K. Parathyroid hormone-Smad3 axis exerts anti-apoptotic action and augments anabolic action of transforming growth factor beta in osteoblasts. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:52240-52 pubmed
    Although several studies indicated that parathyroid hormone (PTH) exerted anabolic action on bone, its precise mechanisms have been unknown...
  49. Shaughnessy J, Jenkins N, Copeland N. cDNA cloning, expression analysis, and chromosomal localization of a gene with high homology to wheat eIF-(iso)4F and mammalian eIF-4G. Genomics. 1997;39:192-7 pubmed
    ..Southern blot analysis of DNA from interspecific backcross mice shows that Eif4g2 is localized to distal mouse chromosome 7 in a region syntenic with human chromosome 11p15. ..
  50. Kim J, Jones B, Zock C, Chen Z, Wang H, Goodman C, et al. Isolation and characterization of mammalian homologs of the Drosophila gene glial cells missing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:12364-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, certain biochemical properties, although not the specificity of the tissue in which the gene is expressed, have been conserved through the evolution of the Gcm gene family. ..
  51. Zhou J, Pashmforoush M, Sucov H. Endothelial neuropilin disruption in mice causes DiGeorge syndrome-like malformations via mechanisms distinct to those caused by loss of Tbx1. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32429 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that impairment of VEGF-dependent endothelial pathways leads to a spectrum of DiGeorge syndrome-type malformations, through processes that are distinguishable from those controlled by Tbx1. ..
  52. Pirih F, Aghaloo T, Bezouglaia O, Nervina J, Tetradis S. Parathyroid hormone induces the NR4A family of nuclear orphan receptors in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;332:494-503 pubmed
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) has both anabolic and catabolic effects on bone metabolism, although the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects are largely unknown...
  53. Mahalingam C, Sampathi B, Sharma S, Datta T, Das V, Abou Samra A, et al. MKP1-dependent PTH modulation of bone matrix mineralization in female mice is osteoblast maturation stage specific and involves P-ERK and P-p38 MAPKs. J Endocrinol. 2013;216:315-29 pubmed publisher
    ..distinct roles for MKP1 during osteoblast proliferation, differentiation, and skeletal responsiveness to parathyroid hormone (PTH)...
  54. Li X, Garcia J, Lu J, Iriana S, Kalajzic I, Rowe D, et al. Roles of parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor and reactive oxygen species in hyperlipidemia-induced PTH resistance in preosteoblasts. J Cell Biochem. 2014;115:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence shows that they also contribute to bone loss by inhibiting parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R) expression and differentiation of osteoblasts...
  55. Shimizu E, Selvamurugan N, Westendorf J, Olson E, Partridge N. HDAC4 represses matrix metalloproteinase-13 transcription in osteoblastic cells, and parathyroid hormone controls this repression. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:9616-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a hormone regulating bone remodeling through its actions on both bone formation and bone resorption...
  56. Liu Z, Kennedy O, Cardoso L, Basta Pljakic J, Partridge N, Schaffler M, et al. DMP-1-mediated Ghr gene recombination compromises skeletal development and impairs skeletal response to intermittent PTH. FASEB J. 2016;30:635-52 pubmed publisher
    ..DMP-GHRKO mice exhibited reduced serum inorganic phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels and decreased bone formation indices and were associated with an impaired response to ..
  57. Kong X, Schipani E, Lanske B, Joun H, Karperien M, Defize L, et al. The rat, mouse and human genes encoding the receptor for parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related peptide are highly homologous. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;200:1290-9 pubmed
    The organization of the PTH/PTHrP receptor gene is highly homologous in three mammalian species, rat, human and mouse. This gene extends over 22 kb and contains at least 15 exons and 14 introns...
  58. Barton D, Kwon B, Francke U. Human tyrosinase gene, mapped to chromosome 11 (q14----q21), defines second region of homology with mouse chromosome 7. Genomics. 1988;3:17-24 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the genetic maps of human chromosome 11 and mouse chromosome 7 leads to hypotheses regarding the evolution of human chromosome 11. ..
  59. Murray R, Holthouser K, Clark B, Salyer S, Barati M, Khundmiri S, et al. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) decreases sodium-phosphate cotransporter type IIa (NpT2a) mRNA stability. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2013;304:F1076-85 pubmed publisher
    The acute inhibitory effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on proximal tubule Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (Na-K) and sodium-dependent phosphate (NaPi) transport have been extensively studied, while little is known about the chronic effects of PTH...
  60. Weinman E, Biswas R, Peng G, Peng Q, Shen L, Turner C, et al. Parathyroid hormone inhibits renal phosphate transport by phosphorylation of serine 77 of sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor-1. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3412-20 pubmed
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH), via activation of PKC and/or protein kinase A, inhibits renal proximal tubular phosphate reabsorption by facilitating the internalization of the major sodium-dependent phosphate transporter, Npt2a...
  61. Huang M, Morony S, Lu J, Zhang Z, Bezouglaia O, Tseng W, et al. Atherogenic phospholipids attenuate osteogenic signaling by BMP-2 and parathyroid hormone in osteoblasts. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:21237-43 pubmed
    ..phospholipids alter the effects of bone anabolic agents, such as bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and parathyroid hormone (PTH)...
