Gene Symbol: Ptgds
Description: prostaglandin D2 synthase (brain)
Alias: 21kDa, L-PGDS, PGD2, PGDS, PGDS2, Ptgs3, prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase, PGD2 synthase, glutathione-independent PGD synthase, glutathione-independent PGD synthetase, lipocalin-type prostaglandin-D synthase, prostaglandin D2 synthase (21 kDa, brain), prostaglandin-D2 synthase
Species: mouse
Products:     Ptgds

Top Publications

  1. Shimamoto S, Yoshida T, Inui T, Gohda K, Kobayashi Y, Fujimori K, et al. NMR solution structure of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase: evidence for partial overlapping of catalytic pocket and retinoic acid-binding pocket within the central cavity. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:31373-9 pubmed
    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) catalyzes the isomerization of PGH(2), a common precursor of various prostanoids, to produce PGD(2), an endogenous somnogen and nociceptive modulator, in the brain...
  2. Gregoire E, Lavery R, Chassot A, Akiyama H, Treier M, Behringer R, et al. Transient development of ovotestes in XX Sox9 transgenic mice. Dev Biol. 2011;349:65-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, ovarian cells of the XX Wt1:Sox9 ovotestis undergo apoptosis during late embryogenesis leading to complete female-to-male sex reversal of the transgenic mice at birth...
  3. Ragolia L, Palaia T, Hall C, Maesaka J, Eguchi N, Urade Y. Accelerated glucose intolerance, nephropathy, and atherosclerosis in prostaglandin D2 synthase knock-out mice. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:29946-55 pubmed
    ..In this study we examined the effects of gene knock-out (KO) of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D(2) synthase (L-PGDS), a protein found at elevated levels in type 2 diabetics, on diet-induced glucose tolerance and atherosclerosis...
  4. Gerena R, Eguchi N, Urade Y, Killian G. Stage and region-specific localization of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in the adult murine testis and epididymis. J Androl. 2000;21:848-54 pubmed
  5. Adams I, McLaren A. Sexually dimorphic development of mouse primordial germ cells: switching from oogenesis to spermatogenesis. Development. 2002;129:1155-64 pubmed
    ..Thus part of the response of PGCs to the male gonadal environment is to generate a masculinising feedback loop to ensure male differentiation of the surrounding gonadal somatic cells. ..
  6. Irikura D, Kumasaka T, Yamamoto M, Ago H, Miyano M, Kubata K, et al. Cloning, expression, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray analysis of recombinant mouse lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase, a somnogen-producing enzyme. J Biochem. 2003;133:29-32 pubmed
    ..8, and c = 105.3 A. The selenomethionyl crystals obtained with citrate belong to orthorhombic space group C222(1) with lattice constants a = 45.5, b = 66.8, and c = 104.5 A. The native crystals diffracted beyond 2.1 A resolution. ..
  7. Moniot B, Declosmenil F, Barrionuevo F, Scherer G, Aritake K, Malki S, et al. The PGD2 pathway, independently of FGF9, amplifies SOX9 activity in Sertoli cells during male sexual differentiation. Development. 2009;136:1813-21 pubmed publisher
    ..and Sox9 expression is stimulated by the prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) producing lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS, or PTDGS) enzyme, which accelerates commitment to the male pathway...
  8. Irikura D, Aritake K, Nagata N, Maruyama T, Shimamoto S, Urade Y. Biochemical, functional, and pharmacological characterization of AT-56, an orally active and selective inhibitor of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:7623-30 pubmed publisher
    ..AT-56) is an orally active and selective inhibitor of lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS)...
  9. Tanaka R, Miwa Y, Mou K, Tomikawa M, Eguchi N, Urade Y, et al. Knockout of the l-pgds gene aggravates obesity and atherosclerosis in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:851-6 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to determine whether lipocalin type-prostaglandin D synthase (l-pgds) deficiency contributes to atherogenesis using gene knockout (KO) mice...

