Gene Symbol: Ptger3
Description: prostaglandin E receptor 3 (subtype EP3)
Alias: EP3, Pgerep3, Ptgerep3, prostaglandin E2 receptor EP3 subtype, PGE receptor EP3 subtype, PGE2 receptor EP3 subtype, prostaglandin E receptor EP3 subtype, prostanoid EP3 receptor
Species: mouse
Products:     Ptger3

Top Publications

  1. Fabre J, Nguyen M, Athirakul K, Coggins K, McNeish J, Austin S, et al. Activation of the murine EP3 receptor for PGE2 inhibits cAMP production and promotes platelet aggregation. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:603-10 pubmed
    ..This study shows that among the four PGE2 receptors (EP1-EP4), activation of EP3 is sufficient to mediate the proaggregatory actions of low PGE2 concentration...
  2. Kabashima K, Sakata D, Nagamachi M, Miyachi Y, Inaba K, Narumiya S. Prostaglandin E2-EP4 signaling initiates skin immune responses by promoting migration and maturation of Langerhans cells. Nat Med. 2003;9:744-9 pubmed
    ..PGE2-EP4 signaling thus facilitates initiation of skin immune responses by promoting the migration and maturation of Langerhans cells. ..
  3. Ikeda Matsuo Y, Tanji H, Narumiya S, Sasaki Y. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 EP3 receptors improves stroke injury via anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. J Neuroimmunol. 2011;238:34-43 pubmed publisher
    Although deletion of EP3 receptors is known to ameliorate stroke injury in experimental stroke models, the underlying mechanisms and the effects of EP3-specific antagonists remain poorly understood...
  4. Sanchez Alavez M, Klein I, Brownell S, Tabarean I, Davis C, Conti B, et al. Night eating and obesity in the EP3R-deficient mouse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:3009-14 pubmed
    ..The findings add to the growing literature on links between inflammatory signaling and obesity. ..
  5. Matsuoka Y, Furuyashiki T, Bito H, Ushikubi F, Tanaka Y, Kobayashi T, et al. Impaired adrenocorticotropic hormone response to bacterial endotoxin in mice deficient in prostaglandin E receptor EP1 and EP3 subtypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:4132-7 pubmed
    ..each of the four PGE receptors (EP1-EP4) and an EP1-selective antagonist, ONO-8713, we showed that both EP1 and EP3 are required for adrenocorticotropic hormone release in response to LPS...
  6. Ma H, Hara A, Xiao C, Okada Y, Takahata O, Nakaya K, et al. Increased bleeding tendency and decreased susceptibility to thromboembolism in mice lacking the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP(3). Circulation. 2001;104:1176-80 pubmed
    ..This potentiating action of PGE(2) via EP(3) is essential in mediating both physiological and pathological effects of PGE(2) in vivo. ..
  7. Sonoshita M, Takaku K, Sasaki N, Sugimoto Y, Ushikubi F, Narumiya S, et al. Acceleration of intestinal polyposis through prostaglandin receptor EP2 in Apc(Delta 716) knockout mice. Nat Med. 2001;7:1048-51 pubmed
    ..Homozygous gene knockout for other PGE(2) receptors, EP1 or EP3, did not affect intestinal polyp formation in Apc(Delta 716) mice...
  8. Boku K, Ohno T, Saeki T, Hayashi H, Hayashi I, Katori M, et al. Adaptive cytoprotection mediated by prostaglandin I(2) is attributable to sensitization of CRGP-containing sensory nerves. Gastroenterology. 2001;120:134-43 pubmed
    ..Protective effect of 1 mol/L NaCl was observed in EP3 receptor-knockout mice (EP3(-/-))...
