Gene Symbol: Ptger2
Description: prostaglandin E receptor 2 (subtype EP2)
Alias: EP2, Ptgerep2, prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 subtype, EP2 receptor, PGE receptor EP2 subtype, PGE2 receptor EP2 subtype, prostaglandin E receptor 2 (EP2 subtype), prostaglandin E receptor EP2 subtype, prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP2, prostanoid EP2 receptor
Species: mouse
Products:     Ptger2

Top Publications

  1. Boniface K, Bak Jensen K, Li Y, Blumenschein W, McGeachy M, McClanahan T, et al. Prostaglandin E2 regulates Th17 cell differentiation and function through cyclic AMP and EP2/EP4 receptor signaling. J Exp Med. 2009;206:535-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In human purified naive T cells, PGE2 acts via prostaglandin receptor EP2- and EP4-mediated signaling and cyclic AMP pathways to up-regulate IL-23 and IL-1 receptor expression...
  2. Subbaramaiah K, Hudis C, Chang S, Hla T, Dannenberg A. EP2 and EP4 receptors regulate aromatase expression in human adipocytes and breast cancer cells. Evidence of a BRCA1 and p300 exchange. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3433-44 pubmed
    ..Reciprocal changes in the interaction between BRCA1, p300, and the aromatase promoter I.3/II contributed to the inductive effects of PGE(2). ..
  3. Chen J, Zhao M, He W, Milne G, Howard J, Morrow J, et al. Increased dietary NaCl induces renal medullary PGE2 production and natriuresis via the EP2 receptor. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2008;295:F818-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Renal medullary PGE(2) promotes renal sodium excretion via the EP2 receptor, thereby maintaining normotension in the setting of high salt intake.
  4. Li X, Okada Y, Pilbeam C, Lorenzo J, Kennedy C, Breyer R, et al. Knockout of the murine prostaglandin EP2 receptor impairs osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Endocrinology. 2000;141:2054-61 pubmed
    ..We used cells from mice in which the EP2 receptor had been disrupted to test its role in the formation of TRAP + MNC...
  5. Huang S, White E, Wettlaufer S, Grifka H, Hogaboam C, Thannickal V, et al. Prostaglandin E(2) induces fibroblast apoptosis by modulating multiple survival pathways. FASEB J. 2009;23:4317-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These proapoptotic actions were dependent on signaling through the EP2/EP4 receptors and by downstream activation of both caspases 8 and 9...
  6. Jiang J, Quan Y, Ganesh T, Pouliot W, Dudek F, Dingledine R. Inhibition of the prostaglandin receptor EP2 following status epilepticus reduces delayed mortality and brain inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:3591-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the prostaglandin receptor EP2 is critically involved in neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration, and point to EP2 receptor antagonism as an adjunctive therapeutic strategy to treat SE.
  7. Frölich S, Olliges A, Kern N, Schreiber Y, Narumiya S, Nusing R. Temporal expression of the PGE2 synthetic system in the kidney is associated with the time frame of renal developmental vulnerability to cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;303:F209-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Studying glomerulogenesis in EP receptor knockout mice revealed a reduction in glomerular size in EP1(-/-), EP2(-/-), and EP4(-/-) mice, supporting the developmental role of PGE(2)...
  8. Shie F, Montine K, Breyer R, Montine T. Microglial EP2 is critical to neurotoxicity from activated cerebral innate immunity. Glia. 2005;52:70-7 pubmed
    ..We showed previously that EP2 null mice are protected from CD14-dependent neuronal damage in vivo following intracerebroventricular (ICV) ..
  9. McCoy J, Wicks J, Audoly L. The role of prostaglandin E2 receptors in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:651-8 pubmed
    ..Homozygous deletion of the EP1, EP2, or EP3 receptors did not affect the development of arthritis, whereas EP4 receptor-deficient mice showed decreased ..

