Gene Symbol: Prox1
Description: prospero homeobox 1
Alias: A230003G05Rik, PROX-1, prospero homeobox protein 1, homeobox prospero-like protein PROX1, prospero-related homeobox 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Prox1

Top Publications

  1. Francois M, Caprini A, Hosking B, Orsenigo F, Wilhelm D, Browne C, et al. Sox18 induces development of the lymphatic vasculature in mice. Nature. 2008;456:643-7 pubmed publisher
    ..from endothelial precursor cells budding from the cardinal vein under the influence of the lymphatic hallmark gene Prox1 (prospero homeobox 1; ref. 4)...
  2. Poche R, Kwan K, Raven M, Furuta Y, Reese B, Behringer R. Lim1 is essential for the correct laminar positioning of retinal horizontal cells. J Neurosci. 2007;27:14099-107 pubmed
    ..This study is the first to describe a cell type-specific genetic program that is essential for targeting a discrete retinal neuron population to the proper lamina. ..
  3. Barry G, Piper M, Lindwall C, Moldrich R, Mason S, Little E, et al. Specific glial populations regulate hippocampal morphogenesis. J Neurosci. 2008;28:12328-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate a role for Nfib in hippocampal fissure and dentate gyrus formation, and that distinct glial bundles are critical for correct hippocampal morphogenesis. ..
  4. Galichet C, Guillemot F, Parras C. Neurogenin 2 has an essential role in development of the dentate gyrus. Development. 2008;135:2031-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These data establish a unique role of Ngn2 in DG neurogenesis during development and raise the possibility that Ngn2 has a similar function in adult neurogenesis. ..
  5. Yang Y, Garcia Verdugo J, Soriano Navarro M, Srinivasan R, Scallan J, Singh M, et al. Lymphatic endothelial progenitors bud from the cardinal vein and intersomitic vessels in mammalian embryos. Blood. 2012;120:2340-8 pubmed publisher
    ..process leading to the formation of the mammalian lymphatic vasculature starts by the expression of the gene Prox1 in a subpopulation of blood endothelial cells (BECs) on the cardinal vein (CV) at approximately E9.5...
  6. Li S, Mark S, Radde Gallwitz K, Schlisner R, Chin M, Chen P. Hey2 functions in parallel with Hes1 and Hes5 for mammalian auditory sensory organ development. BMC Dev Biol. 2008;8:20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data implicates expansion of the progenitor pool and/or the boundaries of the developing sensory organ to account for patterning defects observed in Hey2 mutants. ..
  7. Abtahian F, Guerriero A, Sebzda E, Lu M, Zhou R, Mocsai A, et al. Regulation of blood and lymphatic vascular separation by signaling proteins SLP-76 and Syk. Science. 2003;299:247-51 pubmed
    ..These studies reveal a hematopoietic signaling pathway required for separation of the two major vascular networks in mammals...
  8. Galeeva A, Treuter E, Tomarev S, Pelto Huikko M. A prospero-related homeobox gene Prox-1 is expressed during postnatal brain development as well as in the adult rodent brain. Neuroscience. 2007;146:604-16 pubmed
    ..The prominent but limited distribution of Prox-1 in the brain suggests its potentially important role during postnatal brain development and in adult CNS, which remains to be ascertained in future studies. ..
  9. Jahan I, Pan N, Kersigo J, Fritzsch B. Neurod1 suppresses hair cell differentiation in ear ganglia and regulates hair cell subtype development in the cochlea. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11661 pubmed publisher
    ..Through this and other feedback, Neurod1 suppresses alternate fates of neurons to differentiate as hair cells and regulates hair cell subtypes. ..

More Information


  1. Kim H, Nguyen V, Petrova T, Cruz M, Alitalo K, Dumont D. Embryonic vascular endothelial cells are malleable to reprogramming via Prox1 to a lymphatic gene signature. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:72 pubmed publisher
    In vivo studies demonstrate that the Prox1 transcription factor plays a critical role in the development of the early lymphatic system...