  9. Negishi M, Sugimoto Y, Namba T, Irie A, Narumiya S, Ichikawa A. Signal transductions of three isoforms of mouse prostaglandin E receptor EP3 subtype. Adv Prostaglandin Thromboxane Leukot Res. 1995;23:255-7 pubmed

More Information


  1. Irie A, Sugimoto Y, Namba T, Harazono A, Honda A, Watabe A, et al. Third isoform of the prostaglandin-E-receptor EP3 subtype with different C-terminal tail coupling to both stimulation and inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Eur J Biochem. 1993;217:313-8 pubmed
    A functional cDNA clone for a third isoform of the mouse prostaglandin-E-receptor EP3 subtype, derived by alternative RNA splicing, named the EP3 gamma receptor, was obtained in addition to those for the two other isoforms, EP3 alpha and ..
  2. Sugimoto Y, Negishi M, Hayashi Y, Namba T, Honda A, Watabe A, et al. Two isoforms of the EP3 receptor with different carboxyl-terminal domains. Identical ligand binding properties and different coupling properties with Gi proteins. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:2712-8 pubmed
    Functional cDNA clones for two isoforms of the mouse prostaglandin E receptor EP3 subtype derived from alternative RNA splicing were obtained...
  3. Sugimoto Y, Namba T, Honda A, Hayashi Y, Negishi M, Ichikawa A, et al. Cloning and expression of a cDNA for mouse prostaglandin E receptor EP3 subtype. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:6463-6 pubmed
    A functional cDNA clone for mouse EP3 subtype of prostaglandin (PG) E receptor was isolated from a mouse cDNA library using polymerase chain reaction based on the sequence of the human thromboxane A2 receptor and cross-hybridization ..
  4. Nguyen M, Pace A, Koller B. Age-induced reprogramming of mast cell degranulation. J Immunol. 2005;175:5701-7 pubmed
    ..Intradermal administration of PGE2 leads to an EP3 receptor-dependent degranulation of mast cells, with the number of degranulated cells approaching levels observed ..
  5. Nusing R, Treude A, Weissenberger C, Jensen B, Bek M, Wagner C, et al. Dominant role of prostaglandin E2 EP4 receptor in furosemide-induced salt-losing tubulopathy: a model for hyperprostaglandin E syndrome/antenatal Bartter syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:2354-62 pubmed
    ..In wild-type (WT) mice and in mice lacking distinct PGE2 receptors (EP1-/-, EP2-/-, EP3-/-, and EP4-/-), the effect of chronic furosemide administration (7 d) on urine output, sodium and potassium ..
  6. Kunikata T, Yamane H, Segi E, Matsuoka T, Sugimoto Y, Tanaka S, et al. Suppression of allergic inflammation by the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:524-31 pubmed
    ..Here we show that such a pathway may be mediated by PGE(2) acting at the prostaglandin E receptor EP3. Mice lacking EP3 developed allergic inflammation that was much more pronounced than that in wild-type mice or mice ..
  7. Seno H, Oshima M, Ishikawa T, Oshima H, Takaku K, Chiba T, et al. Cyclooxygenase 2- and prostaglandin E(2) receptor EP(2)-dependent angiogenesis in Apc(Delta716) mouse intestinal polyps. Cancer Res. 2002;62:506-11 pubmed
  8. Nataraj C, Thomas D, Tilley S, Nguyen M, Mannon R, Koller B, et al. Receptors for prostaglandin E(2) that regulate cellular immune responses in the mouse. J Clin Invest. 2001;108:1229-35 pubmed
    ..The absence of either the EP1 or EP3 receptors did not alter the inhibitory response to PGE(2) in the MLR...
  9. Watanabe K, Kawamori T, Nakatsugi S, Ohta T, Ohuchida S, Yamamoto H, et al. Role of the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP1 in colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 1999;59:5093-6 pubmed
    ..lesions of the colon, in two lines of knockout mice, each deficient in prostaglandin E receptors, EP1 and EP3, by treatment with the colon carcinogen, azoxymethane...
  10. Narumiya S, Sugimoto Y, Ushikubi F. Prostanoid receptors: structures, properties, and functions. Physiol Rev. 1999;79:1193-226 pubmed
    ..In this article, we summarize these findings and attempt to give an overview of the current status of research on the prostanoid receptors...