More Information


  1. Chassot A, Ranc F, Gregoire E, Roepers Gajadien H, Taketo M, Camerino G, et al. Activation of beta-catenin signaling by Rspo1 controls differentiation of the mammalian ovary. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:1264-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a balance between Sox9 and beta-catenin activation determines the fate of the gonad, with Rspo1 acting as a crucial regulator of canonical beta-catenin signaling required for female development. ..
  2. Tokudome S, Sano M, Shinmura K, Matsuhashi T, Morizane S, Moriyama H, et al. Glucocorticoid protects rodent hearts from ischemia/reperfusion injury by activating lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase-derived PGD2 biosynthesis. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:1477-88 pubmed publisher
    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), which was originally identified as an enzyme responsible for PGD2 biosynthesis in the brain, is highly expressed in the myocardium, including in cardiomyocytes...
  3. Kumasaka T, Aritake K, Ago H, Irikura D, Tsurumura T, Yamamoto M, et al. Structural basis of the catalytic mechanism operating in open-closed conformers of lipocalin type prostaglandin D synthase. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:22344-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Lipocalin type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is a multifunctional protein acting as a somnogen (PGD2)-producing enzyme, an extracellular transporter of various lipophilic ligands, and an amyloid-beta chaperone in human cerebrospinal ..
  4. Kanekiyo T, Ban T, Aritake K, Huang Z, Qu W, Okazaki I, et al. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase/beta-trace is a major amyloid beta-chaperone in human cerebrospinal fluid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:6412-7 pubmed
    ..Here we reported that lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS)/beta-trace, the most abundant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein produced in the brain, was localized in amyloid ..
  5. Wilhelm D, Hiramatsu R, Mizusaki H, Widjaja L, Combes A, Kanai Y, et al. SOX9 regulates prostaglandin D synthase gene transcription in vivo to ensure testis development. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:10553-60 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the gene encoding prostaglandin D synthase (Pgds), the enzyme that produces PGD(2), is expressed in Sertoli cells immediately after the onset of Sox9 expression...
  6. Qu W, Huang Z, Xu X, Aritake K, Eguchi N, Nambu F, et al. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase produces prostaglandin D2 involved in regulation of physiological sleep. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:17949-54 pubmed
    ..circadian profiles and daily amounts of sleep as wild-type (WT) mice, raising questions about the involvement of PGD2 in regulating physiological sleep...
  7. Inui T, Ohkubo T, Emi M, Irikura D, Hayaishi O, Urade Y. Characterization of the unfolding process of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:2845-52 pubmed
    ..75 M) or urea (<1.5 M) enhanced the enzyme activity of lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) maximally 2.5- and 1.6-fold at 0.5 M GdnHCl and 1 M urea, respectively...
  8. Fujitani Y, Kanaoka Y, Aritake K, Uodome N, Okazaki Hatake K, Urade Y. Pronounced eosinophilic lung inflammation and Th2 cytokine release in human lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase transgenic mice. J Immunol. 2002;168:443-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PGD(2) plays an important role in late phase allergic reactions in the pathophysiology of bronchial asthma. ..
  9. Urade Y, Hayaishi O. Biochemical, structural, genetic, physiological, and pathophysiological features of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1482:259-71 pubmed
    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (PGDS) catalyzes the isomerization of PGH(2), a common precursor of various prostanoids, to produce PGD(2), a potent endogenous somnogen and nociceptive modulator, in the presence of sulfhydryl ..
  10. Pinzar E, Kanaoka Y, Inui T, Eguchi N, Urade Y, Hayaishi O. Prostaglandin D synthase gene is involved in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement sleep. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:4903-7 pubmed
    To examine the function of prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (PGDS) gene, as well as endogenously produced PGD(2) in sleep regulation in vivo, we generated transgenic (TG) mice that overexpress human PGDS gene to study their sleep behavior...
  11. Eguchi N, Minami T, Shirafuji N, Kanaoka Y, Tanaka T, Nagata A, et al. Lack of tactile pain (allodynia) in lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:726-30 pubmed
    ..We generated gene-knockout mice for lipocalin-type PGD2 synthase (L-PGDS) and found that the intrathecal administration of PGE2, an endogenous pain-producing substance, failed ..