  2. Dellinger M, Hunter R, Bernas M, Gale N, Yancopoulos G, Erickson R, et al. Defective remodeling and maturation of the lymphatic vasculature in Angiopoietin-2 deficient mice. Dev Biol. 2008;319:309-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this work pinpoints a specific lymphatic defect of Ang2(-/-) mice and further defines the sequential steps in lymphatic vessel remodeling. ..
  3. Karalay O, Doberauer K, Vadodaria K, Knobloch M, Berti L, Miquelajauregui A, et al. Prospero-related homeobox 1 gene (Prox1) is regulated by canonical Wnt signaling and has a stage-specific role in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5807-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identified the prospero-related homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 as a target of ?-catenin-TCF/LEF signaling in vitro and in vivo...
  4. Hayashi T, Cunningham D, Bermingham McDonogh O. Loss of Fgfr3 leads to excess hair cell development in the mouse organ of Corti. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:525-33 pubmed
    ..Thus, in addition to controlling the fate decision between pillar cells and Deiters' cells, we find that Fgfr3 also regulates the width of the sensory epithelium...
  5. Iwano T, Masuda A, Kiyonari H, Enomoto H, Matsuzaki F. Prox1 postmitotically defines dentate gyrus cells by specifying granule cell identity over CA3 pyramidal cell fate in the hippocampus. Development. 2012;139:3051-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate in mice that Prox1, a transcription factor constitutively expressed in the granule cell lineage, postmitotically functions to specify ..
  6. Lee S, Kang J, Yoo J, Ganesan S, Cook S, Aguilar B, et al. Prox1 physically and functionally interacts with COUP-TFII to specify lymphatic endothelial cell fate. Blood. 2009;113:1856-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 functions to reprogram venous ECs to lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs)...
  7. Buttler K, Kreysing A, Von Kaisenberg C, Schweigerer L, Gale N, Papoutsi M, et al. Mesenchymal cells with leukocyte and lymphendothelial characteristics in murine embryos. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:1554-62 pubmed
    ..antibodies against the leukocyte marker CD45, the pan-endothelial marker CD31, and the lymphendothelial markers Prox1 and Lyve-1...
  8. Risebro C, Searles R, Melville A, Ehler E, Jina N, Shah S, et al. Prox1 maintains muscle structure and growth in the developing heart. Development. 2009;136:495-505 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that cardiac-specific inactivation of the murine homeobox transcription factor Prox1 results in the disruption of expression and localisation of sarcomeric proteins, gross myofibril disarray and ..
  9. Dufour C, Levasseur M, Pham N, Eichner L, Wilson B, Charest Marcotte A, et al. Genomic convergence among ERR?, PROX1, and BMAL1 in the control of metabolic clock outputs. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002143 pubmed publisher
    ..We also provide evidence that the newly identified ERR? corepressor PROX1 is implicated in rhythmic control of metabolic outputs...
  10. Fritzsch B, Dillard M, Lavado A, Harvey N, Jahan I. Canal cristae growth and fiber extension to the outer hair cells of the mouse ear require Prox1 activity. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9377 pubmed publisher
    The homeobox gene Prox1 is required for lens, retina, pancreas, liver, and lymphatic vasculature development and is expressed in inner ear supporting cells and neurons...
  11. Torii M, Matsuzaki F, Osumi N, Kaibuchi K, Nakamura S, Casarosa S, et al. Transcription factors Mash-1 and Prox-1 delineate early steps in differentiation of neural stem cells in the developing central nervous system. Development. 1999;126:443-56 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that induction of Mash-1 and Prox-1 is one of the critical molecular events that control early development of the CNS. ..
  12. Burke Z, Oliver G. Prox1 is an early specific marker for the developing liver and pancreas in the mammalian foregut endoderm. Mech Dev. 2002;118:147-55 pubmed
    ..We have also previously shown that the activity of the homeobox gene Prox1 controls hepatocyte migration during liver morphogenesis...
