Gene Symbol: Prl3d1
Description: prolactin family 3, subfamily d, member 1
Alias: AI325057, Csh1, Ghd4, PL-I, PL-I-alpha, PL-Ia, Pl-1, Pl1, mPL-I, prolactin-3D1, chorionic somatomammotropin hormone 1, growth hormone d4, placental lactogen 1, placental lactogen I, placental lactogen-I alpha, prolactin-like 2
Species: mouse
Products:     Prl3d1

Top Publications

  1. Teesalu T, Blasi F, Talarico D. Embryo implantation in mouse: fetomaternal coordination in the pattern of expression of uPA, uPAR, PAI-1 and alpha 2MR/LRP genes. Mech Dev. 1996;56:103-16 pubmed
    ..5 and 8.5 days. Our studies outline the expression of a set of functionally related genes that is well coordinated between fetal and maternal tissues. This coordination may model other physiological and pathological invasive processes. ..
  2. Tanaka H, Nagaike K, Takeda N, Itoh H, Kohama K, Fukushima T, et al. Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 1 (HAI-1) is required for branching morphogenesis in the chorioallantoic placenta. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:5687-98 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that mouse HAI-1 is essential for branching morphogenesis in the chorioallantoic placenta and lack of HAI-1 function may result in placental failure. ..
  3. Chen H, Detmer S, Ewald A, Griffin E, Fraser S, Chan D. Mitofusins Mfn1 and Mfn2 coordinately regulate mitochondrial fusion and are essential for embryonic development. J Cell Biol. 2003;160:189-200 pubmed
    ..Therefore, mitochondrial fusion is essential for embryonic development, and by enabling cooperation between mitochondria, has protective effects on the mitochondrial population. ..
  4. Hemberger M, Nozaki T, Masutani M, Cross J. Differential expression of angiogenic and vasodilatory factors by invasive trophoblast giant cells depending on depth of invasion. Dev Dyn. 2003;227:185-91 pubmed
    ..These results show that trophoblast giant cells have the intrinsic capacity to attract and increase blood flow and to gradually displace the vascular endothelium resulting in the formation of canals entirely lined by trophoblast cells. ..
  5. Strumpf D, Mao C, Yamanaka Y, Ralston A, Chawengsaksophak K, Beck F, et al. Cdx2 is required for correct cell fate specification and differentiation of trophectoderm in the mouse blastocyst. Development. 2005;132:2093-102 pubmed
    ..Thus, Cdx2 is essential for segregation of the ICM and TE lineages at the blastocyst stage by ensuring repression of Oct4 and Nanog in the TE. ..
  6. Mudgett J, Ding J, Guh Siesel L, Chartrain N, Yang L, Gopal S, et al. Essential role for p38alpha mitogen-activated protein kinase in placental angiogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:10454-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results indicate a requirement for p38alpha MAPK in diploid trophoblast development and placental vascularization and suggest a more general role for p38 MAPK signaling in embryonic angiogenesis. ..
  7. Giroux S, Tremblay M, Bernard D, Cardin Girard J, Aubry S, Larouche L, et al. Embryonic death of Mek1-deficient mice reveals a role for this kinase in angiogenesis in the labyrinthine region of the placenta. Curr Biol. 1999;9:369-72 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that mek1 function is required for normal response to angiogenic signals that might promote vascularization of the labyrinthine region of the placenta. ..
  8. Kraut N, Snider L, Chen C, Tapscott S, Groudine M. Requirement of the mouse I-mfa gene for placental development and skeletal patterning. EMBO J. 1998;17:6276-88 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that I-mfa plays an important role in trophoblast and chondrogenic differentiation by negatively regulating a subset of lineage-restricted bHLH proteins. ..
  9. Guillemot F, Nagy A, Auerbach A, Rossant J, Joyner A. Essential role of Mash-2 in extraembryonic development. Nature. 1994;371:333-6 pubmed
    ..Mash-2 is the first transcription factor shown to play a critical part in the development of the mammalian trophoblast lineage. ..

