Gene Symbol: Prm2
Description: protamine 2
Alias: AI528784, Prm-2, protamine-2, sperm histone P2, sperm protamine P2
Species: mouse
Products:     Prm2

Top Publications

  1. Zhong J, Peters A, Lee K, Braun R. A double-stranded RNA binding protein required for activation of repressed messages in mammalian germ cells. Nat Genet. 1999;22:171-4 pubmed
    ..Using immunohistological analysis, we determined that the endogenous Prm2 mRNA and a reporter mRNA carrying protamine 1 translational-control elements were translated in a mosaic pattern...
  2. Cho C, Willis W, Goulding E, Jung Ha H, Choi Y, Hecht N, et al. Haploinsufficiency of protamine-1 or -2 causes infertility in mice. Nat Genet. 2001;28:82-6 pubmed
    ..We disrupted the coding sequence of one allele of either Prm1 or Prm2 in embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from 129-strain mice, and injected them into blastocysts from C57BL/6-strain ..
  3. Cho C, Jung Ha H, Willis W, Goulding E, Stein P, Xu Z, et al. Protamine 2 deficiency leads to sperm DNA damage and embryo death in mice. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:211-7 pubmed
    ..Previously, we have found that disruption of one copy of the gene for either protamine 1 (PRM1) or protamine 2 (PRM2) in the mouse results in a reduction in the amount of the respective protein, abnormal processing of PRM2,..
  4. Dai L, Tsai Morris C, Sato H, Villar J, Kang J, Zhang J, et al. Testis-specific miRNA-469 up-regulated in gonadotropin-regulated testicular RNA helicase (GRTH/DDX25)-null mice silences transition protein 2 and protamine 2 messages at sites within coding region: implications of its role in germ cell development. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:44306-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Failure of expression of Transition protein 2 (TP2) and Protamine 2 (Prm2) proteins (chromatin remodelers, essential for spermatid elongation and completion of spermatogenesis) ..
  5. Yiu G, Hecht N. Novel testis-specific protein-DNA interactions activate transcription of the mouse protamine 2 gene during spermatogenesis. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:26926-33 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have demonstrated that ubiquitous and testis-specific proteins bind to the promoter of the mouse protamine 2 (mP2) gene...
  6. Matsui M, Ichihara H, Kobayashi S, Tanaka H, Tsuchida J, Nozaki M, et al. Mapping of six germ-cell-specific genes to mouse chromosomes. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:873-4 pubmed
  7. Elsevier S, Noiran J, Carre Eusebe D. Processing of the precursor of protamine P2 in mouse. Identification of intermediates by their insolubility in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Eur J Biochem. 1991;196:167-75 pubmed
    ..Conclusions concerning the kinetics of processing have, in addition, been drawn from this data. Hypotheses concerning possible functional roles played by the precursor are presented. ..
  8. Johnson P, Bunick D, Hecht N. Protein binding regions in the mouse and rat protamine-2 genes. Biol Reprod. 1991;44:127-34 pubmed
    ..These studies present the first analysis of protein binding sites within the promoter of a testis-specific gene. ..
  9. Hecht N, Kleene K, Yelick P, Johnson P, Pravtcheva D, Ruddle F. Mapping of haploid expressed genes: genes for both mouse protamines are located on chromosome 16. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1986;12:203-8 pubmed
    ..This report presents the first evidence for chromosomal linkage of two sperm-specific, haploid regulated gene products. ..

More Information


  1. Tay J, Richter J. Germ cell differentiation and synaptonemal complex formation are disrupted in CPEB knockout mice. Dev Cell. 2001;1:201-13 pubmed
    ..Synaptonemal complexes were not detected in these animals. CPEB therefore controls germ cell differentiation by regulating the formation of the synaptonemal complex. ..
  2. Green G, Balhorn R, Poccia D, Hecht N. Synthesis and processing of mammalian protamines and transition proteins. Mol Reprod Dev. 1994;37:255-63 pubmed
    ..Newly synthesized mouse protamine 1 (mP1) and the precursor to mouse protamine 2 (pre-mP2) migrated more slowly during electrophoresis than their predominant testicular forms, identified by ..
  3. Miller R, Ozaki J, Riblet R. The mouse severe combined immune deficiency (scid) mutation is closely linked to the B-cell-specific developmental genes VpreB and lambda 5. Genomics. 1993;16:740-4 pubmed
    ..In addition, no recombinations were found between scid and three other loci, VpreB, lambda 5, and D16Mit31, providing markers useful for isolating the scid gene by positional cloning. ..