  12. Fujimori K, Aritake K, Urade Y. A novel pathway to enhance adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells by up-regulation of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase mediated by liver X receptor-activated sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:18458-66 pubmed
    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) is expressed in adipocytes and is proposed to be involved in the regulation of glucose tolerance and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes, because L-PGDS gene knock-out mice show ..
  13. Takeda K, Yokoyama S, Aburatani H, Masuda T, Han F, Yoshizawa M, et al. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase as a melanocyte marker regulated by MITF. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;339:1098-106 pubmed
    ..By cDNA microarray analysis, we have identified lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), whose mRNA is undetectable in the homozygous Mitf(mi-bw) skin...
  14. Tanaka K, Tamura H, Tanaka H, Katoh M, Futamata Y, Seki N, et al. Spermatogonia-dependent expression of testicular genes in mice. Dev Biol. 2002;246:466-79 pubmed
    ..As the mRNAs of these jsd/jsd-derived genes were barely detectable in the W/W(v) testis, we propose that early spermatogonial germ cells regulate the expression of a group of testicular genes. ..
  15. Kuroda E, Ishii K, Uematsu S, Ohata K, Coban C, Akira S, et al. Silica crystals and aluminum salts regulate the production of prostaglandin in macrophages via NALP3 inflammasome-independent mechanisms. Immunity. 2011;34:514-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that silica and alum regulate the production of PGE? and that the induction of PGE? by particulates controls the immune response in vivo. ..
  16. Delprato A, Bonheur B, Algéo M, Rosay P, Lu L, Williams R, et al. Systems genetic analysis of hippocampal neuroanatomy and spatial learning in mice. Genes Brain Behav. 2015;14:591-606 pubmed publisher
    ..Gpc4 and Tenm2 are strong candidate genes that may modulate IIPMF areas. Analysis of gene expression networks and trait correlations highlight several processes influencing morphometrical variation and spatial learning. ..
  17. Saleem S, Shah Z, Urade Y, Dore S. Lipocalin-prostaglandin D synthase is a critical beneficial factor in transient and permanent focal cerebral ischemia. Neuroscience. 2009;160:248-54 pubmed publisher
    ..It is a metabolite of arachidonic acid and synthesized by prostaglandin D(2) synthases (PGDS) via the cyclooxygenase pathway...
  18. Tang H, Brennan J, Karl J, Hamada Y, Raetzman L, Capel B. Notch signaling maintains Leydig progenitor cells in the mouse testis. Development. 2008;135:3745-53 pubmed publisher
  19. Kim K, Sadikot R, Xiao L, Christman J, Freeman M, Chan J, et al. Nrf2 is essential for the expression of lipocalin-prostaglandin D synthase induced by prostaglandin D2. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013;65:1134-1142 pubmed publisher
    ..Exogenously added prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) induced L-PGDS expression in bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), suggesting a positive feedback loop between ..
  20. Shimura C, Satoh T, Igawa K, Aritake K, Urade Y, Nakamura M, et al. Dendritic cells express hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase and function as a source of prostaglandin D2 in the skin. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:227-37 pubmed publisher
    Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), an arachidonic acid metabolite, has been implicated in allergic responses. A major source of PGD2 in the skin is mast cells that express hematopoietic PGD synthase (H-PGDS)...
  21. Nelson A, Loy D, Lawson J, Katseff A, Fitzgerald G, Garza L. Prostaglandin D2 inhibits wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis through the receptor, Gpr44. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:881-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The levels of WIHN, lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase (Ptgds), and its product PGD2 each varied significantly among background strains of mice after wounding, ..
  22. Ragolia L, Hall C, Palaia T. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D(2) synthase stimulates glucose transport via enhanced GLUT4 translocation. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2008;87:34-41 pubmed publisher
    Previously, we demonstrated that lipocalin-type prostaglandin D(2) synthase (L-PGDS) knockout mice become glucose intolerant and display signs of diabetic nephropathy and accelerated atherosclerosis...