More Information


  1. Kabashima K, Saji T, Murata T, Nagamachi M, Matsuoka T, Segi E, et al. The prostaglandin receptor EP4 suppresses colitis, mucosal damage and CD4 cell activation in the gut. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:883-93 pubmed
    ..Among the prostanoid receptor-deficient mice, only EP4-deficient mice and not mice deficient in either DP, EP1, EP2, EP3, FP, IP, or TP developed severe colitis with 3% DSS treatment, which induced only marginal colitis in wild-..
  2. Liang X, Wang Q, Shi J, Lokteva L, Breyer R, Montine T, et al. The prostaglandin E2 EP2 receptor accelerates disease progression and inflammation in a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Ann Neurol. 2008;64:304-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies demonstrate that the prostaglandin E(2) EP2 receptor is a major regulator of inflammatory oxidative injury in innate immunity...
  3. Hizaki H, Segi E, Sugimoto Y, Hirose M, Saji T, Ushikubi F, et al. Abortive expansion of the cumulus and impaired fertility in mice lacking the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP(2). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:10501-6 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PGE(2) cooperates with gonadotropin to complete cumulus expansion for successful fertilization. ..
  4. Savonenko A, Munoz P, Melnikova T, Wang Q, Liang X, Breyer R, et al. Impaired cognition, sensorimotor gating, and hippocampal long-term depression in mice lacking the prostaglandin E2 EP2 receptor. Exp Neurol. 2009;217:63-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies demonstrate an emerging role for the downstream PGE(2) EP2 receptor in diverse models of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and a significant function in models of ..
  5. Ushikubi F, Segi E, Sugimoto Y, Murata T, Matsuoka T, Kobayashi T, et al. Impaired febrile response in mice lacking the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3. Nature. 1998;395:281-4 pubmed
    ..PGE2 acts by interacting with four subtypes of PGE receptor, the EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptors. Here we generate mice lacking each of these receptors by homologous recombination...
  6. Medeiros A, Serezani C, Lee S, Peters Golden M. Efferocytosis impairs pulmonary macrophage and lung antibacterial function via PGE2/EP2 signaling. J Exp Med. 2009;206:61-8 pubmed publisher
    ..killing by alveolar macrophages and that this is mediated by a cyclooxygenase-PGE(2)-E prostanoid receptor 2 (EP2)-adenylyl cyclase-cyclic AMP pathway...
  7. Nguyen M, Pace A, Koller B. Age-induced reprogramming of mast cell degranulation. J Immunol. 2005;175:5701-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, elevated PGE2 levels might provide an important pathway by which mast cells are engaged to participate in inflammatory responses in the elderly patient. ..
  8. Kabashima K, Nagamachi M, Honda T, Nishigori C, Miyachi Y, Tokura Y, et al. Prostaglandin E2 is required for ultraviolet B-induced skin inflammation via EP2 and EP4 receptors. Lab Invest. 2007;87:49-55 pubmed
    ..The UV-induced ear swelling at 48 h after exposure was significantly reduced in EP2(-/-), EP4(-/-) or wild-type mice treated with the EP4 antagonist compared to control mice...
  9. Akhter M, Cullen D, Gong G, Recker R. Bone biomechanical properties in prostaglandin EP1 and EP2 knockout mice. Bone. 2001;29:121-5 pubmed
    ..The PGE2 influence on bone is mediated through four well-characterized receptors (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4)...
  10. Narumiya S, Sugimoto Y, Ushikubi F. Prostanoid receptors: structures, properties, and functions. Physiol Rev. 1999;79:1193-226 pubmed
    ..In this article, we summarize these findings and attempt to give an overview of the current status of research on the prostanoid receptors...
  11. Tilley S, Audoly L, Hicks E, Kim H, Flannery P, Coffman T, et al. Reproductive failure and reduced blood pressure in mice lacking the EP2 prostaglandin E2 receptor. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:1539-45 pubmed
    ..Using mice deficient in 1 of 4 prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptors -- specifically, the EP2 receptor -- we show that Ep2(-/-) females are infertile secondary to failure of the released ovum to become fertilized ..
