Gene Symbol: Ptger1
Description: prostaglandin E receptor 1 (subtype EP1)
Alias: EP1, Ptgerep1, prostaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtype, PGE receptor EP1 subtype, PGE2 receptor EP1 subtype, prostanoid EP1 receptor
Species: mouse
Products:     Ptger1

Top Publications

  1. Zhen G, Kim Y, Li R, Yocum J, Kapoor N, Langer J, et al. PGE2 EP1 receptor exacerbated neurotoxicity in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2012;33:2215-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study was designed to delineate the prostaglandin E(2) EP1 receptor role in AD and in the setting of cerebral ischemia...
  2. Nguyen M, Pace A, Koller B. Age-induced reprogramming of mast cell degranulation. J Immunol. 2005;175:5701-7 pubmed
    ..Therefore, elevated PGE2 levels might provide an important pathway by which mast cells are engaged to participate in inflammatory responses in the elderly patient. ..
  3. Nusing R, Treude A, Weissenberger C, Jensen B, Bek M, Wagner C, et al. Dominant role of prostaglandin E2 EP4 receptor in furosemide-induced salt-losing tubulopathy: a model for hyperprostaglandin E syndrome/antenatal Bartter syndrome. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:2354-62 pubmed
    ..In wild-type (WT) mice and in mice lacking distinct PGE2 receptors (EP1-/-, EP2-/-, EP3-/-, and EP4-/-), the effect of chronic furosemide administration (7 d) on urine output, sodium and ..
  4. Guan Y, Zhang Y, Wu J, Qi Z, Yang G, Dou D, et al. Antihypertensive effects of selective prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype 1 targeting. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:2496-505 pubmed
    ..The present studies were aimed at elucidating the role of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) E-prostanoid receptor subtype 1 (EP1) in regulating blood pressure...
  5. Stock J, Shinjo K, Burkhardt J, Roach M, Taniguchi K, Ishikawa T, et al. The prostaglandin E2 EP1 receptor mediates pain perception and regulates blood pressure. J Clin Invest. 2001;107:325-31 pubmed
    ..Four different receptor subtypes (EP1-4) mediate these wide-ranging effects...
  6. Narumiya S, Sugimoto Y, Ushikubi F. Prostanoid receptors: structures, properties, and functions. Physiol Rev. 1999;79:1193-226 pubmed
    ..In this article, we summarize these findings and attempt to give an overview of the current status of research on the prostanoid receptors...
  7. Ushikubi F, Segi E, Sugimoto Y, Murata T, Matsuoka T, Kobayashi T, et al. Impaired febrile response in mice lacking the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3. Nature. 1998;395:281-4 pubmed
    ..PGE2 acts by interacting with four subtypes of PGE receptor, the EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptors. Here we generate mice lacking each of these receptors by homologous recombination...
  8. Nataraj C, Thomas D, Tilley S, Nguyen M, Mannon R, Koller B, et al. Receptors for prostaglandin E(2) that regulate cellular immune responses in the mouse. J Clin Invest. 2001;108:1229-35 pubmed
    ..There are four receptors for PGE(2) (EP1-EP4) with unique patterns of expression and different coupling to intracellular signaling pathways...
  9. Kabashima K, Saji T, Murata T, Nagamachi M, Matsuoka T, Segi E, et al. The prostaglandin receptor EP4 suppresses colitis, mucosal damage and CD4 cell activation in the gut. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:883-93 pubmed
    ..Among the prostanoid receptor-deficient mice, only EP4-deficient mice and not mice deficient in either DP, EP1, EP2, EP3, FP, IP, or TP developed severe colitis with 3% DSS treatment, which induced only marginal colitis in ..

More Information


  1. McCoy J, Wicks J, Audoly L. The role of prostaglandin E2 receptors in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:651-8 pubmed
    ..Homozygous deletion of the EP1, EP2, or EP3 receptors did not affect the development of arthritis, whereas EP4 receptor-deficient mice showed ..
