Gene Symbol: Prrxl1
Description: paired related homeobox protein-like 1
Alias: Drg11, Drgx, dorsal root ganglia homeobox protein, dorsal root ganglion 11, homeobox protein DRG11, paired homeodomain protein DRG11, paired related homeobox protein-like 1b
Species: mouse
Products:     Prrxl1

Top Publications

  1. Rebelo S, Reguenga C, Lopes C, Lima D. Prrxl1 is required for the generation of a subset of nociceptive glutamatergic superficial spinal dorsal horn neurons. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:1684-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrate that the differential expression of the homeodomain transcription factors Prrxl1 (DRG11), Tlx3, and Lmx1b defines various subpopulations of spinal cord dorsal horn glutamatergic early born and ..
  2. Soares Dos Reis R, Pessoa A, Dias A, Falcão M, Matos M, Vitorino R, et al. A role for prolyl isomerase PIN1 in the phosphorylation-dependent modulation of PRRXL1 function. Biochem J. 2017;474:683-697 pubmed publisher
    i>Prrxl1 encodes for a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor essential for the correct establishment of the dorsal root ganglion - spinal cord nociceptive circuitry during development...
  3. Rebelo S, Reguenga C, Osório L, Pereira C, Lopes C, Lima D. DRG11 immunohistochemical expression during embryonic development in the mouse. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2653-60 pubmed
    b>DRG11 is a paired domain transcription factor that is necessary for the assembly of the nociceptive circuitry in the spinal cord dorsal horn...
  4. Monteiro C, Costa M, Reguenga C, Lima D, Castro D, Monteiro F. Paired related homeobox protein-like 1 (Prrxl1) controls its own expression by a transcriptional autorepression mechanism. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:3475-82 pubmed publisher
    The homeodomain factor paired related homeobox protein-like 1 (Prrxl1) is crucial for proper assembly of dorsal root ganglia (DRG)-dorsal spinal cord (SC) pain-sensing circuit...
  5. D Autréaux F, Coppola E, Hirsch M, Birchmeier C, Brunet J. Homeoprotein Phox2b commands a somatic-to-visceral switch in cranial sensory pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20018-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the cranial sensory pathways, somatic and visceral, are related, and Phox2b serves as a developmental switch from the former to the latter...
  6. Rebelo S, Chen Z, Anderson D, Lima D. Involvement of DRG11 in the development of the primary afferent nociceptive system. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2006;33:236-46 pubmed
    ..This study addresses the role played by DRG11, a transcription factor expressed in the spinal area of projection of small-diameter DRG neurons, in the ..
  7. Chen Z, Rebelo S, White F, Malmberg A, Baba H, Lima D, et al. The paired homeodomain protein DRG11 is required for the projection of cutaneous sensory afferent fibers to the dorsal spinal cord. Neuron. 2001;31:59-73 pubmed
    ..b>DRG11, a paired homeodomain transcription factor, is expressed in both the developing dorsal horn and in sensory neurons,..
  8. Wang C, Shi M, Yang L, Yang R, Luo Z, Jacquin M, et al. Development of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus requires a paired homeodomain transcription factor, Drg11. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2007;35:368-76 pubmed
    ..Evidence is provided here that transcription factor Drg11 is required for Me5 development...
  9. Monteiro C, Rebelo S, Galhardo V, Reguenga C, Lima D. Postnatal expression of the homeobox gene Prrxl1 (Drg11) is increased in inflammatory but not neuropathic pain. Eur J Pain. 2011;15:477-81 pubmed publisher
    The paired-type homeodomain transcription factor Prrxl1 (also known as Drg11) is a key regulator of the differentiation and survival of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and spinal nociceptive neurons in pre- and perinatal stages...

More Information


  1. Mirza R, Kivrak B, Erzurumlu R. Cooperative slit and netrin signaling in contralateralization of the mouse trigeminothalamic pathway. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:312-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our studies indicate a cooperative role for netrin and slit proteins in midline attraction and crossing behavior of the ascending facial somatosensory projections during development. ..