More Information


  1. Ng R, Dean W, Dawson C, Lucifero D, Madeja Z, Reik W, et al. Epigenetic restriction of embryonic cell lineage fate by methylation of Elf5. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:1280-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This epigenetic restriction of cell lineage fate provides a molecular mechanism for Waddington's concept of canalization of developmental pathways. ..
  2. Jacquemin P, Sapin V, Alsat E, Evain Brion D, Dolle P, Davidson I. Differential expression of the TEF family of transcription factors in the murine placenta and during differentiation of primary human trophoblasts in vitro. Dev Dyn. 1998;212:423-36 pubmed
    ..We further propose that the hTEF factors may play a more general role in placental gene regulation and development. ..
  3. Faria T, Ogren L, Talamantes F, Linzer D, Soares M. Localization of placental lactogen-I in trophoblast giant cells of the mouse placenta. Biol Reprod. 1991;44:327-31 pubmed
    ..Expression of PL-I and PL-II signals a significant functional transition in trophoblast giant cells of the developing mouse placenta. ..
  4. Shi W, van den Hurk J, Alamo Bethencourt V, Mayer W, Winkens H, Ropers H, et al. Choroideremia gene product affects trophoblast development and vascularization in mouse extra-embryonic tissues. Dev Biol. 2004;272:53-65 pubmed
    ..spretus X-chromosome rather than a modifier effect. Our results demonstrate that Chm is essential for diploid trophoblast development and plays a role in the vascularization in placenta and yolk sac. ..
  5. Simmons D, Fortier A, Cross J. Diverse subtypes and developmental origins of trophoblast giant cells in the mouse placenta. Dev Biol. 2007;304:567-78 pubmed
    ..considered a homogeneous population, TGCs have been identified by their expression of genes encoding placental lactogen 1 or proliferin...
  6. Morasso M, Grinberg A, Robinson G, Sargent T, Mahon K. Placental failure in mice lacking the homeobox gene Dlx3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:162-7 pubmed
  7. Lee E, Yuan T, Danielian P, West J, Lees J. E2F4 cooperates with pRB in the development of extra-embryonic tissues. Dev Biol. 2009;332:104-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data show that pRB and E2F4 cooperate in placental development, but play largely non-overlapping roles in the development of many embryonic tissues...
  8. Sarkar A, Nuwayhid S, Maynard T, Ghandchi F, Hill J, LaMantia A, et al. Hectd1 is required for development of the junctional zone of the placenta. Dev Biol. 2014;392:368-80 pubmed publisher
    ..subtype specific markers reveals altered TGC development with decreased expression of Placental lactogen-1 and -2 (Pl1 and Pl2) and increased expression of Proliferin (Plf)...
  9. Kolanczyk M, Pech M, Zemojtel T, Yamamoto H, Mikula I, Calvaruso M, et al. NOA1 is an essential GTPase required for mitochondrial protein synthesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, NOA1 is required for such basal mitochondrial functions as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and apoptosis. ..
  10. Abell A, Granger D, Johnson N, Vincent Jordan N, Dibble C, Johnson G. Trophoblast stem cell maintenance by fibroblast growth factor 4 requires MEKK4 activation of Jun N-terminal kinase. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:2748-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results define MEKK4 as a signaling hub for FGF4 activation of JNK that is required for maintenance of TS cells in an undifferentiated state. ..
  11. You L, Yan K, Zou J, Zhao H, Bertos N, Park M, et al. The chromatin regulator Brpf1 regulates embryo development and cell proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:11349-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results uncover a crucial role of Brpf1 in controlling mouse embryo development and regulating cellular and gene expression programs. ..