  23. Wu R, Zeng Y, Pan I, Wu M. Androgen Receptor Coactivator ARID4B Is Required for the Function of Sertoli Cells in Spermatogenesis. Mol Endocrinol. 2015;29:1334-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our study identified ARID4B to be a key regulator of Sertoli cell function important for male germ cell development. ..
  24. Wada R, Tifft C, Proia R. Microglial activation precedes acute neurodegeneration in Sandhoff disease and is suppressed by bone marrow transplantation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:10954-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, this lysosomal storage disease has parallels to other neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and prion diseases, where inflammatory processes are believed to participate directly in neuronal cell death...
  25. Yoon H, Lee D, Kim M, Bok J. Identification of genes concordantly expressed with Atoh1 during inner ear development. Anat Cell Biol. 2011;44:69-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, by reanalyzing archived genetic profiling data, we identified a list of novel genes possibly involved in hair cell differentiation. ..
  26. Chowdhury A, Hossain M, Rahman M, Nishimura K, Jisaka M, Nagaya T, et al. Sustained expression of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in the antisense direction positively regulates adipogenesis in cloned cultured preadipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;411:287-92 pubmed publisher
    Adipocytes express preferentially lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG)D synthase (L-PGDS) that is responsible for the biosynthesis of PGD(2) and other related prostanoids with pro-adipogenic or anti-adipogenic effects...
  27. Wilhelm D, Martinson F, Bradford S, Wilson M, Combes A, Beverdam A, et al. Sertoli cell differentiation is induced both cell-autonomously and through prostaglandin signaling during mammalian sex determination. Dev Biol. 2005;287:111-24 pubmed
    ..Finally, we showed by employing specific inhibitors that the causative signaling molecule is prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) and that PGD2 can induce Sox9 transcription in cultured XX gonads...
  28. Chan P, Simon Chazottes D, Mattei M, Guenet J, Salier J. Comparative mapping of lipocalin genes in human and mouse: the four genes for complement C8 gamma chain, prostaglandin-D-synthase, oncogene-24p3, and progestagen-associated endometrial protein map to HSA9 and MMU2. Genomics. 1994;23:145-50 pubmed
    ..complement C8 gamma chain (C8G), progestagen-associated endometrial protein (PAEP), and prostaglandin D synthase (PTGDS) are also located...
  29. Takeda K, Takahashi N, Yoshizawa M, Shibahara S. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase as a regulator of the retinoic acid signalling in melanocytes. J Biochem. 2010;148:139-48 pubmed publisher
    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) catalyses the formation of prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) and also functions as a transporter for lipophilic ligands, including all-trans retinoic acid (RA)...
  30. Hoffmann A, Gath U, Gross G, Lauber J, Getzlaff R, Hellwig S, et al. Constitutive secretion of beta-trace protein by cultivated porcine choroid plexus epithelial cells: elucidation of its complete amino acid and cDNA sequences. J Cell Physiol. 1996;169:235-41 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this in vitro culture system may be used as a versatile tool for studying the regulation of the formation of cerebrospinal fluid. ..
  31. Torres D, Paget C, Fontaine J, Mallevaey T, Matsuoka T, Maruyama T, et al. Prostaglandin D2 inhibits the production of IFN-gamma by invariant NK T cells: consequences in the control of B16 melanoma. J Immunol. 2008;180:783-92 pubmed
    ..In this study, we addressed the question of whether PGD2, a potent eicosanoid lipid mediator involved in immune responses and inflammation, could be important in DC/iNKT ..
  32. Virtue S, Feldmann H, Christian M, Tan C, Masoodi M, Dale M, et al. A new role for lipocalin prostaglandin d synthase in the regulation of brown adipose tissue substrate utilization. Diabetes. 2012;61:3139-47 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we define a new role for lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) in the control of metabolic fuel utilization by brown adipose tissue (BAT)...
  33. Kume T, Deng K, Winfrey V, Gould D, Walter M, Hogan B. The forkhead/winged helix gene Mf1 is disrupted in the pleiotropic mouse mutation congenital hydrocephalus. Cell. 1998;93:985-96 pubmed
  34. Hokari R, Kurihara C, Nagata N, Aritake K, Okada Y, Watanabe C, et al. Increased expression of lipocalin-type-prostaglandin D synthase in ulcerative colitis and exacerbating role in murine colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011;300:G401-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the expression of enzymes for PGD(2) synthesis, prostaglandin D synthase (PGDS), and its relation to the activity of colitis in UC patients...