  2. Kabashima K, Sakata D, Nagamachi M, Miyachi Y, Inaba K, Narumiya S. Prostaglandin E2-EP4 signaling initiates skin immune responses by promoting migration and maturation of Langerhans cells. Nat Med. 2003;9:744-9 pubmed
    ..PGE2-EP4 signaling thus facilitates initiation of skin immune responses by promoting the migration and maturation of Langerhans cells. ..
  3. Kunikata T, Yamane H, Segi E, Matsuoka T, Sugimoto Y, Tanaka S, et al. Suppression of allergic inflammation by the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3. Nat Immunol. 2005;6:524-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, the PGE(2)-EP3 pathway is an important negative modulator of allergic reactions. ..
  4. Båtshake B, Sundelin J. The mouse genes for the EP1 prostanoid receptor and the PKN protein kinase overlap. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;227:70-6 pubmed
    ..We show in this report that the mouse PKN gene is situated at the mouse EP1 prostanoid receptor gene locus and that the two genes are overlapping in a tail-to-tail manner...
  5. Saleem S, Li R, Wei G, DORE S. Effects of EP1 receptor on cerebral blood flow in the middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke in mice. J Neurosci Res. 2007;85:2433-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, the prostanoid EP1 receptor plays a significant role in regulating CBF and neuronal cell death...
  6. Kawano T, Anrather J, Zhou P, Park L, Wang G, Frys K, et al. Prostaglandin E2 EP1 receptors: downstream effectors of COX-2 neurotoxicity. Nat Med. 2006;12:225-9 pubmed
    ..We therefore sought to identify the downstream effectors of COX-2 neurotoxicity, and found that prostaglandin E(2) EP1 receptors are essential for the neurotoxicity mediated by COX-2-derived prostaglandin E(2)...
  7. Matsuoka Y, Furuyashiki T, Bito H, Ushikubi F, Tanaka Y, Kobayashi T, et al. Impaired adrenocorticotropic hormone response to bacterial endotoxin in mice deficient in prostaglandin E receptor EP1 and EP3 subtypes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:4132-7 pubmed
    ..By using mice lacking each of the four PGE receptors (EP1-EP4) and an EP1-selective antagonist, ONO-8713, we showed that both EP1 and EP3 are required for ..
  8. Glushakov A, Fazal J, Narumiya S, Doré S. Role of the prostaglandin E2 EP1 receptor in traumatic brain injury. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e113689 pubmed publisher
    ..prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), leading to overactivation of a class of its cognate G-protein-coupled receptors, including EP1, which is considered a promising target for treatment of ischemic stroke...
  9. Johansson T, Narumiya S, Zeilhofer H. Contribution of peripheral versus central EP1 prostaglandin receptors to inflammatory pain. Neurosci Lett. 2011;495:98-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the PGE(2) receptors, the EP1 subtype has repeatedly been proposed as a promising target for treatment of inflammatory hyperalgesia...
  10. Sonoshita M, Takaku K, Sasaki N, Sugimoto Y, Ushikubi F, Narumiya S, et al. Acceleration of intestinal polyposis through prostaglandin receptor EP2 in Apc(Delta 716) knockout mice. Nat Med. 2001;7:1048-51 pubmed
    ..Homozygous gene knockout for other PGE(2) receptors, EP1 or EP3, did not affect intestinal polyp formation in Apc(Delta 716) mice...
  11. Morimoto K, Shirata N, Taketomi Y, Tsuchiya S, Segi Nishida E, Inazumi T, et al. Prostaglandin E2-EP3 signaling induces inflammatory swelling by mast cell activation. J Immunol. 2014;192:1130-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that PGE2 triggers mast cell activation via an EP3-Gi/o-Ca(2+) influx/PI3K pathway, and this mechanism underlies PGE2-induced vascular permeability and consequent edema formation. ..
  12. Kabashima K, Nagamachi M, Honda T, Nishigori C, Miyachi Y, Tokura Y, et al. Prostaglandin E2 is required for ultraviolet B-induced skin inflammation via EP2 and EP4 receptors. Lab Invest. 2007;87:49-55 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that PGE(2)-EP2/EP4 signaling is mandatory in UV-induced acute skin inflammation, presumably by enhancing blood flow in the microenvironment. ..