  13. Zou Z, Enis D, Bui H, Khandros E, Kumar V, Jakus Z, et al. The secreted lymphangiogenic factor CCBE1 is essential for fetal liver erythropoiesis. Blood. 2013;121:3228-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that CCBE1 plays an essential role in regulating the fetal liver erythropoietic environment and suggest that EBI formation is regulated differently in the fetal liver and bone marrow...
  14. Schacht V, Ramirez M, Hong Y, Hirakawa S, Feng D, Harvey N, et al. T1alpha/podoplanin deficiency disrupts normal lymphatic vasculature formation and causes lymphedema. EMBO J. 2003;22:3546-56 pubmed
    ..lymphatic endothelium, and recent studies have shown that it is regulated by the lymphatic-specific homeobox gene Prox1. In this study, we examined the role of T1alpha/podoplanin in vascular development and the effects of gene ..
  15. Yu Y, Weber T, Yamashita T, Liu Z, Valentine M, Cox B, et al. In vivo proliferation of postmitotic cochlear supporting cells by acute ablation of the retinoblastoma protein in neonatal mice. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5927-36 pubmed publisher
    ..cell cycle regulator, in two subtypes of postmitotic SCs (pillar and Deiters' cells) using an inducible Cre line, Prox1-CreER(T2)...
  16. Dabdoub A, Puligilla C, Jones J, Fritzsch B, Cheah K, Pevny L, et al. Sox2 signaling in prosensory domain specification and subsequent hair cell differentiation in the developing cochlea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:18396-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Sox2 expression is promoted by Notch signaling and Prox1, a homeobox transcription factor, is a downstream target of Sox2...
  17. Feng L, Xie X, Joshi P, Yang Z, Shibasaki K, Chow R, et al. Requirement for Bhlhb5 in the specification of amacrine and cone bipolar subtypes in mouse retina. Development. 2006;133:4815-25 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal that a bHLH transcription factor cascade is involved in regulating retinal cell differentiation and imply that Bhlhb5 functions downstream of retinogenic factors to specify bipolar and amacrine subtypes. ..
  18. Dyer M, Livesey F, Cepko C, Oliver G. Prox1 function controls progenitor cell proliferation and horizontal cell genesis in the mammalian retina. Nat Genet. 2003;34:53-8 pubmed
    ..We found that the homeodomain protein Prox1 regulates the exit of progenitor cells from the cell cycle in the embryonic mouse retina...
  19. Fu J, Gerhardt H, McDaniel J, Xia B, Liu X, Ivanciu L, et al. Endothelial cell O-glycan deficiency causes blood/lymphatic misconnections and consequent fatty liver disease in mice. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:3725-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies therefore demonstrate that EC O-glycans control the separation of blood and lymphatic vessels during embryonic and postnatal development, in part by regulating podoplanin expression. ..
  20. Dadras S, Skrzypek A, Nguyen L, Shin J, Schulz M, Arbiser J, et al. Prox-1 promotes invasion of kaposiform hemangioendotheliomas. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:2798-806 pubmed publisher
    ..and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3, which is mediated by upregulation of the transcription factor Prox1. However, the potential effects of Prox1 expression on the biology of KS and, in particular, on the aggressive and ..
  21. Jahan I, Kersigo J, Pan N, Fritzsch B. Neurod1 regulates survival and formation of connections in mouse ear and brain. Cell Tissue Res. 2010;341:95-110 pubmed publisher
  22. Risebro C, Petchey L, Smart N, Gomes J, Clark J, Vieira J, et al. Epistatic rescue of Nkx2.5 adult cardiac conduction disease phenotypes by prospero-related homeobox protein 1 and HDAC3. Circ Res. 2012;111:e19-31 pubmed publisher
    ..5-dependent adult congenital heart disease. A study of cardiac function in prospero-related homeobox protein 1 (Prox1) heterozygous mice, using pressure-volume loop and micromannometry, revealed rescue of hemodynamic parameters in ..