  12. Ma G, Soloveva V, Tzeng S, Lowe L, Pfendler K, Iannaccone P, et al. Nodal regulates trophoblast differentiation and placental development. Dev Biol. 2001;236:124-35 pubmed
  13. Finkenzeller D, Fischer B, McLaughlin J, Schrewe H, Ledermann B, Zimmermann W. Trophoblast cell-specific carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 9 is not required for placental development or a positive outcome of allotypic pregnancies. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:7140-5 pubmed
    ..Taken together, Ceacam9 is dispensable for murine placental and embryonic development despite being highly conserved within rodents. ..
  14. Huang G, Massoudi D, Muir A, Joshi D, Zhang C, Chiu S, et al. WBSCR16 Is a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor Important for Mitochondrial Fusion. Cell Rep. 2017;20:923-934 pubmed publisher
  15. Hamada Y, Hiroe T, Suzuki Y, Oda M, Tsujimoto Y, Coleman J, et al. Notch2 is required for formation of the placental circulatory system, but not for cell-type specification in the developing mouse placenta. Differentiation. 2007;75:268-78 pubmed
    ..Thus, Notch2 is not cell autonomously required for the early cell fate determination of subtypes of trophoblast cells, but plays an indispensable role in the formation of maternal blood sinuses in the developing mouse placenta. ..
  16. Pan Z, Sikandar S, Witherspoon M, Dizon D, Nguyen T, Benirschke K, et al. Impaired placental trophoblast lineage differentiation in Alkbh1(-/-) mice. Dev Dyn. 2008;237:316-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study demonstrates Alkbh1 performs important functions in placental trophoblast lineage differentiation and participates in mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. ..
  17. MacTaggart T, Ito M, Smithies O, John S. Mouse angiotensin receptor genes Agtr1a and Agtr1b map to chromosomes 13 and 3. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:294-5 pubmed
  18. Sun X, Xie H, Yang J, Wang H, Bradshaw H, Dey S. Endocannabinoid signaling directs differentiation of trophoblast cell lineages and placentation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:16887-92 pubmed publisher
  19. Hudson J, Chen L, Fode C, Binkert C, Dennis J. Sak kinase gene structure and transcriptional regulation. Gene. 2000;241:65-73 pubmed
    ..Using various Sak promoter/luciferase constructs, the core promoter region required for expression was located within 400bp of the message Cap site, and sequence further 5' strongly suppressed transcription. ..
  20. Tian Y, Lei L, Cammarano M, Nekrasova T, Minden A. Essential role for the Pak4 protein kinase in extraembryonic tissue development and vessel formation. Mech Dev. 2009;126:710-20 pubmed publisher
    ..More detailed analysis suggests that abnormalities in vasculature throughout the extraembryonic tissue and the epiblast may contribute to the death of the Pak4-null embryos. ..
  21. Wang J, Mager J, Chen Y, Schneider E, Cross J, Nagy A, et al. Imprinted X inactivation maintained by a mouse Polycomb group gene. Nat Genet. 2001;28:371-5 pubmed
    ..Based on the recent finding that the Eed protein interacts with histone deacetylases, we suggest that this maintenance activity involves hypoacetylation of the inactivated paternal X chromosome in the extra-embryonic tissues. ..
  22. Arima T, Hata K, Tanaka S, Kusumi M, Li E, Kato K, et al. Loss of the maternal imprint in Dnmt3Lmat-/- mice leads to a differentiation defect in the extraembryonic tissue. Dev Biol. 2006;297:361-73 pubmed
    ..These findings provide evidence that not only is DNA methylation required for the appropriate maternal imprint in the placenta but that the appropriate imprint is absolutely required for vertebrate placentation. ..
  23. Begay V, Smink J, Leutz A. Essential requirement of CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins in embryogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9744-51 pubmed
    ..Our data thus reveal novel essential, redundant, and dosage dependent functions of C/EBPs. ..