  4. Puschendorf M, Terranova R, Boutsma E, Mao X, Isono K, Brykczynska U, et al. PRC1 and Suv39h specify parental asymmetry at constitutive heterochromatin in early mouse embryos. Nat Genet. 2008;40:411-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Parental epigenetic asymmetry, also observed along cleavage chromosomes, is resolved by the end of the 8-cell stage--concurrent with blastomere polarization--marking the end of the maternal-to-embryonic transition. ..
  5. Kleene K, Distel R, Hecht N. cDNA clones encoding cytoplasmic poly(A)+ RNAs which first appear at detectable levels in haploid phases of spermatogenesis in the mouse. Dev Biol. 1983;98:455-64 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that certain poly(A)+ RNAs are abundant in haploid cells but barely or not detectable in meiotic cells suggesting the accumulation of these RNAs in round spermatids requires transcription in haploid cells. ..
  6. Bower P, Yelick P, Hecht N. Both P1 and P2 protamine genes are expressed in mouse, hamster, and rat. Biol Reprod. 1987;37:479-88 pubmed
    ..digests of hamster and rat liver DNA reveals the presence of sequences homologous to mP1, and also to mouse protamine 2 (mP2) cDNAs...
  7. Kress C, Gautier Courteille C, Osborne H, Babinet C, Paillard L. Inactivation of CUG-BP1/CELF1 causes growth, viability, and spermatogenesis defects in mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:1146-57 pubmed
    ..In wild-type testes, CUG-BP1 is expressed in germ cells from spermatogonia to round spermatids and also in Sertoli and Leydig cells. These findings demonstrate that CUG-BP1 is required for completion of spermatogenesis. ..
  8. Borghol N, Blachère T, Lefevre A. Transcriptional and epigenetic status of protamine 1 and 2 genes following round spermatids injection into mouse oocytes. Genomics. 2008;91:415-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment of zygotes with trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, maintained the protamine 2 mRNAs expression up to 30 h postfertilization while the DNA methylation status of the gene is not affected...
  9. Hecht N. Gene expression during spermatogenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1987;513:90-101 pubmed
  10. Bellve A, McKay D, Renaux B, Dixon G. Purification and characterization of mouse protamines P1 and P2. Amino acid sequence of P2. Biochemistry. 1988;27:2890-7 pubmed
    ..Sequence comparisons of mouse and human protamines by the Dayhoff program have revealed greater homology exists between human P2 and mouse P2 than within the P1 family from the two mammalian species. ..
  11. Johnson P, Peschon J, Yelick P, Palmiter R, Hecht N. Sequence homologies in the mouse protamine 1 and 2 genes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988;950:45-53 pubmed
    ..An additional shared sequence is present in the 3' untranslated region surrounding the poly(A) addition signal in both genes. ..
  12. Reeves R, Crowley M, Moseley W, Seldin M. Comparison of interspecific to intersubspecific backcrosses demonstrates species and sex differences in recombination frequency on mouse chromosome 16. Mamm Genome. 1991;1:158-64 pubmed
    ..The expansion or compression of maps using different strain or sex combinations has implications for the efficient production of high resolution recombinational maps of the mouse genome. ..
  13. Fukuda N, Fukuda T, Sinnamon J, Hernández Hernández A, Izadi M, Raju C, et al. The transacting factor CBF-A/Hnrnpab binds to the A2RE/RTS element of protamine 2 mRNA and contributes to its translational regulation during mouse spermatogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003858 pubmed publisher
    ..In CBF-A knockout mice, expression of protamine 2 (PRM2) was reduced and the Prm2 mRNA was prematurely translated in a subset of elongating spermatids...
  14. Hummelke G, Cooney A. Reciprocal regulation of the mouse protamine genes by the orphan nuclear receptor germ cell nuclear factor and CREMtau. Mol Reprod Dev. 2004;68:394-407 pubmed
    ..has shown that both recombinant and endogenous GCNF bind to DR0 elements in the mouse protamine 1 and 2 (Prm 1 and Prm 2) promoters with high affinity and specificity...