  23. Larrieu Lahargue F, Welm A, Thomas K, Li D. Netrin-4 induces lymphangiogenesis in vivo. Blood. 2010;115:5418-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data provide evidence that Netrin-4 is a lymphangiogenic factor contributing to tumor dissemination and represents a potential target to inhibit metastasis formation. ..
  24. Cain S, Martinez G, Kokkinos M, Turner K, Richardson R, Abud H, et al. Differential requirement for beta-catenin in epithelial and fiber cells during lens development. Dev Biol. 2008;321:420-33 pubmed publisher
    ..layer with loss of E-cadherin and Pax6 expression as well as abnormal expression of c-Maf and p57(kip2) but not Prox1. There was also disrupted fiber cell differentiation, characterized by poor cell elongation, decreased beta-..
  25. Liu M, Pleasure S, Collins A, Noebels J, Naya F, Tsai M, et al. Loss of BETA2/NeuroD leads to malformation of the dentate gyrus and epilepsy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:865-70 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, failure to express BETA2/NeuroD leads to a stereotyped pattern of pathological excitability of the adult central nervous system. ..
  26. Li S, Mo Z, Yang X, Price S, Shen M, Xiang M. Foxn4 controls the genesis of amacrine and horizontal cells by retinal progenitors. Neuron. 2004;43:795-807 pubmed
    ..of amacrine and horizontal cells by activating the expression of the retinogenic factors Math3, NeuroD1, and Prox1. Our data suggest a model in which Foxn4 cooperates with other key retinogenic factors to mediate the multipotent ..
  27. Srinivasan R, Dillard M, Lagutin O, Lin F, Tsai S, Tsai M, et al. Lineage tracing demonstrates the venous origin of the mammalian lymphatic vasculature. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2422-32 pubmed
    ..lineage-tracing studies using mouse strains expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the Tie2, Runx1, or Prox1 promoter elements...
  28. Wigle J, Chowdhury K, Gruss P, Oliver G. Prox1 function is crucial for mouse lens-fibre elongation. Nat Genet. 1999;21:318-22 pubmed
    ..The expression pattern of the Prox1 homeobox gene suggests it has a role in a variety of embryonic tissues, including lens...
  29. Bos F, Caunt M, Peterson Maduro J, Planas Paz L, Kowalski J, Karpanen T, et al. CCBE1 is essential for mammalian lymphatic vascular development and enhances the lymphangiogenic effect of vascular endothelial growth factor-C in vivo. Circ Res. 2011;109:486-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Insight into the molecular role of CCBE1 is completely lacking, and mouse models for the disease do not exist...
  30. Parras C, Schuurmans C, Scardigli R, Kim J, Anderson D, Guillemot F. Divergent functions of the proneural genes Mash1 and Ngn2 in the specification of neuronal subtype identity. Genes Dev. 2002;16:324-38 pubmed
  31. Liu Z, Dearman J, Cox B, Walters B, Zhang L, Ayrault O, et al. Age-dependent in vivo conversion of mouse cochlear pillar and Deiters' cells to immature hair cells by Atoh1 ectopic expression. J Neurosci. 2012;32:6600-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, combined expression of Atoh1 with additional factors holds therapeutic promise to convert PCs and DCs into functional HCs in vivo for regenerative purposes. ..
  32. Karkkainen M, Haiko P, Sainio K, Partanen J, Taipale J, Petrova T, et al. Vascular endothelial growth factor C is required for sprouting of the first lymphatic vessels from embryonic veins. Nat Immunol. 2004;5:74-80 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that VEGF-C is the paracrine factor essential for lymphangiogenesis, and show that both Vegfc alleles are required for normal lymphatic development. ..
  33. Fujitani Y, Fujitani S, Luo H, Qiu F, Burlison J, Long Q, et al. Ptf1a determines horizontal and amacrine cell fates during mouse retinal development. Development. 2006;133:4439-50 pubmed
    ..These data, together with the previous findings on Foxn4, provide a model in which the Foxn4-Ptf1a pathway plays a central role in directing the differentiation of retinal progenitors towards horizontal and amacrine cell fates. ..