  11. McCoy J, Wicks J, Audoly L. The role of prostaglandin E2 receptors in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:651-8 pubmed
    ..Homozygous deletion of the EP1, EP2, or EP3 receptors did not affect the development of arthritis, whereas EP4 receptor-deficient mice showed decreased ..
  12. Shoji Y, Takahashi M, Kitamura T, Watanabe K, Kawamori T, Maruyama T, et al. Downregulation of prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3 during colon cancer development. Gut. 2004;53:1151-8 pubmed
    ..Hypermethylation of the EP(3) receptor gene could occur and may contribute towards downregulating EP(3) expression to some extent in colon cancers. ..
  13. Namba T, Sugimoto Y, Negishi M, Irie A, Ushikubi F, Kakizuka A, et al. Alternative splicing of C-terminal tail of prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3 determines G-protein specificity. Nature. 1993;365:166-70 pubmed
    ..have been characterized pharmacologically and the complementary DNAs for thromboxane A2 receptor and the EP3 subtype of the prostaglandin (PG)E receptor reveal that they belong to the seven-transmembrane-domain receptor ..
  14. Macias Perez I, Zent R, Carmosino M, Breyer M, Breyer R, Pozzi A. Mouse EP3 alpha, beta, and gamma receptor variants reduce tumor cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:12538-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the four E-prostanoid (EP) receptors, EP3 is unique in that it exists as alternatively spliced variants, characterized by differences in the cytoplasmic C-..
  15. Kabashima K, Saji T, Murata T, Nagamachi M, Matsuoka T, Segi E, et al. The prostaglandin receptor EP4 suppresses colitis, mucosal damage and CD4 cell activation in the gut. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:883-93 pubmed
    ..the prostanoid receptor-deficient mice, only EP4-deficient mice and not mice deficient in either DP, EP1, EP2, EP3, FP, IP, or TP developed severe colitis with 3% DSS treatment, which induced only marginal colitis in wild-type ..
  16. Ushikubi F, Segi E, Sugimoto Y, Murata T, Matsuoka T, Kobayashi T, et al. Impaired febrile response in mice lacking the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3. Nature. 1998;395:281-4 pubmed
    ..PGE2 acts by interacting with four subtypes of PGE receptor, the EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptors. Here we generate mice lacking each of these receptors by homologous recombination...
  17. Fleming E, Athirakul K, Oliverio M, Key M, Goulet J, Koller B, et al. Urinary concentrating function in mice lacking EP3 receptors for prostaglandin E2. Am J Physiol. 1998;275:F955-61 pubmed
    ..To study the functions of one of these subtypes, the EP3 receptor, we generated EP3-deficient (-/-) mice by gene targeting...
  18. Irie A, Segi E, Sugimoto Y, Ichikawa A, Negishi M. Mouse prostaglandin E receptor EP3 subtype mediates calcium signals via Gi in cDNA-transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994;204:303-9 pubmed
    We recently cloned the mouse prostaglandin (PG) E receptor EP3 subtype that is coupled to adenylate cyclase inhibition through Gi and identified three isoforms which are produced through alternative splicing...
  19. Soontrapa K, Honda T, Sakata D, Yao C, Hirata T, Hori S, et al. Prostaglandin E2-prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4) signaling mediates UV irradiation-induced systemic immunosuppression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6668-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2))-EP4 signaling mediates UV-induced immunosuppression by elevating the number of Treg cells through regulation of RANKL expression in the epidermis. ..
  20. Tsuchiya H, Oka T, Nakamura K, Ichikawa A, Saper C, Sugimoto Y. Prostaglandin E2 attenuates preoptic expression of GABAA receptors via EP3 receptors. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11064-71 pubmed publisher
    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) has been shown to produce fever by acting on EP3 receptors within the preoptic area of the brain...
  21. Sakanaka M, Tanaka S, Sugimoto Y, Ichikawa A. Essential role of EP3 subtype in prostaglandin E2-induced adhesion of mouse cultured and peritoneal mast cells to the Arg-Gly-Asp-enriched matrix. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C1427-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Adhesion and Ca(2+) mobilization induced by PGE(2) were abolished in the Ptger3(-/-) BMMCs and were significantly suppressed by treatment with pertussis toxin, a phospholipase C inhibitor, U-..