  13. Singh P, Hoggatt J, Hu P, Speth J, Fukuda S, Breyer R, et al. Blockade of prostaglandin E2 signaling through EP1 and EP3 receptors attenuates Flt3L-dependent dendritic cell development from hematopoietic progenitor cells. Blood. 2012;119:1671-82 pubmed publisher
    ..PGE(2) regulation of DC generation is specifically mediated through the EP1 and EP3 G protein PGE(2) receptors...
  14. Takeuchi K, Ogawa Y, Kagawa S, Ukawa H. Gastric ulcerogenic responses following barrier disruption in knockout mice lacking prostaglandin EP1 receptors. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002;16 Suppl 2:74-82 pubmed
    ..and mucosal blood flow (GMBF) responses in the stomach after damage by taurocholate (TC) in knockout mice lacking EP1 or EP3 receptors...
  15. Takeuchi K, Kato S, Takeeda M, Ogawa Y, Nakashima M, Matsumoto M. Facilitation by endogenous prostaglandins of capsaicin-induced gastric protection in rodents through EP2 and IP receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;304:1055-62 pubmed
    ..The effect of PGE(2) was antagonized by ONO-AE-829 (EP1 antagonist), whereas the capsaicin action was mitigated by indomethacin as well as sensory deafferentation but not ..
  16. Seno H, Oshima M, Ishikawa T, Oshima H, Takaku K, Chiba T, et al. Cyclooxygenase 2- and prostaglandin E(2) receptor EP(2)-dependent angiogenesis in Apc(Delta716) mouse intestinal polyps. Cancer Res. 2002;62:506-11 pubmed
  17. Nasrallah R, Hassouneh R, Zimpelmann J, Karam A, Thibodeau J, Burger D, et al. Prostaglandin E2 increases proximal tubule fluid reabsorption, and modulates cultured proximal tubule cell responses via EP1 and EP4 receptors. Lab Invest. 2015;95:1044-55 pubmed publisher
    Renal prostaglandin (PG) E2 regulates salt and water transport, and affects disease processes via EP1-4 receptors, but its role in the proximal tubule (PT) is unknown...
  18. Rutkai I, Feher A, Erdei N, Henrion D, Papp Z, Edes I, et al. Activation of prostaglandin E2 EP1 receptor increases arteriolar tone and blood pressure in mice with type 2 diabetes. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;83:148-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested the hypothesis that activation of type 1 prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) receptor (EP1) increases skeletal muscle arteriolar tone and blood pressure in mice with type 2 diabetes...
  19. Nagamachi M, Sakata D, Kabashima K, Furuyashiki T, Murata T, Segi Nishida E, et al. Facilitation of Th1-mediated immune response by prostaglandin E receptor EP1. J Exp Med. 2007;204:2865-74 pubmed
    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) exerts its actions via four subtypes of the PGE receptor, EP1-4...
  20. Idell S, James K, Levin E, Schwartz B, Manchanda N, Maunder R, et al. Local abnormalities in coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways predispose to alveolar fibrin deposition in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. J Clin Invest. 1989;84:695-705 pubmed
    ..We conclude that abnormalities that result in enhanced coagulation and depressed fibrinolysis, thereby predisposing to alveolar fibrin deposition, occur in the alveolar lining fluids from patients with ARDS. ..
  21. Vennemann A, Gerstner A, Kern N, Ferreiros Bouzas N, Narumiya S, Maruyama T, et al. PTGS-2-PTGER2/4 signaling pathway partially protects from diabetogenic toxicity of streptozotocin in mice. Diabetes. 2012;61:1879-87 pubmed publisher
    ..STZ metabolism was unaffected by PTGS deficiency. Diabetogenicity of STZ in PTGER1(-/-), PTGER2(-/-), PTGER3(-/-), and PTGER4(-/-) mice was comparable to control mice...