  34. Petrova T, Nykänen A, Norrmen C, Ivanov K, Andersson L, Haglund C, et al. Transcription factor PROX1 induces colon cancer progression by promoting the transition from benign to highly dysplastic phenotype. Cancer Cell. 2008;13:407-19 pubmed publisher
    ..factor Prospero functions as a tumor suppressor, and it has been suggested that the human counterpart of Prospero, PROX1, acts similarly in human cancers...
  35. Harvey N, Srinivasan R, Dillard M, Johnson N, Witte M, Boyd K, et al. Lymphatic vascular defects promoted by Prox1 haploinsufficiency cause adult-onset obesity. Nat Genet. 2005;37:1072-81 pubmed
    ..We found that functional inactivation of a single allele of the homeobox gene Prox1 led to adult-onset obesity due to abnormal lymph leakage from mispatterned and ruptured lymphatic vessels...
  36. Huh S, Jones J, Warchol M, Ornitz D. Differentiation of the lateral compartment of the cochlea requires a temporally restricted FGF20 signal. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001231 pubmed publisher
    ..The viability and hearing loss in Fgf20 knockout mice suggest that FGF20 may also be a deafness-associated gene in humans. ..
  37. Foskolou I, Stellas D, Rozani I, Lavigne M, Politis P. Prox1 suppresses the proliferation of neuroblastoma cells via a dual action in p27-Kip1 and Cdc25A. Oncogene. 2013;32:947-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, it was recently reported that Prox1, a homeobox transcription regulator, is expressed in higher levels in human neuroblastoma with favorable prognosis...
  38. Wiley L, Dattilo L, Kang K, Giovannini M, Beebe D. The tumor suppressor merlin is required for cell cycle exit, terminal differentiation, and cell polarity in the developing murine lens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:3611-8 pubmed publisher express epithelial cell markers, such as FoxE3 and E-cadherin, despite expressing the fiber cell marker Prox1. Many fiber cells lost their elongated morphology...
  39. Planas Paz L, Strilic B, Goedecke A, Breier G, Fassler R, Lammert E. Mechanoinduction of lymph vessel expansion. EMBO J. 2012;31:788-804 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose a new and physiologically relevant mode of VEGFR3 activation, which is based on mechanotransduction and is essential for normal development and fluid homeostasis in a mammalian embryo...
  40. Shaham O, Smith A, Robinson M, Taketo M, Lang R, Ashery Padan R. Pax6 is essential for lens fiber cell differentiation. Development. 2009;136:2567-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals that Pax6 is pivotal for initiation of the lens fiber differentiation program in the mammalian eye...
  41. Elkouris M, Balaskas N, Poulou M, Politis P, Panayiotou E, Malas S, et al. Sox1 maintains the undifferentiated state of cortical neural progenitor cells via the suppression of Prox1-mediated cell cycle exit and neurogenesis. Stem Cells. 2011;29:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..In proliferating NP cells, Sox1 acts via a prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1)-mediated pathway to block cell cycle exit that leads to neuronal differentiation in vivo and in vitro...
  42. Baxter S, Cheung D, Bocangel P, Kim H, Herbert K, Douville J, et al. Regulation of the lymphatic endothelial cell cycle by the PROX1 homeodomain protein. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:201-12 pubmed publisher
    The homeobox transcription factor PROX1 is essential for the development and maintenance of lymphatic vasculature. How PROX1 regulates lymphatic endothelial cell fate remains undefined...
  43. Steiner B, Zurborg S, Hörster H, Fabel K, Kempermann G. Differential 24 h responsiveness of Prox1-expressing precursor cells in adult hippocampal neurogenesis to physical activity, environmental enrichment, and kainic acid-induced seizures. Neuroscience. 2008;154:521-9 pubmed publisher
    ..we here used the first expression of granule cell-specific transcription factor prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1) to identify lineage-determined progenitor cells in a nestin-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene mouse ..