  35. Zhao W, Jiang B, Hu H, Zhang S, Lv S, Yuan J, et al. Lack of CUL4B leads to increased abundance of GFAP-positive cells that is mediated by PTGDS in mouse brain. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:4686-97 pubmed publisher
    ..that the increased generation of GFAP+ cells from Cul4b-null NPCs was mediated by an upregulation of prostaglandin D2 synthase PTGDS...
  36. Virtue S, Masoodi M, Velagapudi V, Tan C, Dale M, Suorti T, et al. Lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase and PPAR?2 coordinate to regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in vivo. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39512 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice lacking PPAR?2 were found to have elevated levels of Lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) expression in BAT and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT)...
  37. Mong J, Devidze N, Goodwillie A, Pfaff D. Reduction of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in the preoptic area of female mice mimics estradiol effects on arousal and sex behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15206-11 pubmed
    ..Catalytic activity of L-PGDS produces PGD2, an endogenous somnogen...
  38. Evans J, Islam S, Urade Y, Eguchi N, Ragolia L. The lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase knockout mouse model of insulin resistance and obesity demonstrates early hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hyperactivity. J Endocrinol. 2013;216:169-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the lipocalin-type prostaglandin D(2) synthase (L-PGDS) knockout (KO) mouse is a model of accelerated insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and obesity, it was further ..
  39. Taketomi Y, Ueno N, Kojima T, Sato H, Murase R, Yamamoto K, et al. Mast cell maturation is driven via a group III phospholipase A2-prostaglandin D2-DP1 receptor paracrine axis. Nat Immunol. 2013;14:554-63 pubmed publisher
    ..PLA2G3 secreted from mast cells is coupled with fibroblastic lipocalin-type PGD2 synthase (L-PGDS) to provide PGD2, which facilitates mast-cell maturation via PGD2 receptor DP1...
  40. Garza L, Liu Y, Yang Z, Alagesan B, Lawson J, Norberg S, et al. Prostaglandin D2 inhibits hair growth and is elevated in bald scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia. Sci Transl Med. 2012;4:126ra34 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that prostaglandin D(2) synthase (PTGDS) is elevated at the mRNA and protein levels in bald scalp compared to haired scalp of men with AGA...
  41. Tachibana M, Nozaki M, Takeda N, Shinkai Y. Functional dynamics of H3K9 methylation during meiotic prophase progression. EMBO J. 2007;26:3346-59 pubmed
    ..This genetic and biochemical evidence strongly suggests that a specific set of H3K9 methyltransferase(s) and demethylase(s) coordinately regulate gametogenesis. ..
  42. Shyu R, Wu C, Wang C, Tsai T, Wang L, Chen M, et al. H-rev107 regulates prostaglandin D2 synthase-mediated suppression of cellular invasion in testicular cancer cells. J Biomed Sci. 2013;20:30 pubmed publisher
    ..Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is conjectured to induce SRY-related high-mobility group box 9 (SOX9) expression and subsequent Sertoli cell ..
  43. Yoon Y, Lee Y, Choi Y, Park Y, Kang J. Macrophages programmed by apoptotic cells inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition in lung alveolar epithelial cells via PGE2, PGD2, and HGF. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20992 pubmed publisher
    ..Y-27632 and RhoA siRNA) and LA-4 cells to antagonists of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor (EP4 [AH-23848]), PGD2 receptors (DP1 [BW-A868C] and DP2 [BAY-u3405]), or the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor c-Met (PHA-665752), ..
  44. Fouchécourt S, Charpigny G, Reinaud P, Dumont P, Dacheux J. Mammalian lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase in the fluids of the male genital tract: putative biochemical and physiological functions. Biol Reprod. 2002;66:458-67 pubmed
    b>Prostaglandin D2 synthase (PGDS) is a major epididymal secretory protein in several species. We quantified PGDS in ram and bull semen using a specific antiserum. Strong variations in PGDS concentration existed between animals...