  12. Liang X, Wang Q, Hand T, Wu L, Breyer R, Montine T, et al. Deletion of the prostaglandin E2 EP2 receptor reduces oxidative damage and amyloid burden in a model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurosci. 2005;25:10180-7 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that deletion of the PGE2 EP2 receptor in the APPSwe-PS1DeltaE9 model of familial AD results in marked reductions in lipid peroxidation in aging mice...
  13. Sadikot R, Zeng H, Azim A, Joo M, Dey S, Breyer R, et al. Bacterial clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is enhanced by the inhibition of COX-2. Eur J Immunol. 2007;37:1001-9 pubmed
    ..Furthermore there was enhanced bacterial clearance in EP2 receptor(-/-) mice compared to the wild-type controls...
  14. McCullough L, Wu L, Haughey N, Liang X, Hand T, Wang Q, et al. Neuroprotective function of the PGE2 EP2 receptor in cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci. 2004;24:257-68 pubmed
    ..The EP2 receptor subtype is abundantly expressed in cerebral cortex, striatum, and hippocampus, and is positively coupled to ..
  15. Zaslona Z, Serezani C, Okunishi K, Aronoff D, Peters Golden M. Prostaglandin E2 restrains macrophage maturation via E prostanoid receptor 2/protein kinase A signaling. Blood. 2012;119:2358-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Macrophage maturation was studied in vitro in bone marrow cell cultures, and in vivo in a model of peritonitis. EP2 was the most abundant PGE(2) receptor expressed by bone marrow cells, and its expression further increased during ..
  16. Shie F, Breyer R, Montine T. Microglia lacking E Prostanoid Receptor subtype 2 have enhanced Abeta phagocytosis yet lack Abeta-activated neurotoxicity. Am J Pathol. 2005;166:1163-72 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that ablation of E prostanoid receptor subtype 2 (EP2) significantly increased microglial-mediated clearance of Abeta peptides from AD brain sections and enhanced ..
  17. Serezani C, Chung J, Ballinger M, Moore B, Aronoff D, Peters Golden M. Prostaglandin E2 suppresses bacterial killing in alveolar macrophages by inhibiting NADPH oxidase. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2007;37:562-70 pubmed
    ..was blocked by an adenylyl cyclase inhibitor and mimicked by agonists for the stimulatory G protein (G(s))-coupled EP2 and EP4 receptors...
  18. Kunikata T, Yamane H, Segi E, Matsuoka T, Sugimoto Y, Tanaka S, et al. Suppression of allergic inflammation by the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:524-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, the PGE(2)-EP3 pathway is an important negative modulator of allergic reactions. ..
  19. Kobayashi Y, Take I, Yamashita T, Mizoguchi T, Ninomiya T, Hattori T, et al. Prostaglandin E2 receptors EP2 and EP4 are down-regulated during differentiation of mouse osteoclasts from their precursors. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24035-42 pubmed
    ..Bone marrow macrophage osteoclast precursors expressed PGE2 receptors EP1, EP2, EP3beta, and EP4, and the expression of EP2 and EP4 was down-regulated during osteoclastic differentiation induced ..
  20. Aronoff D, Peres C, Serezani C, Ballinger M, Carstens J, Coleman N, et al. Synthetic prostacyclin analogs differentially regulate macrophage function via distinct analog-receptor binding specificities. J Immunol. 2007;178:1628-34 pubmed
    ..indicated that this was due in part to the previously unknown ability of treprostinil to stimulate the EP2 receptor. The present investigation for the first time identifies differences in immunoregulatory properties of ..
  21. Hoggatt J, Mohammad K, Singh P, Hoggatt A, Chitteti B, Speth J, et al. Differential stem- and progenitor-cell trafficking by prostaglandin E2. Nature. 2013;495:365-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results not only uncover unique regulatory roles for EP4 signalling in HSC retention in the niche, but also define a rapidly translatable strategy to enhance transplantation therapeutically. ..
  22. Matsuoka Y, Furuyashiki T, Bito H, Ushikubi F, Tanaka Y, Kobayashi T, et al. Impaired adrenocorticotropic hormone response to bacterial endotoxin in mice deficient in prostaglandin E receptor EP1 and EP3 subtypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:4132-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that EP1- and EP3-mediated neuronal pathways converge at corticotropin-releasing hormone-containing neurons in the PVN to induce HPA axis activation upon sickness. ..