  22. Fujino T, Nakagawa N, Yuhki K, Hara A, Yamada T, Takayama K, et al. Decreased susceptibility to renovascular hypertension in mice lacking the prostaglandin I2 receptor IP. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:805-12 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PGI2 derived from COX-2 plays a critical role in regulating the release of renin and consequently renovascular hypertension in vivo. ..
  23. Frankowski J, Demars K, Ahmad A, Hawkins K, Yang C, Leclerc J, et al. Detrimental role of the EP1 prostanoid receptor in blood-brain barrier damage following experimental ischemic stroke. Sci Rep. 2015;5:17956 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to investigate the role of PGE2 EP1 receptor in neurovascular injury in stroke...
  24. Ishikawa T, Tamai Y, Rochelle J, Hirata M, Namba T, Sugimoto Y, et al. Mapping of the genes encoding mouse prostaglandin D, E, and F and prostacyclin receptors. Genomics. 1996;32:285-8 pubmed
    ..Ptgdr mapped to proximal Chr 14, Ptgfr mapped to distal Chr 3, Ptgerepl mapped to middle Chr 8, and Ptgir mapped to proximal Chr 7. ..
  25. Uekawa K, Koizumi K, Hwang J, Brunier N, Hattori Y, Zhou P, et al. Obligatory Role of EP1 Receptors in the Increase in Cerebral Blood Flow Produced by Hypercapnia in the Mice. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0163329 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we sought to determine whether cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1)-derived PGE2 and EP1 receptors are involved in the cerebrovascular response induced by hypercapnia...
  26. Gonzalez A, Salinas Parra N, Leach D, Navar L, Prieto M. PGE2 upregulates renin through E-prostanoid receptor 1 via PKC/cAMP/CREB pathway in M-1 cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;313:F1038-F1049 pubmed publisher
    ..The M-1 CD cell line expressed EP1, EP3, and EP4 but not EP2...
  27. Watabe A, Sugimoto Y, Honda A, Irie A, Namba T, Negishi M, et al. Cloning and expression of cDNA for a mouse EP1 subtype of prostaglandin E receptor. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:20175-8 pubmed
    A functional cDNA clone encoding a mouse EP1 subtype of prostaglandin (PG) E receptor was isolated from a mouse cDNA library by cross-hybridization with the mouse thromboxane A2 receptor cDNA...
  28. Båtshake B, Nilsson C, Sundelin J. Molecular characterization of the mouse prostanoid EP1 receptor gene. Eur J Biochem. 1995;231:809-14 pubmed
    A partial cDNA, corresponding to the mouse prostaglandin E2 receptor subtype EP1, was isolated from mouse brain cDNA using a degenerate primer PCR strategy...
  29. Lee C, Genetos D, You Z, Yellowley C. Hypoxia regulates PGE(2) release and EP1 receptor expression in osteoblastic cells. J Cell Physiol. 2007;212:182-8 pubmed
    ..Cells cultured in 2% O(2) showed activation of the HRE, increased PGE(2) release, increased EP1 expression, and reduced cell proliferation compared to cells grown at 21% O(2)...
  30. Brown D, Phipps R. Characterization and regulation of prostaglandin E2 receptors on normal and malignant murine B lymphocytes. Cell Immunol. 1995;161:79-87 pubmed
    ..Moreover, these observations may be of importance in developing strategies to specifically control the spread of PGE2-sensitive B lymphomas. ..
  31. Takeuchi K, Ukawa H, Kato S, Furukawa O, Araki H, Sugimoto Y, et al. Impaired duodenal bicarbonate secretion and mucosal integrity in mice lacking prostaglandin E-receptor subtype EP(3). Gastroenterology. 1999;117:1128-35 pubmed
    ..The presence of EP(3)-receptors is essential for maintaining duodenal HCO(3)(-) secretion and mucosal integrity against luminal acid. ..
  32. Kawamori T, Kitamura T, Watanabe K, Uchiya N, Maruyama T, Narumiya S, et al. Prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP(1) deficiency inhibits colon cancer development. Carcinogenesis. 2005;26:353-7 pubmed
    ..These results provide strong evidence that the EP(1) receptor is of major importance for colon cancer development and it could be a new target for a mechanism-based chemoprevention strategy against colon cancer development. ..