  45. Joo M, Kwon M, Sadikot R, Kingsley P, Marnett L, Blackwell T, et al. Induction and function of lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase in host immunity. J Immunol. 2007;179:2565-75 pubmed
    Although mainly expressed in neuronal cells, lipocalin-type PGD synthase (L-PGDS) is detected in the macrophages infiltrated to atherosclerotic plaques...
  46. Mong J, Devidze N, Frail D, O Connor L, Samuel M, Choleris E, et al. Estradiol differentially regulates lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase transcript levels in the rodent brain: Evidence from high-density oligonucleotide arrays and in situ hybridization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:318-23 pubmed
    ..Most striking is lipocalin prostaglandin D(2) synthase (L-PGDS), which catalyzes the conversion of prostaglandin (PG) H(2) to PGD(2), a neuromodulator involved in a variety of ..
  47. Taniike M, Mohri I, Eguchi N, Beuckmann C, Suzuki K, Urade Y. Perineuronal oligodendrocytes protect against neuronal apoptosis through the production of lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase in a genetic demyelinating model. J Neurosci. 2002;22:4885-96 pubmed
    ..Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS), a protein expressed in mature OLs, was progressively upregulated in twitcher OLs; whereas expression of OL-..
  48. Kanaoka Y, Fujimori K, Kikuno R, Sakaguchi Y, Urade Y, Hayaishi O. Structure and chromosomal localization of human and mouse genes for hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase. Conservation of the ancestral genomic structure of sigma-class glutathione S-transferase. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267:3315-22 pubmed
    Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS) is the key enzyme for the production of the D and J series of prostanoids, and the first recognized vertebrate homolog of sigma-class glutathione S-transferase (GST)...
  49. Su B, Guan M, Zhao R, Lu Y. Expression of prostaglandin D synthase in ovarian cancer. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2001;39:1198-203 pubmed
    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) has recently been shown to be expressed in human brain tumors and breast tumors. However, L-PGDS expression has not been investigated in ovarian cancer...
  50. Maicas N, Ibáñez L, Alcaraz M, Ubeda A, Ferrándiz M. Prostaglandin D2 regulates joint inflammation and destruction in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:130-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of hematopoietic PGD synthase (h-PGDS), lipocalin-type PGD synthase (l-PGDS), and DP1 and DP2 receptors was analyzed by immunohistochemical methods...
  51. Moniot B, Farhat A, Aritake K, Declosmenil F, Nef S, Eguchi N, et al. Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (H-Pgds) is expressed in the early embryonic gonad and participates to the initial nuclear translocation of the SOX9 protein. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2335-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Sox9 gene expression and SOX9 protein subcellular localization through lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase (L-Pgds) activity...
  52. Fouchécourt S, Chaurand P, DaGue B, Lareyre J, Matusik R, Caprioli R, et al. Epididymal lipocalin-type prostaglandin D2 synthase: identification using mass spectrometry, messenger RNA localization, and immunodetection in mouse, rat, hamster, and monkey. Biol Reprod. 2002;66:524-33 pubmed
    This study identified prostaglandin D2 synthase (PGDS) in murine epididymal fluid using a proteomic approach combining two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS)...
  53. Hasthorpe S, Tainton K, Peart M, Roeszler K, Bell K, Lusby P, et al. G2/M checkpoint gene expression in developing germ cells. Mol Reprod Dev. 2007;74:531-8 pubmed
    ..02) mRNA. Although we do not fully understand the role checkpoint gene expression has during mammalian germ cell development this report is the first to show the expression of checkpoint-related genes in early mammalian germ cells. ..
  54. Reddy S, Winstead M, Tischfield J, Herschman H. Analysis of the secretory phospholipase A2 that mediates prostaglandin production in mast cells. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:13591-6 pubmed
    Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) synthesis in activated mast cells occurs in two phases, an early phase that is dependent on prostaglandin synthase 1 and a delayed phase that is dependent on activation-induced prostaglandin synthase 2 gene ..