  23. Kennedy C, Zhang Y, Brandon S, Guan Y, Coffee K, Funk C, et al. Salt-sensitive hypertension and reduced fertility in mice lacking the prostaglandin EP2 receptor. Nat Med. 1999;5:217-20 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the physiologic role of the PGE2 EP2 receptor subtype, we created mice with targeted disruption of this gene (EP2-/-)...
  24. Sugimoto Y, Narumiya S. Prostaglandin E receptors. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:11613-7 pubmed
    ..There are four GPCRs responding to PGE(2) designated subtypes EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 and multiple splicing isoforms of the subtype EP3...
  25. Kabashima K, Sakata D, Nagamachi M, Miyachi Y, Inaba K, Narumiya S. Prostaglandin E2-EP4 signaling initiates skin immune responses by promoting migration and maturation of Langerhans cells. Nat Med. 2003;9:744-9 pubmed
    ..PGE2-EP4 signaling thus facilitates initiation of skin immune responses by promoting the migration and maturation of Langerhans cells. ..
  26. Yang H, Zhang J, Breyer R, Chen C. Altered hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity in mice deficient in the PGE2 EP2 receptor. J Neurochem. 2009;108:295-304 pubmed publisher
    ..previously that PGE2-induced modulation of hippocampal synaptic transmission is via a pre-synaptic PGE2 EP2 receptor. However, little is known about whether the EP2 receptor is involved in hippocampal long-term synaptic ..
  27. Németh K, Leelahavanichkul A, Yuen P, Mayer B, Parmelee A, Doi K, et al. Bone marrow stromal cells attenuate sepsis via prostaglandin E(2)-dependent reprogramming of host macrophages to increase their interleukin-10 production. Nat Med. 2009;15:42-9 pubmed publisher
    ..reprogram macrophages by releasing prostaglandin E(2) that acts on the macrophages through the prostaglandin EP2 and EP4 receptors...
  28. Timoshenko A, Lala P, Chakraborty C. PGE2-mediated upregulation of iNOS in murine breast cancer cells through the activation of EP4 receptors. Int J Cancer. 2004;108:384-9 pubmed
  29. Fuller J, Brady Wood S, Elias M. Effects of retinal degeneration and brain size upon spatial reversal learning in mice. Percept Mot Skills. 1973;36:947-50 pubmed
  30. Vennemann A, Gerstner A, Kern N, Ferreiros Bouzas N, Narumiya S, Maruyama T, et al. PTGS-2-PTGER2/4 signaling pathway partially protects from diabetogenic toxicity of streptozotocin in mice. Diabetes. 2012;61:1879-87 pubmed publisher
    ..STZ metabolism was unaffected by PTGS deficiency. Diabetogenicity of STZ in PTGER1(-/-), PTGER2(-/-), PTGER3(-/-), and PTGER4(-/-) mice was comparable to control mice...
  31. Hara A, Yuhki K, Fujino T, Yamada T, Takayama K, Kuriyama S, et al. Augmented cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload in mice lacking the prostaglandin I2 receptor. Circulation. 2005;112:84-92 pubmed
    ..Both effects have been suggested as originating from the action on noncardiomyocytes rather than cardiomyocytes. ..
  32. Zahner G, Schaper M, Panzer U, Kluger M, Stahl R, Thaiss F, et al. Prostaglandin EP2 and EP4 receptors modulate expression of the chemokine CCL2 (MCP-1) in response to LPS-induced renal glomerular inflammation. Biochem J. 2009;422:563-70 pubmed publisher
    ..occurs in cultured MCs (mesangial cells) and is more pronounced in MCs lacking the PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) receptor EP2 or in MCs treated with a prostaglandin EP4 receptor antagonist...