  33. Kennedy C, Xiong H, Rahal S, Vanderluit J, Slack R, Zhang Y, et al. Urine concentrating defect in prostaglandin EP1-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;292:F868-75 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that PGE(2) modulates urine concentration by acting at EP(1) receptors, not in the collecting duct, but within the hypothalamus to promote AVP synthesis in response to acute WD. ..
  34. Feigenson M, Eliseev R, Jonason J, Mills B, O Keefe R. PGE2 Receptor Subtype 1 (EP1) Regulates Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Osteogenic Differentiation by Modulating Cellular Energy Metabolism. J Cell Biochem. 2017;118:4383-4393 pubmed publisher
    ..PGE2 binds four different receptors EP1-4...
  35. Yang Z, Das S, Wang J, Sugimoto Y, Ichikawa A, Dey S. Potential sites of prostaglandin actions in the periimplantation mouse uterus: differential expression and regulation of prostaglandin receptor genes. Biol Reprod. 1997;56:368-79 pubmed
    ..PGE2 receptors are classified into four subtypes, EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4...
  36. Minami T, Nakano H, Kobayashi T, Sugimoto Y, Ushikubi F, Ichikawa A, et al. Characterization of EP receptor subtypes responsible for prostaglandin E2-induced pain responses by use of EP1 and EP3 receptor knockout mice. Br J Pharmacol. 2001;133:438-44 pubmed
    ..PGE receptor (EP) subtypes that mediate pain responses to noxious and innocuous stimuli, we studied them by use of EP1 and EP3 knockout (EP1(-/-) and EP3(-/-)) mice...
  37. Ehrlich A, Furuyashiki T, Kitaoka S, Kakizuka A, Narumiya S. Prostaglandin E receptor EP1 forms a complex with dopamine D1 receptor and directs D1-induced cAMP production to adenylyl cyclase 7 through mobilizing G(??) subunits in human embryonic kidney 293T cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;84:476-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that prostaglandin E receptor EP1 facilitates dopamine D1 receptor signaling in striatal slices and promotes behavioral responses induced by D1 ..
  38. O Callaghan G, Ryan A, Neary P, O Mahony C, Shanahan F, Houston A. Targeting the EP1 receptor reduces Fas ligand expression and increases the antitumor immune response in an in vivo model of colon cancer. Int J Cancer. 2013;133:825-34 pubmed publisher
    ..PGE2 signals through four different receptors (EP1-EP4) and targeting individual receptor(s) may avoid these side effects, while retaining significant anticancer ..
  39. Kitamura T, Itoh M, Noda T, Tani K, Kobayashi M, Maruyama T, et al. Combined effects of prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP1 and subtype EP4 antagonists on intestinal tumorigenesis in adenomatous polyposis coli gene knockout mice. Cancer Sci. 2003;94:618-21 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that EP(1) and EP(4) may have separate intrinsic roles and, to some extent, contribute to polyp formation independently. Thus, combination treatment has potential for the chemoprevention of colon carcinogenesis. ..
  40. Esaki Y, Li Y, Sakata D, Yao C, Segi Nishida E, Matsuoka T, et al. Dual roles of PGE2-EP4 signaling in mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:12233-8 pubmed publisher
  41. Oga T, Matsuoka T, Yao C, Nonomura K, Kitaoka S, Sakata D, et al. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) receptor signaling facilitates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis independently of transforming growth factor-beta. Nat Med. 2009;15:1426-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that PGF(2alpha)-FP signaling facilitates pulmonary fibrosis independently of TGF-beta and suggests this signaling pathway as a therapeutic target for IPF. ..
  42. McGraw D, Mihlbachler K, Schwarb M, Rahman F, Small K, Almoosa K, et al. Airway smooth muscle prostaglandin-EP1 receptors directly modulate beta2-adrenergic receptors within a unique heterodimeric complex. J Clin Invest. 2006;116:1400-9 pubmed
    ..This mechanism may contribute to beta-agonist resistance found in asthma. ..
