Gene Symbol: Prrx2
Description: paired related homeobox 2
Alias: Prx2, paired mesoderm homeobox protein 2, PRX-2, homeo box of paired rule, homeobox protein S8, surface antigen, homeo box of paired rule
Species: mouse
Products:     Prrx2

Top Publications

  1. Depew M, Lufkin T, Rubenstein J. Specification of jaw subdivisions by Dlx genes. Science. 2002;298:381-5 pubmed
    ..We suggest that nested Dlx expression in the arches patterns their proximodistal axes. Evolutionary acquisition and subsequent refinement of jaws may have been dependent on modification of Dlx expression. ..
  2. Barbosa A, Funato N, Chapman S, McKee M, Richardson J, Olson E, et al. Hand transcription factors cooperatively regulate development of the distal midline mesenchyme. Dev Biol. 2007;310:154-68 pubmed
    ..5, dysregulation of Pax9, Msx2 and Prx2 was observed in the distal mesenchyme at E12.5...
  3. Haas I, Simon Chazottes D, Guenet J. The gene coding for the immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein BiP (Hsce-70) maps to mouse chromosome 2. Mamm Genome. 1992;3:659-60 pubmed
  4. Mitchell J, Hicklin D, Doughty P, Hicklin J, Dickert J, Tolbert S, et al. The Prx1 homeobox gene is critical for molar tooth morphogenesis. J Dent Res. 2006;85:888-93 pubmed
    The paired-related homeobox genes, Prx1 and Prx2, encode transcription factors critical for orofacial development. Prx1(-/-)/Prx2(-/-) neonates have mandibular hypoplasia and malformed mandibular incisors...
  5. Brunskill E, Witte D, Yutzey K, Potter S. Novel cell lines promote the discovery of genes involved in early heart development. Dev Biol. 2001;235:507-20 pubmed
    ..The results show that the 1H and ECL-2 cell lines can be used to discover novel genes expressed in the early cardiomyocyte. ..
  6. Bergwerff M, Gittenberger de Groot A, Wisse L, DeRuiter M, Wessels A, Martin J, et al. Loss of function of the Prx1 and Prx2 homeobox genes alters architecture of the great elastic arteries and ductus arteriosus. Virchows Arch. 2000;436:12-9 pubmed
    Prx1 (MHox) and Prx2 (S8) are non-clustered homeobox genes that are expressed in a complex, mostly mesenchyme-specific pattern throughout embryogenesis...
  7. Karg H, Burger E, Lyaruu D, Bronckers A, Woltgens J. Spatiotemporal expression of the homeobox gene S8 during mouse tooth development. Arch Oral Biol. 1997;42:625-31 pubmed
    ..It is speculated that the time-restricted expression of S8 in tooth primordia involves establishing the definitive form of the tooth organ. ..
  8. Matte A, De Falco L, Iolascon A, Mohandas N, An X, Siciliano A, et al. The Interplay Between Peroxiredoxin-2 and Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2 Is Important in Limiting Oxidative Mediated Dysfunction in β-Thalassemic Erythropoiesis. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2015;23:1284-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Peroxiredoxin-2 (Prx2), a typical 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin, is upregulated during β-thalassemic erythropoiesis, but its contribution ..
  9. Vitelli F, Viola A, Morishima M, Pramparo T, Baldini A, Lindsay E. TBX1 is required for inner ear morphogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:2041-8 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that Tbx1 deletion in del22q11 patients may cause not only external and middle ear defects but also sensorineural and vestibular phenotypes observed in these patients. ..

More Information


  1. Moisan V, Bomgardner D, Tremblay J. Expression of the Ladybird-like homeobox 2 transcription factor in the developing mouse testis and epididymis. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:22 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data suggest that the homeoprotein Lbx2 might be involved in the regulation of male reproductive system development and cell differentiation as well as in male epididymal segmentation. ..
  2. Beccari L, Yakushiji Kaminatsui N, Woltering J, Necsulea A, Lonfat N, Rodríguez Carballo E, et al. A role for HOX13 proteins in the regulatory switch between TADs at the HoxD locus. Genes Dev. 2016;30:1172-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of HOX13 proteins, a proximal limb structure grows without any sign of wrist articulation, likely related to an ancestral fish-like condition. ..