  44. Khandekar M, Brandt W, Zhou Y, Dagenais S, Glover T, Suzuki N, et al. A Gata2 intronic enhancer confers its pan-endothelia-specific regulation. Development. 2007;134:1703-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, GATA-2 is expressed early in lymphatic, cardiac and blood vascular endothelial cells, and the pan-endothelium-specific expression of Gata2 is controlled by a discrete intronic enhancer. ..
  45. Srinivasan R, Oliver G. Prox1 dosage controls the number of lymphatic endothelial cell progenitors and the formation of the lymphovenous valves. Genes Dev. 2011;25:2187-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that unlike LEC progenitors, which move out from the veins and differentiate into mature LECs, these Prox1-expressing ECs remain in the veins and do not acquire LEC features...
  46. Okano T, Xuan S, Kelley M. Insulin-like growth factor signaling regulates the timing of sensory cell differentiation in the mouse cochlea. J Neurosci. 2011;31:18104-18 pubmed publisher
    ..The results also provide new insights regarding the pathological processes that underlie auditory defects in the absence of IGF signaling in both humans and mice. ..
  47. Ashery Padan R, Marquardt T, Zhou X, Gruss P. Pax6 activity in the lens primordium is required for lens formation and for correct placement of a single retina in the eye. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2701-11 pubmed
  48. Wigle J, Harvey N, Detmar M, Lagutina I, Grosveld G, Gunn M, et al. An essential role for Prox1 in the induction of the lymphatic endothelial cell phenotype. EMBO J. 2002;21:1505-13 pubmed
    ..The homeobox gene Prox1 is expressed in a subpopulation of endothelial cells that, after budding from veins, gives rise to the mammalian ..
  49. Oliver G, Sosa Pineda B, Geisendorf S, Spana E, Doe C, Gruss P. Prox 1, a prospero-related homeobox gene expressed during mouse development. Mech Dev. 1993;44:3-16 pubmed
    b>Prox 1, a likely mouse homologue of the Drosophila homeobox gene prospero has been cloned and its expression pattern analyzed during development...
  50. Medina C, Mazerolle C, Wang Y, Berube N, Coupland S, Gibbons R, et al. Altered visual function and interneuron survival in Atrx knockout mice: inference for the human syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:966-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These results implicate a role for Atrx in interneuron survival and differentiation...
  51. Elshatory Y, Deng M, Xie X, Gan L. Expression of the LIM-homeodomain protein Isl1 in the developing and mature mouse retina. J Comp Neurol. 2007;503:182-97 pubmed
    ..Taken together, Isl1 is expressed during the maturation of and is later maintained in retinal ganglion cells and subtypes of amacrine and bipolar cells where it may function in the maintenance of these cells into adulthood. ..
  52. Lavado A, Oliver G. Prox1 expression patterns in the developing and adult murine brain. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:518-24 pubmed
    b>Prox1, a homeobox gene related to the Drosophila gene prospero, is necessary for retina, lens, liver, pancreas, and lymphatics development. However, not much is yet known about Prox1 expression during central nervous system development...
  53. Bagri A, Gurney T, He X, Zou Y, Littman D, Tessier Lavigne M, et al. The chemokine SDF1 regulates migration of dentate granule cells. Development. 2002;129:4249-60 pubmed
    ..Our study shows that a chemokine is necessary for the normal development of the dentate gyrus, a forebrain structure crucial for learning and memory. ..
  54. Böhmer R, Neuhaus B, Bühren S, Zhang D, Stehling M, Böck B, et al. Regulation of developmental lymphangiogenesis by Syk(+) leukocytes. Dev Cell. 2010;18:437-49 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism does not involve circulating endothelial progenitor cells and demonstrates the potential of hematopoietic cells to control developmental lymphangiogenesis. ..