  22. Morimoto K, Shirata N, Taketomi Y, Tsuchiya S, Segi Nishida E, Inazumi T, et al. Prostaglandin E2-EP3 signaling induces inflammatory swelling by mast cell activation. J Immunol. 2014;192:1130-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Arachidonate- or PGE2-induced vascular permeability was significantly reduced in EP3-deficient mice...
  23. Singh P, Hoggatt J, Hu P, Speth J, Fukuda S, Breyer R, et al. Blockade of prostaglandin E2 signaling through EP1 and EP3 receptors attenuates Flt3L-dependent dendritic cell development from hematopoietic progenitor cells. Blood. 2012;119:1671-82 pubmed publisher
    ..PGE(2) regulation of DC generation is specifically mediated through the EP1 and EP3 G protein PGE(2) receptors...
  24. Vasilache A, Andersson J, Nilsberth C. Expression of PGE2 EP3 receptor subtypes in the mouse preoptic region. Neurosci Lett. 2007;423:179-83 pubmed
    ..Considering that EP(3alpha) and EP(3gamma) are associated with inhibitory and stimulatory G-proteins, respectively, the present data demonstrate that the PGE(2) response of the target neurons is intricately regulated. ..
  25. Hoggatt J, Mohammad K, Singh P, Hoggatt A, Chitteti B, Speth J, et al. Differential stem- and progenitor-cell trafficking by prostaglandin E2. Nature. 2013;495:365-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results not only uncover unique regulatory roles for EP4 signalling in HSC retention in the niche, but also define a rapidly translatable strategy to enhance transplantation therapeutically. ..
  26. Kabashima K, Nagamachi M, Honda T, Nishigori C, Miyachi Y, Tokura Y, et al. Prostaglandin E2 is required for ultraviolet B-induced skin inflammation via EP2 and EP4 receptors. Lab Invest. 2007;87:49-55 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that PGE(2)-EP2/EP4 signaling is mandatory in UV-induced acute skin inflammation, presumably by enhancing blood flow in the microenvironment. ..
  27. Lim H, Dey S. Prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP2 gene expression in the mouse uterus coincides with differentiation of the luminal epithelium for implantation. Endocrinology. 1997;138:4599-606 pubmed
    ..Four major PGE2 receptor subtypes, EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4, mediate various PGE2 effects via their coupling to distinct signaling pathways...
  28. Taketo M, Rochelle J, Sugimoto Y, Namba T, Honda A, Negishi M, et al. Mapping of the genes encoding mouse thromboxane A2 receptor and prostaglandin E receptor subtypes EP2 and EP3. Genomics. 1994;19:585-8 pubmed
    ..We have mapped genetic loci for TXA2 receptor, Tbxa2r, and for PGE2 receptor subtypes EP2 and EP3, Ptgerep2 and Ptgerep3, respectively, using restriction fragment length variants in interspecific backcross mice...
  29. Vennemann A, Gerstner A, Kern N, Ferreiros Bouzas N, Narumiya S, Maruyama T, et al. PTGS-2-PTGER2/4 signaling pathway partially protects from diabetogenic toxicity of streptozotocin in mice. Diabetes. 2012;61:1879-87 pubmed publisher
    ..STZ metabolism was unaffected by PTGS deficiency. Diabetogenicity of STZ in PTGER1(-/-), PTGER2(-/-), PTGER3(-/-), and PTGER4(-/-) mice was comparable to control mice...
  30. Kimple M, Keller M, Rabaglia M, Pasker R, Neuman J, Truchan N, et al. Prostaglandin E2 receptor, EP3, is induced in diabetic islets and negatively regulates glucose- and hormone-stimulated insulin secretion. Diabetes. 2013;62:1904-12 pubmed publisher
    ..BTBR islet gene expression patterns, we observed that Pgter3, the gene for the prostaglandin E receptor 3 (EP3), was upregulated with diabetes...