  15. Nayernia K, Vauti F, Meinhardt A, Cadenas C, Schweyer S, Meyer B, et al. Inactivation of a testis-specific Lis1 transcript in mice prevents spermatid differentiation and causes male infertility. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:48377-85 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence for an essential and hitherto uncharacterized role of the Lis1 protein in spermatogenesis, particularly in the differentiation of spermatids into spermatozoa. ..
  16. Martins R, Ostermeier G, Krawetz S. Nuclear matrix interactions at the human protamine domain: a working model of potentiation. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:51862-8 pubmed
    ..region, the nuclear matrix is considered the primary candidate regulating the opening of the multigenic PRM1 --> PRM2 --> TNP2 human protamine domain...
  17. Xing W, Krishnamurthy H, Sairam M. Role of follitropin receptor signaling in nuclear protein transitions and chromatin condensation during spermatogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;312:697-701 pubmed
    ..In the adult, absence of FSHR signaling prolongs retention of mono-uH2A, leading to impair transition of basic nucleoproteins and chromatin remodeling during mouse spermatogenesis. ..
  18. Urano A, Endoh M, Wada T, Morikawa Y, Itoh M, Kataoka Y, et al. Infertility with defective spermiogenesis in mice lacking AF5q31, the target of chromosomal translocation in human infant leukemia. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6834-45 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, mutant mice displayed severely impaired expression of protamine 1, protamine 2, and transition protein 2, which are indispensable to compact the haploid genome within the sperm head, and an ..
  19. Ha H, van Wijnen A, Hecht N. Tissue-specific protein-DNA interactions of the mouse protamine 2 gene promoter. J Cell Biochem. 1997;64:94-105 pubmed
    ..To understand the regulation of transcription of the mouse protamine 2 (mP2) gene, the tissue-distribution of sequence-specific interactions between nuclear proteins and promoter DNA ..
  20. Fajardo M, Butner K, Lee K, Braun R. Germ cell-specific proteins interact with the 3' untranslated regions of Prm-1 and Prm-2 mRNA. Dev Biol. 1994;166:643-53 pubmed
    ..The presence of the binding activity in the cell type and subcellular compartment associated with Prm-1 and Prm-2 mRNA storage suggest that the activity may be actively engaged in translational repression of these mRNAs. ..
  21. Schneider S, Balbach M, Jan F Jikeli -, Fietz D, Nettersheim D, Jostes S, et al. Re-visiting the Protamine-2 locus: deletion, but not haploinsufficiency, renders male mice infertile. Sci Rep. 2016;6:36764 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice and humans, two protamines, protamine-1 (Prm1) and protamine-2 (Prm2) are expressed in a species-specific ratio...
  22. Chan W, Wu S, Ruszczyk L, Law E, Lee T, Baxendale V, et al. The complexity of antisense transcription revealed by the study of developing male germ cells. Genomics. 2006;87:681-92 pubmed
    ..Thus antisense transcripts have complex origins and structures and the sense and antisense transcripts can be regulated independently. ..
  23. Martin Coello J, Dopazo H, Arbiza L, Ausio J, Roldan E, Gomendio M. Sexual selection drives weak positive selection in protamine genes and high promoter divergence, enhancing sperm competitiveness. Proc Biol Sci. 2009;276:2427-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we examine the influence of sperm competition upon protamine 1 and protamine 2 genes and their promoters, by comparing closely related species of Mus that differ in relative testes size, a ..
  24. Keime S, Heitland K, Kumm S, Schlosser M, Hroch N, Holtz W, et al. Characterization of four genes encoding basic proteins of the porcine spermatid nucleus and close linkage of three of them. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1992;373:261-70 pubmed
    ..Our observations support the hypothesis that these genes may have evolved by gene duplication. ..
  25. Schluter G, Celik A, Obata R, Schlicker M, Hofferbert S, Schlung A, et al. Sequence analysis of the conserved protamine gene cluster shows that it contains a fourth expressed gene. Mol Reprod Dev. 1996;43:1-6 pubmed
    ..e., the genes are situated in a head to tail arrangement in the order: protamine 1-protamine 2-transition protein 2...
  26. Doggett N, Callen D. Report and abstracts of the third international workshop on human chromosome 16 mapping 1994. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, May 7-9, 1994. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1995;68:165-84 pubmed
  27. Yelick P, Balhorn R, Johnson P, Corzett M, Mazrimas J, Kleene K, et al. Mouse protamine 2 is synthesized as a precursor whereas mouse protamine 1 is not. Mol Cell Biol. 1987;7:2173-9 pubmed
    The nuclei of mouse spermatozoa contain two protamine variants, mouse protamine 1 (mP1) and mouse protamine 2 (mP2)...