  33. Yang Y, Gomez J, Herrera M, Perez Marco R, Repenning P, Zhang Z, et al. Salt restriction leads to activation of adult renal mesenchymal stromal cell-like cells via prostaglandin E2 and E-prostanoid receptor 4. Hypertension. 2015;65:1047-54 pubmed publisher
  34. Kamiyama M, Pozzi A, Yang L, DeBusk L, Breyer R, Lin P. EP2, a receptor for PGE2, regulates tumor angiogenesis through direct effects on endothelial cell motility and survival. Oncogene. 2006;25:7019-28 pubmed
    ..We found that deletion of the EP2 receptor impaired tumor angiogenesis and this finding was confirmed by an in vivo corneal angiogenesis model and an ex ..
  35. Morimoto K, Shirata N, Taketomi Y, Tsuchiya S, Segi Nishida E, Inazumi T, et al. Prostaglandin E2-EP3 signaling induces inflammatory swelling by mast cell activation. J Immunol. 2014;192:1130-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that PGE2 triggers mast cell activation via an EP3-Gi/o-Ca(2+) influx/PI3K pathway, and this mechanism underlies PGE2-induced vascular permeability and consequent edema formation. ..
  36. Xu X, Reichner J, Mastrofrancesco B, Henry W, Albina J. Prostaglandin E2 suppresses lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IFN-beta production. J Immunol. 2008;180:2125-31 pubmed
    ..Collectively, data demonstrate that PGE(2) is a negative regulator for IFN-beta production in activated macrophages and during endotoxemia. ..
  37. Breyer R, Kennedy C, Zhang Y, Guan Y, Breyer M. Targeted gene disruption of the prostaglandin E2 EP2 receptor. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002;507:321-6 pubmed
  38. Ansari K, Sung Y, He G, Fischer S. Prostaglandin receptor EP2 is responsible for cyclooxygenase-2 induction by prostaglandin E2 in mouse skin. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28:2063-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, EP2 activation of the PKA/CREB-signaling pathway is responsible for keratinocyte proliferation and our findings reveal a positive feedback loop between COX-2 and PGE2 that is mediated by the EP2 receptor.
  39. Choudhary S, Blackwell K, Voznesensky O, Deb Roy A, Pilbeam C. Prostaglandin E2 acts via bone marrow macrophages to block PTH-stimulated osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Bone. 2013;56:31-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This suppression of OB differentiation could contribute to the bone loss seen with continuous PTH in vivo...
  40. Johansson J, Pradhan S, Lokteva L, Woodling N, Ko N, Brown H, et al. Suppression of inflammation with conditional deletion of the prostaglandin E2 EP2 receptor in macrophages and brain microglia. J Neurosci. 2013;33:16016-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Conditional deletion of the EP2 receptor in myeloid lineage cells in Cd11bCre;EP2(lox/lox) mice attenuated plasma inflammatory responses and ..
  41. Tsuchiya S, Tanaka S, Sugimoto Y, Katsuyama M, Ikegami R, Ichikawa A. Identification and characterization of a novel progesterone receptor-binding element in the mouse prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP2 gene. Genes Cells. 2003;8:747-58 pubmed
    Gene expression of prostaglandin E receptor EP2 is induced in the luminal epithelium of the mouse uterus during peri-implantation period (day-5 of pseudopregnancy), suggesting the involvement of progesterone and its receptor (PR) in this ..
  42. Sugimoto Y, Inazumi T, Tsuchiya S. Roles of prostaglandin receptors in female reproduction. J Biochem. 2015;157:73-80 pubmed publisher
    ..A series of studies using EP2-deficient mice demonstrated that after ovulation chemokine signalling in the cumulus cells stimulates integrin ..
  43. Holt D, Ma X, Kundu N, Collin P, Fulton A. Modulation of host natural killer cell functions in breast cancer via prostaglandin E2 receptors EP2 and EP4. J Immunother. 2012;35:179-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of PGE2 to inhibit NK cells from tumor-bearing mice is by acting on EP2 and EP4 receptors...
  44. Facemire C, Nguyen M, Jania L, Beierwaltes W, Kim H, Koller B, et al. A major role for the EP4 receptor in regulation of renin. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;301:F1035-41 pubmed publisher
    ..disruption of several key genes: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal PGE synthases 1 and 2 (mPGES1, mPGES2), EP2 and EP4 receptors for PGE(2), and the IP receptor for PGI(2)...