  3. Norris R, Scott K, Moore C, Stetten G, Brown C, Jabs E, et al. Human PRRX1 and PRRX2 genes: cloning, expression, genomic localization, and exclusion as disease genes for Nager syndrome. Mamm Genome. 2000;11:1000-5 pubmed
    In this study, we extend our examination of the function of the Prrx1 (a.k.a Mhox, Prx1, K-2, and Pmx1) as well as Prrx2 (a.k.a...
  4. Opstelten D, Vogels R, Robert B, Kalkhoven E, Zwartkruis F, de Laaf L, et al. The mouse homeobox gene, S8, is expressed during embryogenesis predominantly in mesenchyme. Mech Dev. 1991;34:29-41 pubmed
    ..This pattern differs considerably from that of most previously described homeobox containing genes. By genetic analysis, the gene was located on chromosome 2, about 20 cM from the HOX-4 cluster. ..
  5. Jiang Y, Kong S, He B, Wang B, Wang H, Lu J. Uterine Prx2 restrains decidual differentiation through inhibiting lipolysis in mice. Cell Tissue Res. 2016;365:403-14 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Prx2, an evolutionarily conserved homeobox transcription factor expressed in both embryos and adults, plays an important ..
  6. Robledo R, Lufkin T. Dlx5 and Dlx6 homeobox genes are required for specification of the mammalian vestibular apparatus. Genesis. 2006;44:425-37 pubmed
    ..Given their proximity to the disease locus and the observed phenotype in Dlx5/6 null mice, Dlx5/6 are likely candidates to mediate the inner ear defects observed in patients with split hand/split foot malformation. ..
  7. Balic A, Adams D, Mina M. Prx1 and Prx2 cooperatively regulate the morphogenesis of the medial region of the mandibular process. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2599-613 pubmed publisher
    Mice lacking both Prx1 and Prx2 display severe abnormalities in the mandible. Our analysis showed that complete loss of Prx gene products leads to growth abnormalities in the mandibular processes evident as early as embryonic day (E) 10...
  8. ten Berge D, Brouwer A, el Bahi S, Guenet J, Robert B, Meijlink F. Mouse Alx3: an aristaless-like homeobox gene expressed during embryogenesis in ectomesenchyme and lateral plate mesoderm. Dev Biol. 1998;199:11-25 pubmed
    ..homeobox gene that is related to the Drosophila aristaless gene and to a group of vertebrate genes including Prx1, Prx2, Cart1, and Alx4...
  9. Conway S, Henderson D, Copp A. Pax3 is required for cardiac neural crest migration in the mouse: evidence from the splotch (Sp2H) mutant. Development. 1997;124:505-14 pubmed down-regulation of Pax3 in neural crest cells, as use of independent neural crest markers, Hoxa-3, CrabpI, Prx1, Prx2 and c-met also revealed a deficiency of migrating cardiac neural crest cells in homozygous embryos...
  10. Leussink B, Brouwer A, El Khattabi M, Poelmann R, Gittenberger de Groot A, Meijlink F. Expression patterns of the paired-related homeobox genes MHox/Prx1 and S8/Prx2 suggest roles in development of the heart and the forebrain. Mech Dev. 1995;52:51-64 pubmed
    Prx1 and Prx2 (previously called MHox and S8, respectively) are the members of a small subfamily of vertebrate homeobox genes expressed during embryogenesis from gastrulation onwards...
  11. Kelly R, Jerome Majewska L, Papaioannou V. The del22q11.2 candidate gene Tbx1 regulates branchiomeric myogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:2829-40 pubmed
    ..While no abnormalities in branchiomeric myogenesis were detected in Tbx1(+/-) mice, reduced TBX1 levels may contribute to pharyngeal hypotonia in del22q11.2 patients...
  12. Park S, Kim J, Kim T, Lee S, Park J, Lee S, et al. Peroxiredoxin 2 regulates PGF2α-induced corpus luteum regression in mice by inhibiting ROS-dependent JNK activation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017;108:44-55 pubmed publisher
    ..It is well known that PGF2α-mediated ROS generation is closely involved in luteal regression. Peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) as an antioxidant enzyme plays a protective role against oxidative stress-induced cell death...
