Gene Symbol: Prokr1
Description: prokineticin receptor 1
Alias: EG-VEGFR1, Gpr73, Pk-r1, Pkr1, prokineticin receptor 1, G-protein coupled receptor 73
Species: mouse
Products:     Prokr1

Top Publications

  1. Lin D, Bullock C, Ehlert F, Chen J, Tian H, Zhou Q. Identification and molecular characterization of two closely related G protein-coupled receptors activated by prokineticins/endocrine gland vascular endothelial growth factor. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:19276-80 pubmed
    ..mRNA expression analysis reveals that prokineticin receptors are expressed in gastrointestinal organs, endocrine glands, and other tissues. ..
  2. Matsumoto S, Yamazaki C, Masumoto K, Nagano M, Naito M, Soga T, et al. Abnormal development of the olfactory bulb and reproductive system in mice lacking prokineticin receptor PKR2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4140-5 pubmed
    Prokineticins, multifunctional secreted proteins, activate two endogenous G protein-coupled receptors PKR1 and PKR2. From in situ analysis of the mouse brain, we discovered that PKR2 is predominantly expressed in the olfactory bulb (OB)...
  3. Urayama K, Guilini C, Turkeri G, Takir S, Kurose H, Messaddeq N, et al. Prokineticin receptor-1 induces neovascularization and epicardial-derived progenitor cell differentiation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008;28:841-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown that transient prokineticin receptor-1 (PKR1) gene transfer protects the heart against myocardial infarction in a mouse model...
  4. LeCouter J, Lin R, Tejada M, Frantz G, Peale F, Hillan K, et al. The endocrine-gland-derived VEGF homologue Bv8 promotes angiogenesis in the testis: Localization of Bv8 receptors to endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:2685-90 pubmed
    ..The testis exhibits relatively high turnover of endothelial cells. Therefore, Bv8 and EG-VEGF, along with other factors such as VEGF-A, may maintain the integrity and also regulate proliferation of the blood vessels in the testis. ..
  5. Boulberdaa M, Turkeri G, Urayama K, Dormishian M, Szatkowski C, Zimmer L, et al. Genetic inactivation of prokineticin receptor-1 leads to heart and kidney disorders. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:842-50 pubmed publisher
    Prokineticins are potent angiogenic hormones that use 2 receptors, prokineticin receptor-1 (PKR1) and PKR2, with important therapeutic use in anticancer therapy...
  6. Guilini C, Urayama K, Turkeri G, Dedeoglu D, Kurose H, Messaddeq N, et al. Divergent roles of prokineticin receptors in the endothelial cells: angiogenesis and fenestration. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;298:H844-52 pubmed publisher
    Prokineticins are secreted peptides that activate two G protein-coupled receptors: PKR1 and PKR2. Prokineticins induce angiogenesis and fenestration, but the cognate receptors involved in these functions are unknown...
  7. Ngan E, Lee K, Sit F, Poon H, Chan J, Sham M, et al. Prokineticin-1 modulates proliferation and differentiation of enteric neural crest cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1773:536-45 pubmed
    ..Taken together, it is the first report demonstrating that Prok-1 acts as a gut mucosa/mesenchyme-derived factor and maintains proliferation and differentiation of enteric NCCs. ..
  8. Castelli M, Amodeo G, Negri L, Lattanzi R, Maftei D, Gotti C, et al. Antagonism of the Prokineticin System Prevents and Reverses Allodynia and Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Diabetes. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0146259 pubmed publisher
    ..The prokineticin system contributes to altered sensitivity in diabetic neuropathy and its inhibition blocked both allodynia and inflammatory events underlying disease. ..
  9. Arora H, Boulberdaa M, Qureshi R, Bitirim V, Gasser A, Messaddeq N, et al. Prokineticin receptor-1 signaling promotes Epicardial to Mesenchymal Transition during heart development. Sci Rep. 2016;6:25541 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated the role of angiogenic hormone, prokineticin-2 and its receptor PKR1 in the epicardium of developing and adult heart...