  45. Soontrapa K, Honda T, Sakata D, Yao C, Hirata T, Hori S, et al. Prostaglandin E2-prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4) signaling mediates UV irradiation-induced systemic immunosuppression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6668-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2))-EP4 signaling mediates UV-induced immunosuppression by elevating the number of Treg cells through regulation of RANKL expression in the epidermis. ..
  46. Lim H, Dey S. Prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP2 gene expression in the mouse uterus coincides with differentiation of the luminal epithelium for implantation. Endocrinology. 1997;138:4599-606 pubmed
    ..Four major PGE2 receptor subtypes, EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4, mediate various PGE2 effects via their coupling to distinct signaling pathways...
  47. Mohan S, Narumiya S, Doré S. Neuroprotective role of prostaglandin PGE2 EP2 receptor in hemin-mediated toxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2015;46:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role of the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-EP2 receptor in hemin neurotoxicity remains unclear...
  48. Lacroix A, Toussay X, Anenberg E, Lecrux C, Ferreirós N, Karagiannis A, et al. COX-2-Derived Prostaglandin E2 Produced by Pyramidal Neurons Contributes to Neurovascular Coupling in the Rodent Cerebral Cortex. J Neurosci. 2015;35:11791-810 pubmed publisher
    ..stimulation involve cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity and activation of the prostaglandin E2 (PgE2) receptors EP2 and EP4...
  49. Sharma S, Yang S, Zhu L, Reckamp K, Gardner B, Baratelli F, et al. Tumor cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2-dependent promotion of FOXP3 expression and CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cell activities in lung cancer. Cancer Res. 2005;65:5211-20 pubmed
    ..gene expression was significantly reduced in the absence of the EP4 receptor and ablated in the absence of the EP2 receptor expression...
  50. Samuchiwal S, Balestrieri B, Raff H, Boyce J. Endogenous prostaglandin E2 amplifies IL-33 production by macrophages through an E prostanoid (EP)2/EP4-cAMP-EPAC-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:8195-8206 pubmed publisher
    ..The ubiquitous induction of mPGES-1-dependent PGE2 may be crucial for innate immune system activation during various IL-33 driven pathologic disorders. ..
  51. Gruzdev A, Nguyen M, Kovarova M, Koller B. PGE2 through the EP4 receptor controls smooth muscle gene expression patterns in the ductus arteriosus critical for remodeling at birth. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2012;97:109-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Together this supports a mechanism by which maturation and increased contractility of the vessel is coupled to the potent smooth muscle dilatory actions of PGE(2). ..
  52. Johansson T, Narumiya S, Zeilhofer H. Contribution of peripheral versus central EP1 prostaglandin receptors to inflammatory pain. Neurosci Lett. 2011;495:98-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that peripheral EP1 receptors contribute significantly to inflammation induced heat pain sensitization while evidence for a contribution to central sensitization was not obtained. ..
  53. Montine T, Milatovic D, Gupta R, Valyi Nagy T, Morrow J, Breyer R. Neuronal oxidative damage from activated innate immunity is EP2 receptor-dependent. J Neurochem. 2002;83:463-70 pubmed
    ..than with LPS also was completely suppressed by indomethacin or ibuprofen pre-treatment but was independent of EP2 receptor activation...
  54. Fujino T, Nakagawa N, Yuhki K, Hara A, Yamada T, Takayama K, et al. Decreased susceptibility to renovascular hypertension in mice lacking the prostaglandin I2 receptor IP. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:805-12 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PGI2 derived from COX-2 plays a critical role in regulating the release of renin and consequently renovascular hypertension in vivo. ..
  55. Fabre J, Nguyen M, Athirakul K, Coggins K, McNeish J, Austin S, et al. Activation of the murine EP3 receptor for PGE2 inhibits cAMP production and promotes platelet aggregation. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:603-10 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that local production of PGE2 during an inflammatory process can modulate ensuing platelet responses. ..