  62. Weinman E, Steplock D, Shenolikar S, Biswas R. Fibroblast growth factor-23-mediated inhibition of renal phosphate transport in mice requires sodium-hydrogen exchanger regulatory factor-1 (NHERF-1) and synergizes with parathyroid hormone. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:37216-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Low concentrations of FGF-23 (10(-13) m) and PTH (10(-11) m) individually did not inhibit phosphate transport or activate PKA, PKC, or MAPK...
  63. Bai X, Miao D, Goltzman D, Karaplis A. Early lethality in Hyp mice with targeted deletion of Pth gene. Endocrinology. 2007;148:4974-83 pubmed
    Although increased circulating levels of PTH with mild hypocalcemia has been reported in Hyp mice, hyperparathyroidism in X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets is postulated to arise from the standard use of phosphate salts, which induce ..
  64. Qiu T, Wu X, Zhang F, Clemens T, Wan M, Cao X. TGF-beta type II receptor phosphorylates PTH receptor to integrate bone remodelling signalling. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:224-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism by activating PTH type I receptor (PTH1R)...
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    ..However, KO animals were more responsive to exogenous human parathyroid hormone as evidenced by a greater increase of the serum calcium concentration and urine deoxypyridinoline ..
  66. Kameda Y, Ito M, Nishimaki T, Gotoh N. FRS2alpha is required for the separation, migration, and survival of pharyngeal-endoderm derived organs including thyroid, ultimobranchial body, parathyroid, and thymus. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:503-13 pubmed publisher
    ..e., Nkx2-1/TTF1 for the thyroid lobe and ultimobranchial body; Pax8 for the thyroid lobe; parathormone (PTH), chromogranin A, P75(NTR), and S100 protein for the parathyroid gland; and p63 for the thymus) were normally ..
  67. Amling M, Neff L, Tanaka S, Inoue D, Kuida K, Weir E, et al. Bcl-2 lies downstream of parathyroid hormone-related peptide in a signaling pathway that regulates chondrocyte maturation during skeletal development. J Cell Biol. 1997;136:205-13 pubmed
    b>Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) appears to play a major role in skeletal development. Targeted disruption of the PTHrP gene in mice causes skeletal dysplasia with accelerated chondrocyte maturation (Amizuka, N., H...
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    ..We investigated the role of XLαs in mediating signaling by parathyroid hormone (PTH), which activates a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that stimulates both Gαs and Gαq/11 in ..
  69. Gardinier J, Mohamed F, Kohn D. PTH Signaling During Exercise Contributes to Bone Adaptation. J Bone Miner Res. 2015;30:1053-63 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the increase in systemic parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels during exercise gives reason to hypothesize that PTH signaling also regulates bone adaptation ..
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    ..whether the IGF1R in mature osteoblasts and osteocytes was required for the catabolic actions of continuous parathyroid hormone (cPTH)...
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    ..We found that activated mouse Th2 and not Th1 cells produced the parathyroid hormone (PTH)...
  72. Onan D, Allan E, Quinn J, Gooi J, Pompolo S, Sims N, et al. The chemokine Cxcl1 is a novel target gene of parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related protein in committed osteoblasts. Endocrinology. 2009;150:2244-53 pubmed publisher
    The PTH receptor (PTHR1) is expressed on osteoblasts and responds to PTH or PTHrP in an endocrine or autocrine/paracrine manner, respectively...
  73. Nagai S, Okazaki M, Segawa H, Bergwitz C, Dean T, Potts J, et al. Acute down-regulation of sodium-dependent phosphate transporter NPT2a involves predominantly the cAMP/PKA pathway as revealed by signaling-selective parathyroid hormone analogs. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:1618-26 pubmed publisher
    The parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) receptor (PTHR1) in cells of the renal proximal tubule mediates the reduction in membrane expression of the sodium-dependent P(i) co-transporters, NPT2a and NPT2c, and thus ..
  74. Klinga Levan K, Andersson A, Hanson C, Ridderström M, Stenberg G, Mannervik B, et al. Mapping of glutathione transferase (GST) genes in the rat. Hereditas. 1993;119:285-96 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, each of the three groups of conserved synteny seems to span the region across the centromeres of the human chromosomes. ..
  75. Tang H, Yamamura A, Yamamura H, Song S, Fraidenburg D, Chen J, et al. Pathogenic role of calcium-sensing receptors in the development and progression of pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016;310:L846-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Blockade or downregulation of CaSR and/or TRPC6 with siRNA or miRNA may be a novel therapeutic strategy to develop new drugs for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. ..
  76. Andrukhova O, Streicher C, Zeitz U, Erben R. Fgf23 and parathyroid hormone signaling interact in kidney and bone. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;436:224-39 pubmed publisher
    ..and Klotho/VDR compound mutants were characterized by hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and very high serum parathyroid hormone (PTH)...
  77. Kirby B, Ma Y, Martin H, Buckle Favaro K, Karaplis A, Kovacs C. Upregulation of calcitriol during pregnancy and skeletal recovery after lactation do not require parathyroid hormone. J Bone Miner Res. 2013;28:1987-2000 pubmed publisher
    ..We used Pth-null mice to test whether parathyroid hormone (PTH) is required for postweaning skeletal recovery...