More Information


  1. Szatkowski C, Vallet J, Dormishian M, Messaddeq N, Valet P, Boulberdaa M, et al. Prokineticin receptor 1 as a novel suppressor of preadipocyte proliferation and differentiation to control obesity. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e81175 pubmed publisher
    ..Prokineticin-2 is an angiogenic and anorexigenic hormone that activate two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): PKR1 and PKR2. Prokineticin-2 regulates food intake and energy metabolism via central mechanisms (PKR2)...
  2. LeCouter J, Lin R, Frantz G, Zhang Z, Hillan K, Ferrara N. Mouse endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor: a distinct expression pattern from its human ortholog suggests different roles as a regulator of organ-specific angiogenesis. Endocrinology. 2003;144:2606-16 pubmed
    ..We propose that mouse EG-VEGF, like human EG-VEGF, plays a role in regulating the phenotype and growth properties of endothelial cells within distinct capillary beds. ..
  3. Dormishian M, Turkeri G, Urayama K, Nguyen T, Boulberdaa M, Messaddeq N, et al. Prokineticin receptor-1 is a new regulator of endothelial insulin uptake and capillary formation to control insulin sensitivity and cardiovascular and kidney functions. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2:e000411 pubmed publisher
    ..The peptide hormones prokineticins exert their angiogenic function via prokineticin receptor-1 (PKR1)...
  4. Nili E, Cojocaru G, Kalma Y, Ginsberg D, Copeland N, Gilbert D, et al. Nuclear membrane protein LAP2beta mediates transcriptional repression alone and together with its binding partner GCL (germ-cell-less). J Cell Sci. 2001;114:3297-307 pubmed
    ..Co-expression of both LAP2beta and mGCL with the E2F-DP complex resulted in a reduced transcriptional activity equal to that exerted by the pRb protein. ..
  5. Parker R, Liu M, Eyre H, Copeland N, Gilbert D, Crawford J, et al. Y-receptor-like genes GPR72 and GPR73: molecular cloning, genomic organisation and assignment to human chromosome 11q21.1 and 2p14 and mouse chromosome 9 and 6. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1491:369-75 pubmed
    Two novel G-protein-coupled receptors, one from human, GPR72, and one from mouse, GPR73 have been isolated, sequenced and their genomic organisation determined...
  6. Koyama Y, Kiyo oka M, Osakada M, Horiguchi N, Shintani N, Ago Y, et al. Expression of prokineticin receptors in mouse cultured astrocytes and involvement in cell proliferation. Brain Res. 2006;1112:65-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PK receptors are expressed in astrocytes and regulate astrocytic proliferation. ..
  7. Negri L, Lattanzi R, Giannini E, Colucci M, Margheriti F, Melchiorri P, et al. Impaired nociception and inflammatory pain sensation in mice lacking the prokineticin receptor PKR1: focus on interaction between PKR1 and the capsaicin receptor TRPV1 in pain behavior. J Neurosci. 2006;26:6716-27 pubmed
    ..and prokineticin-2, are naturally occurring peptide agonists of two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), prokineticin receptor 1 (PKR1) and PKR2...
  8. Chaly A, Srisai D, Gardner E, Sebag J. The Melanocortin Receptor Accessory Protein 2 promotes food intake through inhibition of the Prokineticin Receptor-1. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we identified PKR1 as the first non-melanocortin GPCR to be regulated by MRAP2...
  9. Hoffmann P, Feige J, Alfaidy N. Placental expression of EG-VEGF and its receptors PKR1 (prokineticin receptor-1) and PKR2 throughout mouse gestation. Placenta. 2007;28:1049-58 pubmed
    ..We investigated the pattern of expression of EG-VEGF and its receptors, PKR1 and PKR2 at the mRNA and protein levels...
  10. Cheng M, Bullock C, Li C, Lee A, Bermak J, Belluzzi J, et al. Prokineticin 2 transmits the behavioural circadian rhythm of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Nature. 2002;417:405-10 pubmed
    ..The high expression of PKR2 mRNA within the SCN and the positive feedback of PK2 on its own transcription through activation of PKR2 suggest that PK2 may also function locally within the SCN to synchronize output. ..
  11. Danciger M, Yang H, Ralston R, Liu Y, Matthes M, Peirce J, et al. Quantitative genetics of age-related retinal degeneration: a second F1 intercross between the A/J and C57BL/6 strains. Mol Vis. 2007;13:79-85 pubmed
  12. Giannini E, Lattanzi R, Nicotra A, Campese A, Grazioli P, Screpanti I, et al. The chemokine Bv8/prokineticin 2 is up-regulated in inflammatory granulocytes and modulates inflammatory pain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14646-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice lacking PKR1 or PKR2 developed significantly less inflammation-induced hyperalgesia in comparison with WT mice, confirming the ..
  13. Martucci C, Franchi S, Giannini E, Tian H, Melchiorri P, Negri L, et al. Bv8, the amphibian homologue of the mammalian prokineticins, induces a proinflammatory phenotype of mouse macrophages. Br J Pharmacol. 2006;147:225-34 pubmed
    ..7.--In conclusion, Bv8 appears to be able to induce the macrophage to migrate and to acquire a proinflammatory phenotype. ..
  14. Arora H, Boulberdaa M, Qureshi R, Bitirim V, Messadeq N, Dolle P, et al. Prokineticin receptor 1 is required for mesenchymal-epithelial transition in kidney development. FASEB J. 2016;30:2733-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Arora, H., Boulberdaa, M., Qureshi, R., Bitirim, V., Messadeq, N., Dolle, P., Nebigil, C. G. Prokineticin receptor 1 is required for mesenchymal-epithelial transition in kidney development.