  13. Tribioli C, Robledo R, Lufkin T. The murine fork head gene Foxn2 is expressed in craniofacial, limb, CNS and somitic tissues during embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 2002;118:161-3 pubmed
    ..The dynamic and specific expression of Foxn2 during embryonic development suggest multiple independent roles for Foxn2 function during gestation. ..
  14. Zhang Y, Blackwell E, McKnight M, Knutsen G, Vu W, Ruest L. Specific inactivation of Twist1 in the mandibular arch neural crest cells affects the development of the ramus and reveals interactions with hand2. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:924-40 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the role of Twist1 during mandibular development, we used the Hand2-Cre transgene to conditionally inactivate the gene in the neural crest cells populating the mandibular pharyngeal arch...
  15. Scott K, Norris R, Potter S, Norrington D, Baybo M, Hicklin D, et al. GeneChip microarrays facilitate identification of Protease Nexin-1 as a target gene of the Prx2 (S8) homeoprotein. DNA Cell Biol. 2003;22:95-105 pubmed
    The paired-related homeobox genes, Prx1 and Prx2, are important for normal skeletal and cardiovascular development as well as adult vascular remodeling...
  16. d Graaff W, Tomotsune D, Oosterveen T, Takihara Y, Koseki H, Deschamps J. Randomly inserted and targeted Hox/reporter fusions transcriptionally silenced in Polycomb mutants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:13362-7 pubmed
  17. ten Berge D, Brouwer A, Korving J, Reijnen M, van Raaij E, Verbeek F, et al. Prx1 and Prx2 are upstream regulators of sonic hedgehog and control cell proliferation during mandibular arch morphogenesis. Development. 2001;128:2929-38 pubmed
    The aristaless-related homeobox genes Prx1 and Prx2 are required for correct skeletogenesis in many structures...
  18. Brinkmeier M, Davis S, Carninci P, MacDonald J, Kawai J, Ghosh D, et al. Discovery of transcriptional regulators and signaling pathways in the developing pituitary gland by bioinformatic and genomic approaches. Genomics. 2009;93:449-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes are exciting candidates for regulators of pituitary development and function. ..
  19. Lee K, Park J, Kim Y, Soo Lee Y, Sook Hwang T, Kim D, et al. Differential expression of Prx I and II in mouse testis and their up-regulation by radiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:337-42 pubmed
    ..Taken together, we suggest that the relative radiation-resistance of Leydig and Sertoli cells could be attributed in part to the antioxidant function of the Prx system in these cells. ..
  20. Ozeki H, Kurihara Y, Tonami K, Watatani S, Kurihara H. Endothelin-1 regulates the dorsoventral branchial arch patterning in mice. Mech Dev. 2004;121:387-95 pubmed
    ..significantly downregulated in the ET-1(-/-) mutant, whereas the expression of Dlx2 and the maxillary marker gene Prx2 is unaffected or rather upregulated...
  21. De Jong R, Meijlink F. The homeobox gene S8: mesoderm-specific expression in presomite embryos and in cells cultured in vitro and modulation in differentiating pluripotent cells. Dev Biol. 1993;157:133-46 pubmed
    ..S8 is activated by retinoic acid in certain embryonal carcinoma cells, embryonic stem cells, and neural crest cell lines, and also during spontaneous differentiation in embryonic stem cells. ..
  22. Beverdam A, Meijlink F. Expression patterns of group-I aristaless-related genes during craniofacial and limb development. Mech Dev. 2001;107:163-7 pubmed
  23. Compagnucci C, Fish J, Schwark M, Tarabykin V, Depew M. Pax6 regulates craniofacial form through its control of an essential cephalic ectodermal patterning center. Genesis. 2011;49:307-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Pax6 therefore regulates craniofacial form, at stages when CNC has just arrived in the frontonasal region, through its control of surface cephalic ectodermal competence to form an essential craniofacial patterning center. ..