  43. Han C, Li G, Lim K, DeFrances M, Gandhi C, Wu T. Transgenic expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in hepatocytes accelerates endotoxin-induced acute liver failure. J Immunol. 2008;181:8027-35 pubmed
    ..Therefore, blocking COX-2-EP(1) pathway may represent a potential approach for amelioration of LPS-induced liver injury. ..
  44. Wang X, Momota Y, Yanase H, Narumiya S, Maruyama T, Kawatani M. Urothelium EP1 receptor facilitates the micturition reflex in mice. Biomed Res. 2008;29:105-11 pubmed
    We investigated the presence of EP1 receptor in the urothelium and its role in micturition reflex by examining the effect of intravesical administration of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE2), an EP1 agonist (ONO-DI-004), acetic acid, and ..
  45. Genetos D, Lee C, Wong A, Yellowley C. HIF-1alpha regulates hypoxia-induced EP1 expression in osteoblastic cells. J Cell Biochem. 2009;107:233-9 pubmed publisher
    ..have previously demonstrated that hypoxic osteoblasts increase PGE(2) release and expression of the PGE(2) receptor EP1. In the present studies, we investigated the impact of altered HIF-1alpha activity and expression on EP1 expression ..
  46. Kamoshita E, Ikeda Y, Fujita M, Amano H, Oikawa A, Suzuki T, et al. Recruitment of a prostaglandin E receptor subtype, EP3-expressing bone marrow cells is crucial in wound-induced angiogenesis. Am J Pathol. 2006;169:1458-72 pubmed
    ..knockout mice (EP3-/-) were significantly delayed compared with their wild-type (WT) mice, whereas those in EP1-/-, EP2-/-, and EP4-/- were not delayed...
  47. Sugimoto Y, Namba T, Shigemoto R, Negishi M, Ichikawa A, Narumiya S. Distinct cellular localization of mRNAs for three subtypes of prostaglandin E receptor in kidney. Am J Physiol. 1994;266:F823-8 pubmed
    ..The mRNA for EP1 subtype, which is coupled to Ca2+ mobilization, was specifically localized to the collecting ducts from the cortex ..
  48. Ma X, Aoki T, Tsuruyama T, Narumiya S. Definition of Prostaglandin E2-EP2 Signals in the Colon Tumor Microenvironment That Amplify Inflammation and Tumor Growth. Cancer Res. 2015;75:2822-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Deficiency of PGE receptor subtype EP2 selectively reduced, and deficiency of EP1 and EP3 enhanced, the tumor formation...
  49. Rojas A, Gueorguieva P, Lelutiu N, Quan Y, Shaw R, Dingledine R. The prostaglandin EP1 receptor potentiates kainate receptor activation via a protein kinase C pathway and exacerbates status epilepticus. Neurobiol Dis. 2014;70:74-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that the prostaglandin E2 receptor 1 (EP1, or Ptger1) modulates native kainate receptors, a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors widely expressed throughout the ..
  50. Soontrapa K, Honda T, Sakata D, Yao C, Hirata T, Hori S, et al. Prostaglandin E2-prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4) signaling mediates UV irradiation-induced systemic immunosuppression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6668-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2))-EP4 signaling mediates UV-induced immunosuppression by elevating the number of Treg cells through regulation of RANKL expression in the epidermis. ..
  51. Surh I, Rundhaug J, Pavone A, Mikulec C, Abel E, Simper M, et al. The EP1 receptor for prostaglandin E2 promotes the development and progression of malignant murine skin tumors. Mol Carcinog. 2012;51:553-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect of PGE2 is likely mediated by one or more of its 4 G-protein coupled membrane receptors, EP1-4. A previous study showed that BK5...
  52. Wang G, Sarkar P, Peterson J, Anrather J, Pierce J, Moore J, et al. COX-1-derived PGE2 and PGE2 type 1 receptors are vital for angiotensin II-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and Ca(2+) influx in the subfornical organ. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013;305:H1451-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide the first evidence of a spatial and functional framework that underlies ANG-II signaling in the SFO and reveal novel targets for antihypertensive therapies. ..