  28. Carre Eusebe D, Lederer F, Le K, Elsevier S. Processing of the precursor of protamine P2 in mouse. Peptide mapping and N-terminal sequence analysis of intermediates. Biochem J. 1991;277 ( Pt 1):39-45 pubmed
    ..The N-terminus of the larger intermediate, PP2C, was Gly-12, whereas the N-terminus of the smaller, PP2D, was His-21. Both processing sites involved a peptide bond in which the carbonyl function was contributed by an acidic amino acid. ..
  29. Charles C, Abler A, Lau L. cDNA sequence of a growth factor-inducible immediate early gene and characterization of its encoded protein. Oncogene. 1992;7:187-90 pubmed
    ..Using affinity-purified antibodies, we have identified the 3CH134 protein in serum-stimulated Balb/c 3T3 cells and determined that it has a short half-life. ..
  30. Yang J, Medvedev S, Reddi P, Schultz R, Hecht N. The DNA/RNA-binding protein MSY2 marks specific transcripts for cytoplasmic storage in mouse male germ cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1513-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that MSY2 marks specific mRNAs in the nucleus for cytoplasmic storage, thereby linking transcription and mRNA storage/translational delay in meiotic and postmeiotic male germ cells of the mouse. ..
  31. Irving N, Citron M, Reeves R. The positions of 12 simple sequence repeat markers relative to reference loci on mouse chromosome 16. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:364-7 pubmed
    ..A subset of the most robust SSRs provide a useful marker set for the analysis of previously unmapped crosses. ..
  32. Cantù C, Valenta T, Hausmann G, Vilain N, Aguet M, Basler K. The Pygo2-H3K4me2/3 interaction is dispensable for mouse development and Wnt signaling-dependent transcription. Development. 2013;140:2377-86 pubmed publisher
  33. Shum E, Jones S, Shao A, Dumdie J, Krause M, Chan W, et al. The Antagonistic Gene Paralogs Upf3a and Upf3b Govern Nonsense-Mediated RNA Decay. Cell. 2016;165:382-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice conditionally lacking UPF3A exhibit "hyper" NMD and display defects in embryogenesis and gametogenesis. Our results support a model in which UPF3A serves as a molecular rheostat that directs developmental events. ..
  34. Delpire E, Lu J, England R, Dull C, Thorne T. Deafness and imbalance associated with inactivation of the secretory Na-K-2Cl co-transporter. Nat Genet. 1999;22:192-5 pubmed
    ..We localized the co-transporter to key secreting epithelia of the mouse inner ear and show that absence of functional co-transporter leads to structural damages in the inner ear consistent with a decrease in endolymph secretion. ..
  35. Choi Y, Aizawa A, Hecht N. Genomic analysis of the mouse protamine 1, protamine 2, and transition protein 2 gene cluster reveals hypermethylation in expressing cells. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:317-23 pubmed
    To understand the role of chromatin structure in the expression of the mouse protamine 1, protamine 2, and transition protein 2 genes during spermatogenesis, we have examined the genomic organization of this cluster of "haploid-..
  36. Reeves R, Gearhart J, Hecht N, Yelick P, Johnson P, O Brien S. Mapping of PRM1 to human chromosome 16 and tight linkage of Prm-1 and Prm-2 on mouse chromosome 16. J Hered. 1989;80:442-6 pubmed
    ..6 cM on MMU 16. This tight linkage may be of functional significance, as Prm-1 and Prm-2 are among a limited number of genes known to be expressed postmeiotically in male haploid germ cells. ..
  37. Engel W, Keime S, Kremling H, Hameister H, Schluter G. The genes for protamine 1 and 2 (PRM1 and PRM2) and transition protein 2 (TNP2) are closely linked in the mammalian genome. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1992;61:158-9 pubmed
    The genes for two protamines (PRM1 and PRM2) and for two transition proteins (TNP1 and TNP2) have been characterized in several mammalian species...
  38. Malla A, Bhandari R. IP6K1 is essential for chromatoid body formation and temporal regulation of Tnp2 and Prm2 expression in mouse spermatids. J Cell Sci. 2017;130:2854-2866 pubmed publisher
    ..from Ip6k1-/- mice display premature expression of the transition protein TNP2 and the protamine PRM2 due to translational derepression...