  24. Tavares A, Cox T, Maxson R, Ford H, Clouthier D. Negative regulation of endothelin signaling by SIX1 is required for proper maxillary development. Development. 2017;144:2021-2031 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results illustrate that SIX1 is the central mediator of dorsal mandibular arch identity, thus ensuring separation of bone development between the upper and lower jaws. ..
  25. Matte A, Low P, Turrini F, Bertoldi M, Campanella M, Spano D, et al. Peroxiredoxin-2 expression is increased in beta-thalassemic mouse red cells but is displaced from the membrane as a marker of oxidative stress. Free Radic Biol Med. 2010;49:457-66 pubmed publisher
    Peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2), the third most abundant cytoplasmic protein in red blood cells (RBCs), is involved in the defense against oxidative stress...
  26. Goyal R, Mahajan R, Ganguly N, Sehgal R, Gorowara S, Singh K. Macrophage-mediated enterocyte damage in BALB/c mice infected with different strains of Giardia lamblia. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1993;28:845-8 pubmed
    ..The theory of inflammatory cell-mediated enterocyte damage in Giardia lamblia infection is proposed. ..
  27. Chesterman E, Kern M. Comparative analysis of Prx1 and Prx2 expression in mice provides evidence for incomplete compensation. Anat Rec. 2002;266:1-4 pubmed
    The family of paired-related homeobox genes to which Prx1 and Prx2 belong plays an integral role in limb and craniofacial development, as evidenced by both transgenic mice and in situ hybridization data...
  28. Lu M, Cheng H, Lacy A, Kern M, Argao E, Potter S, et al. Paired-related homeobox genes cooperate in handplate and hindlimb zeugopod morphogenesis. Dev Biol. 1999;205:145-57 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that prx-1 and prx-2 cooperatively regulate handplate and hindlimb zeugopod morphogenesis through BMP-mediated signaling pathways. ..
  29. Lu M, Cheng H, Kern M, Potter S, Tran B, Diekwisch T, et al. prx-1 functions cooperatively with another paired-related homeobox gene, prx-2, to maintain cell fates within the craniofacial mesenchyme. Development. 1999;126:495-504 pubmed
  30. Kongsuwan K, Webb E, Housiaux P, Adams J. Expression of multiple homeobox genes within diverse mammalian haemopoietic lineages. EMBO J. 1988;7:2131-8 pubmed
    ..In one myeloid leukaemia, DNA rearrangement has perturbed expression. These findings suggest that homeobox genes may influence developmental decisions within the haemopoietic system. ..
  31. Hirota J, Mombaerts P. The LIM-homeodomain protein Lhx2 is required for complete development of mouse olfactory sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:8751-5 pubmed
    ..OSN development appears to be arrested between the terminal differentiation into neurons and the transition to immature neurons. Thus, Lhx2 is required for complete development of OSNs in mice. ..
  32. Haugas M, Lilleväli K, Hakanen J, Salminen M. Gata2 is required for the development of inner ear semicircular ducts and the surrounding perilymphatic space. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:2452-69 pubmed publisher
  33. Bayer S, Maghzal G, Stocker R, Hampton M, Winterbourn C. Neutrophil-mediated oxidation of erythrocyte peroxiredoxin 2 as a potential marker of oxidative stress in inflammation. FASEB J. 2013;27:3315-22 pubmed publisher
    Peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx2) is an abundant thiol protein in erythrocytes. It is oxidized readily on exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and provides antioxidant protection by cycling between its reduced and disulfide-bonded forms...
  34. Martin J, Olson E. Identification of a prx1 limb enhancer. Genesis. 2000;26:225-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, transgene expression was diminished in posterior handplate of prx1; prx2 double mutant mice...
  35. ten Berge D, Brouwer A, Korving J, Martin J, Meijlink F. Prx1 and Prx2 in skeletogenesis: roles in the craniofacial region, inner ear and limbs. Development. 1998;125:3831-42 pubmed
    Prx1 and Prx2 are closely related paired-class homeobox genes that are expressed in very similar patterns predominantly in mesenchyme. Prx1 loss-of-function mutants show skeletal defects in skull, limbs and vertebral column (Martin, J. F...