  53. Oka T, Oka K, Kobayashi T, Sugimoto Y, Ichikawa A, Ushikubi F, et al. Characteristics of thermoregulatory and febrile responses in mice deficient in prostaglandin EP1 and EP3 receptors. J Physiol. 2003;551:945-54 pubmed
    Previous studies have disagreed about whether prostaglandin EP1 or EP3 receptors are critical for producing febrile responses...
  54. Thibodeau J, Nasrallah R, Carter A, He Y, Touyz R, Hébert R, et al. PTGER1 deletion attenuates renal injury in diabetic mouse models. Am J Pathol. 2013;183:1789-1802 pubmed publisher
    We hypothesized that the EP1 receptor promotes renal damage in diabetic nephropathy. We rendered EP1 (PTGER1, official symbol) knockout mice (EP1(-/-)) diabetic using the streptozotocin and OVE26 models...
  55. Honda T, Segi Nishida E, Miyachi Y, Narumiya S. Prostacyclin-IP signaling and prostaglandin E2-EP2/EP4 signaling both mediate joint inflammation in mouse collagen-induced arthritis. J Exp Med. 2006;203:325-35 pubmed
    ..Our results show significant roles of both PGI2-IP and PGE2-EP2/EP4 signaling in the development of CIA, and suggest that inhibition of PGE2 synthesis alone may not be sufficient for suppression of RA symptoms. ..
  56. Ota T, Aihara M, Saeki T, Narumiya S, Araie M. The effects of prostaglandin analogues on prostanoid EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptor-deficient mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:3395-9 pubmed
    ..The diurnal IOP variation was measured by a microneedle method in EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptor-deficient mice (EP1KO, EP2KO and EP3KO) and in their wild-type (WT) background strain...
  57. Rahal S, McVeigh L, Zhang Y, Guan Y, Breyer M, Kennedy C. Increased severity of renal impairment in nephritic mice lacking the EP1 receptor. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;84:877-85 pubmed
    ..We investigated the role of the PGE2 EP1 receptor in nephritis since it is expressed in the glomerulus, collecting duct and vasculature in which its ..
  58. Watanabe K, Kawamori T, Nakatsugi S, Ohta T, Ohuchida S, Yamamoto H, et al. Role of the prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP1 in colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 1999;59:5093-6 pubmed
    ..preneoplastic lesions of the colon, in two lines of knockout mice, each deficient in prostaglandin E receptors, EP1 and EP3, by treatment with the colon carcinogen, azoxymethane...
  59. Wang W, Andersson M, Lonnroth C, Svanberg E, Lundholm K. Anorexia and cachexia in prostaglandin EP1 and EP3 subtype receptor knockout mice bearing a tumor with high intrinsic PGE2 production and prostaglandin related cachexia. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2005;24:99-107 pubmed
    ..In the present study, we investigated the role of PGE receptors subtype EP1 and EP3 on the development of anorexia in MCG 101-bearing mice...
  60. Ahmad A, Maruyama T, Narumiya S, DORE S. PGE2 EP1 receptor deletion attenuates 6-OHDA-induced Parkinsonism in mice: old switch, new target. Neurotox Res. 2013;23:260-6 pubmed publisher
    ..and plays an important role in various physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions through its EP receptors (EP1-EP4)...
  61. Bartlett C, Boyd K, Harris R, Zent R, Breyer R. EP1 disruption attenuates end-organ damage in a mouse model of hypertension. Hypertension. 2012;60:1184-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The prostaglandin E(2) receptor EP1 has been shown to contribute to hypertension by mediating angiotensin II-dependent vasoconstriction, although its ..
  62. Mutoh M, Watanabe K, Kitamura T, Shoji Y, Takahashi M, Kawamori T, et al. Involvement of prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP(4) in colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2002;62:28-32 pubmed
  63. Schweda F, Klar J, Narumiya S, Nusing R, Kurtz A. Stimulation of renin release by prostaglandin E2 is mediated by EP2 and EP4 receptors in mouse kidneys. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004;287:F427-33 pubmed
    ..In contrast, all four receptor subtypes are involved in the control of renal vascular tone, EP(1) and EP(3) receptors increasing, and EP(2) as well as EP(4) receptors, decreasing it. ..