  2. John A, Brylka H, Wiegreffe C, Simon R, Liu P, Jüttner R, et al. Bcl11a is required for neuronal morphogenesis and sensory circuit formation in dorsal spinal cord development. Development. 2012;139:1831-41 pubmed publisher
  3. Dykes I, Tempest L, Lee S, Turner E. Brn3a and Islet1 act epistatically to regulate the gene expression program of sensory differentiation. J Neurosci. 2011;31:9789-99 pubmed publisher
  4. Rebelo S, Lopes C, Lima D, Reguenga C. Expression of a Prrxl1 alternative splice variant during the development of the mouse nociceptive system. Int J Dev Biol. 2009;53:1089-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The paired-type homedomain transcription factor Prrxl1 (formerly known as Drg11) was described as a key regulator of the differentiation of the spinal cord neuronal ..
  5. Holstege J, de Graaff W, Hossaini M, Cardona Cano S, Jaarsma D, van den Akker E, et al. Loss of Hoxb8 alters spinal dorsal laminae and sensory responses in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6338-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The data therefore suggest that a lower number of neurons in the upper spinal laminae and neuronal disorganization in the dorsal horn underlie the sensory defects including the excessive grooming of the Hoxb8 mutant. ..
  6. Qian Y, Shirasawa S, Chen C, Cheng L, Ma Q. Proper development of relay somatic sensory neurons and D2/D4 interneurons requires homeobox genes Rnx/Tlx-3 and Tlx-1. Genes Dev. 2002;16:1220-33 pubmed
    ..Rnx and Tlx-1 maintain expression of Drg11, a homeobox gene critical for the development of pain circuitry, and are essential for the ingrowth of trkA+ ..
  7. Ding Y, Yin J, Xu H, Jacquin M, Chen Z. Formation of whisker-related principal sensory nucleus-based lemniscal pathway requires a paired homeodomain transcription factor, Drg11. J Neurosci. 2003;23:7246-54 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that mice lacking Drg11, a homeodomain transcription factor, exhibit defects within the PrV, which include an aberrant distribution of ..
  8. Vogelaar C, Hoekman M, Brakkee J, Bogerd J, Burbach J. Developmental regulation of homeobox gene expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons is not recapitulated during regeneration of the crushed sciatic nerve. Neuroscience. 2004;125:645-50 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the relative mRNA expression levels of Isl1 decreased shortly after crush, but those of DRG11, Lmx1b, and Pax3 did not change after crush...
  9. Monteiro C, Midão L, Rebelo S, Reguenga C, Lima D, Monteiro F. Zinc finger transcription factor Casz1 expression is regulated by homeodomain transcription factor Prrxl1 in embryonic spinal dorsal horn late-born excitatory interneurons. Eur J Neurosci. 2016;43:1449-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, expression analyses using Prrxl1-knockout mice revealed that Prrxl1, a key transcription factor in the differentiation of dILB neurons, is a ..
  10. Meziane H, Fraulob V, Riet F, Krezel W, Selloum M, Geffarth M, et al. The homeodomain factor Gbx1 is required for locomotion and cell specification in the dorsal spinal cord. Peerj. 2013;1:e142 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study unveiled a role for Gbx1 in specifying a subset of GABAergic neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord involved in the control of posterior limb movement. ..
  11. Honma Y, Kawano M, Kohsaka S, Ogawa M. Axonal projections of mechanoreceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons depend on Ret. Development. 2010;137:2319-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that Ret expression in DRG neurons is crucial for the neurturin-mediated formation of precise axonal projections in the central nervous system. ..
  12. Sieber M, Storm R, Martinez de la Torre M, Muller T, Wende H, Reuter K, et al. Lbx1 acts as a selector gene in the fate determination of somatosensory and viscerosensory relay neurons in the hindbrain. J Neurosci. 2007;27:4902-9 pubmed
    ..In Lbx1 mutant mice, viscerosensory relay neurons are specified at the expense of somatosensory relay neurons. Thus Lbx1 expression distinguishes between the somatosensory or viscerosensory fate of relay neurons. ..
  13. Monteiro C, Cardoso Cruz H, Matos M, Dourado M, Lima D, Galhardo V. Increased fronto-hippocampal connectivity in the Prrxl1 knockout mouse model of congenital hypoalgesia. Pain. 2016;157:2045-56 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we used the Prrxl1 model of congenital mild hypoalgesia to conduct a detailed study of the neurophysiological and behavioral ..
  14. Bakalar D, Tamaiev J, Zeigler H, Feinstein P. Abolition of lemniscal barrellette patterning in Prrxl1 knockout mice: Effects upon ingestive behavior. Somatosens Mot Res. 2015;32:236-48 pubmed publisher
    ..the parallel paralemniscal pathway. The paired-like homeodomain protein Prrxl1 is expressed widely in the brain and spinal cord, including the trigeminal system...