  55. Mohri I, Aritake K, Taniguchi H, Sato Y, Kamauchi S, Nagata N, et al. Inhibition of prostaglandin D synthase suppresses muscular necrosis. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:1735-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that HPGDS augments inflammation, which is followed by muscle injury. Furthermore, the inhibition of HPGDS ameliorates muscle necrosis even in cases of genetic muscular dystrophy. ..
  56. Gandhi U, Kaushal N, Ravindra K, Hegde S, Nelson S, Narayan V, et al. Selenoprotein-dependent up-regulation of hematopoietic prostaglandin D2 synthase in macrophages is mediated through the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:27471-82 pubmed publisher
    ..A dose-dependent increase in the expression of hematopoietic-PGD(2) synthase (H-PGDS) by selenium and a corresponding increase in ?(12)-PGJ(2) and 15d-PGJ(2) in RAW264...
  57. Trimarco A, Forese M, Alfieri V, Lucente A, Brambilla P, Dina G, et al. Prostaglandin D2 synthase/GPR44: a signaling axis in PNS myelination. Nat Neurosci. 2014;17:1682-92 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the intracellular domain of neuregulin 1 type III upregulated the prostaglandin D2 synthase (L-pgds, also known as Ptgds) gene, which, together with the G protein-coupled receptor Gpr44, forms a ..
  58. Wu T, Fu Y, Brekken D, Yan M, Zhou X, Vanarsa K, et al. Urine proteome scans uncover total urinary protease, prostaglandin D synthase, serum amyloid P, and superoxide dismutase as potential markers of lupus nephritis. J Immunol. 2010;184:2183-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings could have important diagnostic and prognostic ramifications in the management of these renal diatheses. ..
  59. . International Colloquium on beta-trace. Osaka, Japan, November 17, 1995. Abstracts. Prostaglandins. 1996;51:275-306 pubmed
  60. Li Y, Zhang L, Hu Y, Han F, Qin Y, Chen M, et al. β-Catenin directs the transformation of testis Sertoli cells to ovarian granulosa-like cells by inducing Foxl2 expression. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:17577-17586 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides a new mechanism for Sertoli cell lineage maintenance during gonad development. ..
  61. Qin S, Shimamoto S, Maruno T, Kobayashi Y, Kawahara K, Yoshida T, et al. Thermodynamic and NMR analyses of NADPH binding to lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015;468:234-9 pubmed publisher
    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is one of the most abundant proteins in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with dual functions as a prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) synthase and a transporter of lipophilic ligands...
  62. Omori K, Morikawa T, Kunita A, Nakamura T, Aritake K, Urade Y, et al. Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase-derived PGD2 attenuates malignant properties of tumor endothelial cells. J Pathol. 2018;244:84-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we found a marked increase in lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) mRNA (Ptgds) expression in ECs isolated from mouse melanoma...
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    ..Our results demonstrate that RSPO1/?-catenin signaling is involved in meiosis in fetal germ cells and contributes to the cellular decision of germ cells to differentiate into oocyte or sperm...
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    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) is a dual-functioning protein in the lipocalin family, acting as a PGD(2)-synthesizing enzyme and as an extracellular transporter for small lipophilic molecules...
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    ..In wild-type testes, CUG-BP1 is expressed in germ cells from spermatogonia to round spermatids and also in Sertoli and Leydig cells. These findings demonstrate that CUG-BP1 is required for completion of spermatogenesis. ..
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    ..No similar effect was observed in 721.174 mutant cells, in which a homozygous deletion includes PSF among several other closely linked genes. At least one of these genes may therefore also be required for PSF function. ..
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    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) expressed preferentially in adipocytes is responsible for the synthesis of PGD(2) and its non-enzymatic dehydration products, PGJ(2) series, serving as pro-adipogenic factors...
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    ..presumptive Sertoli cells begin to differentiate when SRY up-regulates SOX9, which in turn activates FGF9 and PGDS to maintain its own expression...
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    ..Together, these results support a role of TopIIbeta in activation/repression of developmentally regulated genes at late stages of neuronal differentiation. ..
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    Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) is responsible for the production of PGD(2), the main PG in the CNS...
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