  31. Chen D, Tang J, Wan Q, Zhang J, Wang K, Shen Y, et al. E-Prostanoid 3 Receptor Mediates Sprouting Angiogenesis Through Suppression of the Protein Kinase A/?-Catenin/Notch Pathway. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:856-866 pubmed publisher
    ..Prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype 3 (EP3) plays an important role in pathophysiologic angiogenesis; however, the precise mechanisms remain unknown...
  32. Fujino T, Nakagawa N, Yuhki K, Hara A, Yamada T, Takayama K, et al. Decreased susceptibility to renovascular hypertension in mice lacking the prostaglandin I2 receptor IP. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:805-12 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PGI2 derived from COX-2 plays a critical role in regulating the release of renin and consequently renovascular hypertension in vivo. ..
  33. Li P, Zhao Y, Ge L. Therapeutic effects of human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stromal cells on murine contact hypersensitivity via prostaglandin E2-EP3 signaling. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2016;7:103 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, GMSC administration promoted the expression of EP3, a prostaglandin E receptor, and the application of sulprostone, an agonist of EP3, significantly attenuated CHS to ..
  34. Sung Y, He G, Fischer S. Lack of expression of the EP2 but not EP3 receptor for prostaglandin E2 results in suppression of skin tumor development. Cancer Res. 2005;65:9304-11 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the EP2 receptor in mouse skin carcinogenesis. Unlike EP3 knockout mice, the EP2 knockout mice produced significantly fewer tumors and reduced tumor incidence compared with ..
  35. Adam M, Boie Y, Rushmore T, Muller G, Bastien L, McKee K, et al. Cloning and expression of three isoforms of the human EP3 prostanoid receptor. FEBS Lett. 1994;338:170-4 pubmed
    Functional cDNA clones coding for three isoforms of the human prostaglandin E receptor EP3 subtype have been isolated from kidney and uterus cDNA libraries...
  36. Leclerc J, Lampert A, Diller M, Doré S. Genetic deletion of the prostaglandin E2 E prostanoid receptor subtype 3 improves anatomical and functional outcomes after intracerebral hemorrhage. Eur J Neurosci. 2015;41:1381-91 pubmed publisher
    ..EP receptor subtype 3 (EP3) is the most abundant EP receptor in the brain and we have previously shown that signaling through the PGE2 -EP3 ..
  37. Chen L, Miao Y, Zhang Y, Dou D, Liu L, Tian X, et al. Inactivation of the E-prostanoid 3 receptor attenuates the angiotensin II pressor response via decreasing arterial contractility. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:3024-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice bearing a genetic disruption of the EP3 gene (EP(3)(-/-)) exhibited reduced baseline mean arterial pressure monitored by both tail-cuff and carotid ..
  38. Yang Z, Das S, Wang J, Sugimoto Y, Ichikawa A, Dey S. Potential sites of prostaglandin actions in the periimplantation mouse uterus: differential expression and regulation of prostaglandin receptor genes. Biol Reprod. 1997;56:368-79 pubmed
    ..PGE2 receptors are classified into four subtypes, EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4...
  39. Forsberg D, Horn Z, Tserga E, Smedler E, Silberberg G, Shvarev Y, et al. CO2-evoked release of PGE2 modulates sighs and inspiration as demonstrated in brainstem organotypic culture. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies a novel pathway linking the inflammatory and respiratory systems, with implications for inspiration and sighs throughout life, and the ability to autoresuscitate when breathing fails. ..
  40. Irie A, Sugimoto Y, Namba T, Asano T, Ichikawa A, Negishi M. The C-terminus of the prostaglandin-E-receptor EP3 subtype is essential for activation of GTP-binding protein. Eur J Biochem. 1994;224:161-6 pubmed
    Three isoforms of the mouse prostaglandin-E-receptor EP3 subtype (EP3), EP3 alpha, EP3 beta and EP3 gamma, with different C-termini, which are produced through alternative splicing, showed different efficiencies with respect to ..