  56. Takahashi T, Ogawa H, Izumi K, Uehara H. The soluble EP2 receptor FuEP2/Ex2 suppresses endometrial cancer cell growth in an orthotopic xenograft model in nude mice. Cancer Lett. 2011;306:67-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Ish-FuEP2/Ex2 cells expressed FuEP2/Ex2 mRNA and protein. Expression levels of E-prostanoid receptor 1 (EP1), EP2, EP3, EP4, and F-prostanoid receptor (FP) were almost the same in Ish-FuEP2/Ex2 and vector control cells...
  57. Chen J, Perry C, Tsui Y, Staron M, Parish I, Dominguez C, et al. Prostaglandin E2 and programmed cell death 1 signaling coordinately impair CTL function and survival during chronic viral infection. Nat Med. 2015;21:327-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the prostaglandin E2 (PGEâ‚‚) receptors EP2 and EP4 were upregulated on virus-specific CTLs during chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection ..
  58. Taketo M, Rochelle J, Sugimoto Y, Namba T, Honda A, Negishi M, et al. Mapping of the genes encoding mouse thromboxane A2 receptor and prostaglandin E receptor subtypes EP2 and EP3. Genomics. 1994;19:585-8 pubmed
    ..We have mapped genetic loci for TXA2 receptor, Tbxa2r, and for PGE2 receptor subtypes EP2 and EP3, Ptgerep2 and Ptgerep3, respectively, using restriction fragment length variants in interspecific backcross mice...
  59. Chun K, Lao H, Trempus C, Okada M, Langenbach R. The prostaglandin receptor EP2 activates multiple signaling pathways and beta-arrestin1 complex formation during mouse skin papilloma development. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:1620-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate PGE(2)'s roles, the contributions of one of its receptors, EP2, were studied using the mouse skin initiation/promotion model...
  60. Brouxhon S, Konger R, VanBuskirk J, Sheu T, Ryan J, Erdle B, et al. Deletion of prostaglandin E2 EP2 receptor protects against ultraviolet-induced carcinogenesis, but increases tumor aggressiveness. J Invest Dermatol. 2007;127:439-46 pubmed
    ..Previous work from our group has shown that the prostaglandin E2 EP2 receptor is a powerful regulator of keratinocyte growth...
  61. Oga T, Matsuoka T, Yao C, Nonomura K, Kitaoka S, Sakata D, et al. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) receptor signaling facilitates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis independently of transforming growth factor-beta. Nat Med. 2009;15:1426-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that PGF(2alpha)-FP signaling facilitates pulmonary fibrosis independently of TGF-beta and suggests this signaling pathway as a therapeutic target for IPF. ..
  62. Muller Decker K, Leder C, Neumann M, Neufang G, Bayerl C, Schweizer J, et al. Expression of cyclooxygenase isozymes during morphogenesis and cycling of pelage hair follicles in mouse skin: precocious onset of the first catagen phase and alopecia upon cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression. J Invest Dermatol. 2003;121:661-8 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of transgenic COX-2 activity by feeding the specific COX-2 inhibitor valdecoxib suppressed the development of alopecia, indicating that COX-2-mediated prostaglandin synthesis is involved in hair follicle biology. ..
  63. Esaki Y, Li Y, Sakata D, Yao C, Segi Nishida E, Matsuoka T, et al. Dual roles of PGE2-EP4 signaling in mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:12233-8 pubmed publisher
    ..mice manifested significant suppression of EAE, which was mimicked in wild-type mice and to a greater extent, in EP2(-/-) mice by administration of the EP4 antagonist ONO-AE3-208 during the immunization phase...
  64. Audoly L, Ruan X, Wagner V, Goulet J, Tilley S, Koller B, et al. Role of EP(2) and EP(3) PGE(2) receptors in control of murine renal hemodynamics. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;280:H327-33 pubmed
    ..We conclude that EP(3 )receptors mediate vasoconstriction in the kidney of male mice and its actions are tonically active in the basal state. Furthermore, EP(3) receptors are capable of buffering PGE(2)-mediated renal vasodilation...