  64. Surh I, RUNDHAUG J, Pavone A, Mikulec C, Abel E, Fischer S. Upregulation of the EP1 receptor for prostaglandin E2 promotes skin tumor progression. Mol Carcinog. 2011;50:458-68 pubmed publisher
    Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2) ) has been shown to promote the development of murine skin tumors. EP1 is 1 of the 4 PGE(2) G-protein-coupled membrane receptors expressed by murine keratinocytes...
  65. Zhang M, Ho H, Sheu T, Breyer M, Flick L, Jonason J, et al. EP1(-/-) mice have enhanced osteoblast differentiation and accelerated fracture repair. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:792-802 pubmed publisher
    ..It has four different receptor subtypes (EP1 through EP4), each of which exerts different effects in bone...
  66. Takayama K, Yuhki K, Ono K, Fujino T, Hara A, Yamada T, et al. Thromboxane A2 and prostaglandin F2alpha mediate inflammatory tachycardia. Nat Med. 2005;11:562-6 pubmed
    ..Our results show that inflammatory tachycardia is caused by a direct action on the heart of TXA(2) and PGF(2alpha) formed under systemic inflammatory conditions. ..
  67. Hoggatt J, Mohammad K, Singh P, Hoggatt A, Chitteti B, Speth J, et al. Differential stem- and progenitor-cell trafficking by prostaglandin E2. Nature. 2013;495:365-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results not only uncover unique regulatory roles for EP4 signalling in HSC retention in the niche, but also define a rapidly translatable strategy to enhance transplantation therapeutically. ..
  68. Moore B, Ballinger M, White E, Green M, Herrygers A, Wilke C, et al. Bleomycin-induced E prostanoid receptor changes alter fibroblast responses to prostaglandin E2. J Immunol. 2005;174:5644-9 pubmed
    ..EP2(-/-), but not EP1(-/-) or EP3(-/-) mice, showed exaggerated fibrotic responses to bleomycin administration in vivo as compared with ..
  69. Stock A, Booth S, Cerundolo V. Prostaglandin E2 suppresses the differentiation of retinoic acid-producing dendritic cells in mice and humans. J Exp Med. 2011;208:761-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the role of PGE2 in regulating the development of RA-producing DCs, modulating this pathway may prove a novel means to control the development of gut-tropic immune responses. ..
  70. Kovarova M, Koller B. PGE? promotes apoptosis induced by cytokine deprivation through EP3 receptor and induces Bim in mouse mast cells. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e102948 pubmed publisher
    ..This supports a model in which PGE2 can contribute to the resolution of inflammation in part by augmenting the removal of inflammatory cells in this case, mast cells. ..
  71. Biswas S, Bhattacherjee P, Paterson C, Maruyama T, Narumiya S. Modulation of ocular inflammatory responses by EP1 receptors in mice. Exp Eye Res. 2007;84:39-43 pubmed
    The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of EP1 receptors in intraocular inflammation and to determine possible interplay between EP1, EP2 and EP4 receptors...
  72. Katoh H, Hosono K, Ito Y, Suzuki T, Ogawa Y, Kubo H, et al. COX-2 and prostaglandin EP3/EP4 signaling regulate the tumor stromal proangiogenic microenvironment via CXCL12-CXCR4 chemokine systems. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:1469-83 pubmed publisher
  73. Tanaka Y, Furuyashiki T, Momiyama T, Namba H, Mizoguchi A, Mitsumori T, et al. Prostaglandin E receptor EP1 enhances GABA-mediated inhibition of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta and regulates dopamine level in the dorsal striatum. Eur J Neurosci. 2009;30:2338-46 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously found that mice lacking prostaglandin E receptor EP1 showed impulsive emotional behaviors accompanied by enhanced DA turnover in the frontal cortex and striatum...