  41. Tanaka K, Furuyashiki T, Kitaoka S, Senzai Y, Imoto Y, Segi Nishida E, et al. Prostaglandin E2-mediated attenuation of mesocortical dopaminergic pathway is critical for susceptibility to repeated social defeat stress in mice. J Neurosci. 2012;32:4319-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that PGE(2)-EP1 signaling is critical for susceptibility to repeated social defeat stress in mice through attenuation of mesocortical dopaminergic pathway. ..
  42. Ogawa Y, Suzuki T, Oikawa A, Hosono K, Kubo H, Amano H, et al. Bone marrow-derived EP3-expressing stromal cells enhance tumor-associated angiogenesis and tumor growth. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;382:720-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the role of BM-derived cells expressing an E-type prostaglandin receptor subtype (EP3) in tumor-induced angiogenesis and tumor growth...
  43. Ueta M, Matsuoka T, Narumiya S, Kinoshita S. Prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3 in conjunctival epithelium regulates late-phase reaction of experimental allergic conjunctivitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123:466-71 pubmed publisher
    We previously demonstrated that the prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2))-EP3 pathway negatively regulates allergic reactions in a murine allergic asthma model.
  44. Morimoto K, Sugimoto Y, Katsuyama M, Oida H, Tsuboi K, Kishi K, et al. Cellular localization of mRNAs for prostaglandin E receptor subtypes in mouse gastrointestinal tract. Am J Physiol. 1997;272:G681-7 pubmed
    ..Intense signals for EP3 transcripts were detected in neurons of the myenteric ganglia throughout the tract...
  45. Takeuchi K, Ukawa H, Kato S, Furukawa O, Araki H, Sugimoto Y, et al. Impaired duodenal bicarbonate secretion and mucosal integrity in mice lacking prostaglandin E-receptor subtype EP(3). Gastroenterology. 1999;117:1128-35 pubmed
    ..The presence of EP(3)-receptors is essential for maintaining duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion and mucosal integrity against luminal acid. ..
  46. Leclerc J, Lampert A, Diller M, DORE S. PGE2-EP3 signaling exacerbates intracerebral hemorrhage outcomes in 24-mo-old mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016;310:H1725-34 pubmed publisher
    ..b>EP3 is the most abundant EP receptor in the brain and we have previously shown that signaling through the PGE2-EP3 axis ..
  47. Matsuoka T, Narumiya S. Prostaglandin receptor signaling in disease. ScientificWorldJournal. 2007;7:1329-47 pubmed
    ..They are the PGD receptor (DP), four subtypes of the PGE receptor (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4), the PGF receptor (FP), PGI receptor (IP), and TXA receptor (TP)...
  48. Gross S, Tilly P, Hentsch D, Vonesch J, Fabre J. Vascular wall-produced prostaglandin E2 exacerbates arterial thrombosis and atherothrombosis through platelet EP3 receptors. J Exp Med. 2007;204:311-20 pubmed
    ..This results from activation of EP3, one of the four PGE2 receptors, which decreases the threshold at which agonists activate platelets to aggregate...
  49. Zhang J, Zou F, Tang J, Zhang Q, Gong Y, Wang Q, et al. Cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostaglandin E? promotes injury-induced vascular neointimal hyperplasia through the E-prostanoid 3 receptor. Circ Res. 2013;113:104-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Through multiple approaches, the EP3 receptor was identified to mediate the VSMC migration response to various stimuli...
  50. Taniguchi S, Watanabe T, Nakao A, Seki G, Uwatoko S, Kurokawa K. Detection and quantitation of EP3 prostaglandin E2 receptor mRNA along mouse nephron segments by RT-PCR. Am J Physiol. 1994;266:C1453-8 pubmed
    mRNA of the EP3 prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor was detected and quantitated in microdissected mouse nephron segments by a modified protocol of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
  51. Hao S, Hernández A, Quiroz Munoz M, Cespedes C, Vio C, Ferreri N. PGE(2) EP(3) receptor downregulates COX-2 expression in the medullary thick ascending limb induced by hypertonic NaCl. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014;307:F736-46 pubmed publisher
    We tested the hypothesis that inhibition of EP3 receptors enhances cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in the thick ascending limb (TAL) induced by hypertonic stimuli...