  65. Li N, Xu Y, Chen X, Fan Y, Wu J. Role of the prostaglandin E2/E-prostanoid 2 receptor signalling pathway in TGFβ-induced mice mesangial cell damage. Biosci Rep. 2014;34:e00159 pubmed publisher
    The prostaglandin E2 receptor, EP2 (E-prostanoid 2), plays an important role in mice glomerular MCs (mesangial cells) damage induced by TGFβ1 (transforming growth factor-β1); however, the molecular mechanisms for this remain ..
  66. Shinomiya S, Naraba H, Ueno A, Utsunomiya I, Maruyama T, Ohuchida S, et al. Regulation of TNFalpha and interleukin-10 production by prostaglandins I(2) and E(2): studies with prostaglandin receptor-deficient mice and prostaglandin E-receptor subtype-selective synthetic agonists. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001;61:1153-60 pubmed
    ..Among prostaglandin E (EP) receptor-selective synthetic agonists, EP2 and EP4 agonists caused down-regulation of the zymosan-induced TNFalpha production, but up-regulation on the IL-10 ..
  67. Tilley S, Hartney J, Erikson C, Jania C, Nguyen M, Stock J, et al. Receptors and pathways mediating the effects of prostaglandin E2 on airway tone. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003;284:L599-606 pubmed
    ..This segregation of EP receptor function within the airway suggests that PGE(2) analogs that selectively activate the EP2 receptor without activating the EP1/EP3 receptors might prove useful in the treatment of asthma.
  68. Dong Y, Yallampalli C. Pregnancy and exogenous steroid treatments modulate the expression of relaxant EP(2) and contractile FP receptors in the rat uterus. Biol Reprod. 2000;62:533-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that steroid hormones modulate the mRNA for relaxant EP(2) and contractile FP receptors for PGs in the uterus and thus regulate uterine activity during pregnancy and labor. ..
  69. Fu Y, Yang M, Jiang J, Ganesh T, Joe E, Dingledine R. EP2 Receptor Signaling Regulates Microglia Death. Mol Pharmacol. 2015;88:161-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that activation of the E prostanoid receptor 2 (EP2, PTGER2) for prostaglandin E2 mediates microglial death induced by LPS/IL-13, and that EP2 activation by agonist alone ..
  70. Sonoshita M, Takaku K, Sasaki N, Sugimoto Y, Ushikubi F, Narumiya S, et al. Acceleration of intestinal polyposis through prostaglandin receptor EP2 in Apc(Delta 716) knockout mice. Nat Med. 2001;7:1048-51 pubmed
    ..We also show that COX-2 expression is boosted by PGE(2) through the EP2 receptor via a positive feedback loop...
  71. Sugita K, Ikenouchi Sugita A, Nakayama Y, Yoshioka H, Nomura T, Sakabe J, et al. Prostaglandin E? is critical for the development of niacin-deficiency-induced photosensitivity via ROS production. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2973 pubmed publisher
    ..Niacin deficiency-induced photosensitivity was mediated through EP4 signaling in response to increased PGE2 production via induction of ROS formation. ..
  72. Walker W, Rotondo D. Prostaglandin E2 is a potent regulator of interleukin-12- and interleukin-18-induced natural killer cell interferon-gamma synthesis. Immunology. 2004;111:298-305 pubmed
    ..The selective EP2 receptor agonist butaprost, but not the EP1/EP3 agonist sulprostone, suppressed IFN-gamma synthesis and exclusively ..
  73. Zhu S, Xue R, Zhao P, Fan F, Kong X, Zheng S, et al. Targeted disruption of the prostaglandin E2 E-prostanoid 2 receptor exacerbates vascular neointimal formation in mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:1739-47 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a novel role of the EP2 receptor in neointimal hyperplasia after arterial injury...
  74. Kamel M, Picconi J, Lara Castillo N, Johnson M. Activation of ?-catenin signaling in MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells versus 2T3 osteoblastic cells by fluid flow shear stress and PGE2: Implications for the study of mechanosensation in bone. Bone. 2010;47:872-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore our data support a role for PGE(2) in mediating the activation of ?-catenin signaling in response to the fluid flow shear stress. ..