  55. Charest Marcotte A, Dufour C, Wilson B, Tremblay A, Eichner L, Arlow D, et al. The homeobox protein Prox1 is a negative modulator of ERR{alpha}/PGC-1{alpha} bioenergetic functions. Genes Dev. 2010;24:537-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identified the homeobox protein prospero-related homeobox 1 (Prox1) as one such factor...
  56. Ring B, Cordes S, Overbeek P, Barsh G. Regulation of mouse lens fiber cell development and differentiation by the Maf gene. Development. 2000;127:307-17 pubmed
    ..This phenotype partially overlaps with those reported for gene targeting of Prox1 and Sox1; however, expression of these genes is grossly normal, as is expression of Eya1, Eya2, Pax6, and Sox2...
  57. Nakayama A, Miura H, Shindo Y, Kusakabe Y, Tomonari H, Harada S. Expression of the basal cell markers of taste buds in the anterior tongue and soft palate of the mouse embryo. J Comp Neurol. 2008;509:211-24 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine the embryonic development of the basal cells, the expression of Shh, Prox1, and Mash1 was determined in the anterior tongue and soft palate in mouse embryos by in situ hybridization...
  58. Kaltezioti V, Kouroupi G, Oikonomaki M, Mantouvalou E, Stergiopoulos A, Charonis A, et al. Prox1 regulates the notch1-mediated inhibition of neurogenesis. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000565 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we provide evidence that Prox1, a transcription repressor and downstream target of proneural genes, counteracts Notch1 signaling via direct ..
  59. Uhrin P, Zaujec J, Breuss J, Olcaydu D, Chrenek P, Stockinger H, et al. Novel function for blood platelets and podoplanin in developmental separation of blood and lymphatic circulation. Blood. 2010;115:3997-4005 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, interaction of endothelial podoplanin of the developing lymph sac with circulating platelets from the cardinal vein is critical for separating the lymphatic from the blood vascular system...
  60. Johnson N, Dillard M, Baluk P, McDonald D, Harvey N, Frase S, et al. Lymphatic endothelial cell identity is reversible and its maintenance requires Prox1 activity. Genes Dev. 2008;22:3282-91 pubmed publisher
    The activity of the homeobox gene Prox1 is necessary and sufficient for venous blood endothelial cells (BECs) to acquire a lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) fate...
  61. Wang J, Kilic G, Aydin M, Burke Z, Oliver G, Sosa Pineda B. Prox1 activity controls pancreas morphogenesis and participates in the production of "secondary transition" pancreatic endocrine cells. Dev Biol. 2005;286:182-94 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the divergent homeodomain transcription factor Prox1 is a novel, crucial regulator of mouse pancreas organogenesis...
  62. James J, Nalbandian A, Mukouyama Y. TGF? signaling is required for sprouting lymphangiogenesis during lymphatic network development in the skin. Development. 2013;140:3903-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest a dual role for TGF? signaling during lymphatic network morphogenesis in the skin, such that it enhances LEC sprouting and branching complexity while attenuating LEC proliferation. ..
  63. Galceran J, Miyashita Lin E, Devaney E, Rubenstein J, Grosschedl R. Hippocampus development and generation of dentate gyrus granule cells is regulated by LEF1. Development. 2000;127:469-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, LEF1 regulates the generation of dentate gyrus granule cells, and together with other LEF1/TCF proteins, the development of the hippocampus. ..
  64. Basch M, Ohyama T, Segil N, Groves A. Canonical Notch signaling is not necessary for prosensory induction in the mouse cochlea: insights from a conditional mutant of RBPjkappa. J Neurosci. 2011;31:8046-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that canonical Notch signaling is not necessary for prosensory specification in the mouse cochlea, suggesting that other signaling pathways may specify this highly derived sensory organ. ..
  65. Duncan M, Cui W, Oh D, Tomarev S. Prox1 is differentially localized during lens development. Mech Dev. 2002;112:195-8 pubmed
    b>Prox1, the vertebrate cognate of Drosophila Prospero, is a homeodomain protein essential for the development of the lens, liver and lymphatic system...