  15. Regadas I, Soares Dos Reis R, Falcão M, Matos M, Monteiro F, Lima D, et al. Dual role of Tlx3 as modulator of Prrxl1 transcription and phosphorylation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1839:1121-31 pubmed publisher
    ..ganglion/spinal cord nociceptive circuitry depends on a group of homeodomain transcription factors that includes Prrxl1, Brn3a and Tlx3...
  16. Regadas I, Matos M, Monteiro F, Gomez Skarmeta J, Lima D, Bessa J, et al. Several cis-regulatory elements control mRNA stability, translation efficiency, and expression pattern of Prrxl1 (paired related homeobox protein-like 1). J Biol Chem. 2013;288:36285-301 pubmed publisher
    The homeodomain transcription factor Prrxl1/DRG11 has emerged as a crucial molecule in the establishment of the pain circuitry, in particular spinal cord targeting of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) axons and differentiation of nociceptive ..
  17. Soares Dos Reis R, Pessoa A, Matos M, Falcão M, Mendes V, Manadas B, et al. Ser¹¹? phosphorylation modulates the activity and conformation of PRRXL1, a homeodomain transcription factor. Biochem J. 2014;459:441-53 pubmed publisher
    b>PRRXL1 [paired related homeobox-like 1; also known as DRG11 (dorsal root ganglia 11)] is a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor expressed in DRG and dSC (dorsal spinal cord) nociceptive neurons...
  18. Jacquin M, Arends J, Xiang C, Shapiro L, Ribak C, Chen Z. In DRG11 knock-out mice, trigeminal cell death is extensive and does not account for failed brainstem patterning. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3577-85 pubmed publisher
    A previous study (Ding et al., 2003) showed that the homeodomain transcription factor DRG11 is necessary for pattern formation in the trigeminal nucleus principalis (PrV), the requisite brainstem nucleus for development of the whisker-to-..
  19. Espana A, Clotman F. Onecut factors control development of the Locus Coeruleus and of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2012;50:93-102 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, we propose that OC factors are required at early developmental stages for differentiation of the MTN neurons that are in turn necessary for maintenance of the LC. ..
  20. Samad T, Srinivasan A, Karchewski L, Jeong S, Campagna J, Ji R, et al. DRAGON: a member of the repulsive guidance molecule-related family of neuronal- and muscle-expressed membrane proteins is regulated by DRG11 and has neuronal adhesive properties. J Neurosci. 2004;24:2027-36 pubmed
    b>DRG11, a transcription factor expressed in embryonic dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and dorsal horn neurons, has a role in the development of sensory circuits...
  21. Rhinn M, Miyoshi K, Watanabe A, Kawaguchi M, Ito F, Kuratani S, et al. Evolutionary divergence of trigeminal nerve somatotopy in amniotes. J Comp Neurol. 2013;521:1378-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, using the turtle and chick orthologs of Drg11 in combination with Hoxa2 expression and axonal tracings from the periphery, we mapped the chick PrV nucleus ..
  22. Laumonnerie C, Bechara A, Vilain N, Kurihara Y, Kurihara H, Rijli F. Facial whisker pattern is not sufficient to instruct a whisker-related topographic map in the mouse somatosensory brainstem. Development. 2015;142:3704-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide novel insights into periphery-dependent versus periphery-independent mechanisms of trigeminal ganglion and brainstem patterning in matching whisker topography. ..
  23. Gross M, Dottori M, Goulding M. Lbx1 specifies somatosensory association interneurons in the dorsal spinal cord. Neuron. 2002;34:535-49 pubmed
    ..Lbx1, therefore, plays a critical role in the development of sensory pathways in the spinal cord that relay pain and touch. ..
  24. Oury F, Murakami Y, Renaud J, Pasqualetti M, Charnay P, Ren S, et al. Hoxa2- and rhombomere-dependent development of the mouse facial somatosensory map. Science. 2006;313:1408-13 pubmed
    ..Thus, Hoxa2- and rhombomere 3-dependent cues determine the whisker area map and are required for the assembly of the whisker-to-barrel somatosensory circuit. ..
  25. Xiang C, Zhang K, Yin J, Arends J, Erzurumlu R, Jacquin M, et al. The transcription factor, Lmx1b, is necessary for the development of the principal trigeminal nucleus-based lemniscal pathway. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;44:394-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of Drg11, a downstream transcription factor essential for PrV development and pattern formation, is abolished in PrV, but ..