  52. Ceddia R, Lee D, Maulis M, Carboneau B, Threadgill D, Poffenberger G, et al. The PGE2 EP3 Receptor Regulates Diet-Induced Adiposity in Male Mice. Endocrinology. 2016;157:220-32 pubmed publisher
    Mice carrying a targeted disruption of the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) E-prostanoid receptor 3 (EP3) gene, Ptger3, were fed a high-fat diet (HFD), or a micronutrient matched control diet, to investigate the effects of disrupted PGE2-EP3 ..
  53. Ma X, Aoki T, Tsuruyama T, Narumiya S. Definition of Prostaglandin E2-EP2 Signals in the Colon Tumor Microenvironment That Amplify Inflammation and Tumor Growth. Cancer Res. 2015;75:2822-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Deficiency of PGE receptor subtype EP2 selectively reduced, and deficiency of EP1 and EP3 enhanced, the tumor formation...
  54. Ueta M, Mizushima K, Naito Y, Narumiya S, Shinomiya K, Kinoshita S. Suppression of polyI:C-inducible gene expression by EP3 in murine conjunctival epithelium. Immunol Lett. 2014;159:73-5 pubmed publisher
  55. Sugimoto Y, Shigemoto R, Namba T, Negishi M, Mizuno N, Narumiya S, et al. Distribution of the messenger RNA for the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3 in the mouse nervous system. Neuroscience. 1994;62:919-28 pubmed
    Distribution of the messenger RNA for the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3 was investigated by in situ hybridization in the nervous system of the mouse...
  56. Saleem S, Kim Y, Maruyama T, Narumiya S, DORE S. Reduced acute brain injury in PGE2 EP3 receptor-deficient mice after cerebral ischemia. J Neuroimmunol. 2009;208:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we address the contribution of the EP3 receptor in dictating early outcomes after transient cerebral ischemia...
  57. Meyer Kirchrath J, Martin M, Schooss C, Jacoby C, Flogel U, Marzoll A, et al. Overexpression of prostaglandin EP3 receptors activates calcineurin and promotes hypertrophy in the murine heart. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;81:310-8 pubmed publisher
  58. Hofstetter A, Saha S, Siljehav V, Jakobsson P, Herlenius E. The induced prostaglandin E2 pathway is a key regulator of the respiratory response to infection and hypoxia in neonates. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:9894-9 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking the EP3 receptor (EP3R) for PGE(2) exhibited fewer apneas and sustained brainstem respiratory activity, demonstrating that ..
  59. Ota T, Aihara M, Saeki T, Narumiya S, Araie M. The effects of prostaglandin analogues on prostanoid EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptor-deficient mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:3395-9 pubmed
    ..The diurnal IOP variation was measured by a microneedle method in EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptor-deficient mice (EP1KO, EP2KO and EP3KO) and in their wild-type (WT) background strain...
  60. Schweda F, Klar J, Narumiya S, Nusing R, Kurtz A. Stimulation of renin release by prostaglandin E2 is mediated by EP2 and EP4 receptors in mouse kidneys. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004;287:F427-33 pubmed
    ..In contrast, all four receptor subtypes are involved in the control of renal vascular tone, EP(1) and EP(3) receptors increasing, and EP(2) as well as EP(4) receptors, decreasing it. ..
  61. Takayama K, Yuhki K, Ono K, Fujino T, Hara A, Yamada T, et al. Thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin F2alpha mediate inflammatory tachycardia. Nat Med. 2005;11:562-6 pubmed
    ..Our results show that inflammatory tachycardia is caused by a direct action on the heart of TXA(2) and PGF(2alpha) formed under systemic inflammatory conditions. ..