  66. Zhao H, Yang T, Madakashira B, Thiels C, Bechtle C, Garcia C, et al. Fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling is essential for lens fiber cell differentiation. Dev Biol. 2008;318:276-88 pubmed publisher
    ..of the cell cycle inhibitors p27(kip1) and p57(kip2), increased apoptosis and aberrant or reduced expression of Prox1, Pax6, c-Maf, E-cadherin and alpha-, beta- and gamma-crystallins...
  67. Lachke S, Alkuraya F, Kneeland S, Ohn T, Aboukhalil A, Howell G, et al. Mutations in the RNA granule component TDRD7 cause cataract and glaucoma. Science. 2011;331:1571-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate a role for RGs in vertebrate organogenesis. ..
  68. Francois M, Short K, Secker G, Combes A, Schwarz Q, Davidson T, et al. Segmental territories along the cardinal veins generate lymph sacs via a ballooning mechanism during embryonic lymphangiogenesis in mice. Dev Biol. 2012;364:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..First, we define territories or "pre-lymphatic clusters" of Prox1-positive lymphatic endothelial progenitor cells along the antero-posterior axis of the cardinal veins...
  69. Yamamoto N, Chang W, Kelley M. Rbpj regulates development of prosensory cells in the mammalian inner ear. Dev Biol. 2011;353:367-79 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest important roles for Rbpj and notch signaling in multiple aspects of inner ear development including prosensory cell maturation, cellular differentiation and survival. ..
  70. Tateya T, Imayoshi I, Tateya I, Ito J, Kageyama R. Cooperative functions of Hes/Hey genes in auditory hair cell and supporting cell development. Dev Biol. 2011;352:329-40 pubmed publisher
  71. Petrova T, Karpanen T, Norrmen C, Mellor R, Tamakoshi T, Finegold D, et al. Defective valves and abnormal mural cell recruitment underlie lymphatic vascular failure in lymphedema distichiasis. Nat Med. 2004;10:974-81 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that an abnormal interaction between the lymphatic endothelial cells and pericytes, as well as valve defects, underlie the pathogenesis of LD. ..
  72. Hayashi T, Kokubo H, Hartman B, Ray C, Reh T, Bermingham McDonogh O. Hesr1 and Hesr2 may act as early effectors of Notch signaling in the developing cochlea. Dev Biol. 2008;316:87-99 pubmed publisher
    ..This treatment also reduces Hesr1 and Hesr2 expression by as much as 80%. These results support the hypothesis that Hesr1 and Hesr2 are the downstream mediators of the prosensory function of Notch in early cochlear development. ..
  73. Qiu F, Jiang H, Xiang M. A comprehensive negative regulatory program controlled by Brn3b to ensure ganglion cell specification from multipotential retinal precursors. J Neurosci. 2008;28:3392-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Brn3b specifies the RGC fate from multipotential precursors not only by promoting RGC differentiation but also by suppressing non-RGC differentiation programs as a safeguard mechanism. ..
  74. Hirashima M, Sano K, Morisada T, Murakami K, Rossant J, Suda T. Lymphatic vessel assembly is impaired in Aspp1-deficient mouse embryos. Dev Biol. 2008;316:149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report novel lymphatic vascular phenotypes in Aspp1(-/-) mice; subcutaneous edema detected only during embryogenesis, delayed lymphatic vessel formation, and mispatterned collecting lymphatic vessels. ..
  75. Blixt A, Mahlapuu M, Aitola M, Pelto Huikko M, Enerback S, Carlsson P. A forkhead gene, FoxE3, is essential for lens epithelial proliferation and closure of the lens vesicle. Genes Dev. 2000;14:245-54 pubmed
    ..This implies that FoxE3 is essential for closure of the lens vesicle and is a factor that promotes survival and proliferation, while preventing differentiation, in the lens epithelium. ..