  62. Mutoh M, Watanabe K, Kitamura T, Shoji Y, Takahashi M, Kawamori T, et al. Involvement of prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP(4) in colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2002;62:28-32 pubmed
  63. Nguyen M, Solle M, Audoly L, Tilley S, Stock J, McNeish J, et al. Receptors and signaling mechanisms required for prostaglandin E2-mediated regulation of mast cell degranulation and IL-6 production. J Immunol. 2002;169:4586-93 pubmed
    ..Accordingly, these studies identify PGE(2)/EP(3) as a proinflammatory signaling pathway that promotes mast cell activation. ..
  64. Hatae N, Kita A, Tanaka S, Sugimoto Y, Ichikawa A. Induction of adherent activity in mastocytoma P-815 cells by the cooperation of two prostaglandin E2 receptor subtypes, EP3 and EP4. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:17977-81 pubmed
    ..Consistent with mRNA expression of the G(s)-coupled EP4- and G(i)-coupled EP3-PGE receptor subtypes, P-815 cell adhesion was accelerated by treatment with a selective EP4 agonist, ONO-AE1-329, ..
  65. Sugimoto Y, Nakato T, Kita A, Takahashi Y, Hatae N, Tabata H, et al. A cluster of aromatic amino acids in the i2 loop plays a key role for Gs coupling in prostaglandin EP2 and EP3 receptors. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:11016-26 pubmed
    ..Wild type EP3beta left cAMP levels unaffected, whereas i2 loop- and i2N-substituted EP3 gained agonist-induced adenylyl cyclase stimulation...
  66. Reinold H, Ahmadi S, Depner U, Layh B, Heindl C, Hamza M, et al. Spinal inflammatory hyperalgesia is mediated by prostaglandin E receptors of the EP2 subtype. J Clin Invest. 2005;115:673-9 pubmed
    ..Our results thus demonstrate that inflammatory hyperalgesia can be treated by targeting of a single PG receptor subtype and provide a rational basis for new analgesic strategies going beyond COX inhibition. ..
  67. Ogawa F, Amano H, Eshima K, Ito Y, Matsui Y, Hosono K, et al. Prostanoid induces premetastatic niche in regional lymph nodes. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:4882-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, LNM was reduced in mice lacking the PGE2 receptor EP3, and stimulation of cultured DCs with an EP3 agonist increased SDF-1 production...
  68. Downey J, Sanders C, Breyer R. Evidence for the presence of a critical disulfide bond in the mouse EP3? receptor. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2011;94:53-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and function and is consistent with the presence of a conserved disulfide bond between C107 and C184 in mouse EP3 that is required for normal receptor expression and function...
  69. Hara A, Yuhki K, Fujino T, Yamada T, Takayama K, Kuriyama S, et al. Augmented cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload in mice lacking the prostaglandin I2 receptor. Circulation. 2005;112:84-92 pubmed
    ..Both effects have been suggested as originating from the action on noncardiomyocytes rather than cardiomyocytes. ..
  70. Honda T, Segi Nishida E, Miyachi Y, Narumiya S. Prostacyclin-IP signaling and prostaglandin E2-EP2/EP4 signaling both mediate joint inflammation in mouse collagen-induced arthritis. J Exp Med. 2006;203:325-35 pubmed
    ..Our results show significant roles of both PGI2-IP and PGE2-EP2/EP4 signaling in the development of CIA, and suggest that inhibition of PGE2 synthesis alone may not be sufficient for suppression of RA symptoms. ..
  71. McCafferty G, Misajet B, Laping N, Edwards R, Thorneloe K. Enhanced bladder capacity and reduced prostaglandin E2-mediated bladder hyperactivity in EP3 receptor knockout mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F507-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore investigated a potential role for the PGE2 receptor, EP3, in urinary bladder function by performing conscious, freely moving cystometry on EP3 receptor knockout (KO) mice...
  72. Narumiya S. Prostanoids and inflammation: a new concept arising from receptor knockout mice. J Mol Med (Berl). 2009;87:1015-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a new concept on the role of prostanoids in inflammation has arisen from studies using the receptor knockout mice. ..