  24. Kröger C, Vijayaraj P, Reuter U, Windoffer R, Simmons D, Heukamp L, et al. Placental vasculogenesis is regulated by keratin-mediated hyperoxia in murine decidual tissues. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:1578-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that keratin mutations might mediate conditions leading to early pregnancy loss due to hyperoxia in the decidua. ..
  25. Strauss B, Pittman R, Pixley M, Nilson J, Boime I. Expression of the beta subunit of chorionic gonadotropin in transgenic mice. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:4968-73 pubmed
    ..Additionally, a different subset of CG beta genes (CG beta 1 and beta 2) is active in the mouse brain. ..
  26. Firulli A, McFadden D, Lin Q, Srivastava D, Olson E. Heart and extra-embryonic mesodermal defects in mouse embryos lacking the bHLH transcription factor Hand1. Nat Genet. 1998;18:266-70 pubmed
    ..Heart development was also perturbed and did not progress beyond the cardiac-looping stage. Our results demonstrate important roles for Hand1 in extraembryonic mesodermal and heart development. ..
  27. Shida M, Ng Y, Soares M, Linzer D. Trophoblast-specific transcription from the mouse placental lactogen-I gene promoter. Mol Endocrinol. 1993;7:181-8 pubmed
    ..In addition to these two AP-1 sites, at least one other element appears to be critical for promoter activity in trophoblast cells. ..
  28. Mould A, Morgan M, Li L, Bikoff E, Robertson E. Blimp1/Prdm1 governs terminal differentiation of endovascular trophoblast giant cells and defines multipotent progenitors in the developing placenta. Genes Dev. 2012;26:2063-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In sum, the transcriptional repressor Blimp1/Prdm1 is required for terminal differentiation of SpA-TGCs and defines a lineage-restricted progenitor cell population contributing to placental growth and morphogenesis. ..
  29. Chrostowski M, McGonnigal B, Stabila J, Padbury J. LAT-1 expression in pre- and post-implantation embryos and placenta. Placenta. 2009;30:270-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism of LAT-1 regulation during placentation, therefore, might provide valuable clues to its role in tumor progression and invasion. ..
  30. Ono R, Nakamura K, Inoue K, Naruse M, Usami T, Wakisaka Saito N, et al. Deletion of Peg10, an imprinted gene acquired from a retrotransposon, causes early embryonic lethality. Nat Genet. 2006;38:101-6 pubmed
    ..This indicates that Peg10 is critical for mouse parthenogenetic development and provides the first direct evidence of an essential role of an evolutionarily conserved retrotransposon-derived gene in mammalian development...
  31. Jackson Grusby L, Pravtcheva D, Ruddle F, Linzer D. Chromosomal mapping of the prolactin/growth hormone gene family in the mouse. Endocrinology. 1988;122:2462-6 pubmed
    ..All of the other genes in this hormone family, including those encoding mPRL, mouse placental lactogens I and II, and mouse proliferin and proliferin-related protein, map to chromosome 13. ..
  32. Finkenzeller D, Fischer B, Lutz S, Schrewe H, Shimizu T, Zimmermann W. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 10 expressed specifically early in pregnancy in the decidua is dispensable for normal murine development. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:272-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, both Ceacam10 and Ceacam9, alone or in combination, are not essential for either murine placental and embryonic development or for adult life. ..
  33. Ma G, Roth M, Groskopf J, Tsai F, Orkin S, Grosveld F, et al. GATA-2 and GATA-3 regulate trophoblast-specific gene expression in vivo. Development. 1997;124:907-14 pubmed
    ..and GATA-3 are expressed in trophoblast giant cells and that they regulate transcription from the mouse placental lactogen I gene promoter in a transfected trophoblast cell line...
  34. Zhang Z, Leclerc D, Gravel R, Rozen R. The methionine synthase (Mtr) gene maps to proximal mouse chromosome 13. Mamm Genome. 1997;8:787-8 pubmed
  35. Auman H, Nottoli T, Lakiza O, Winger Q, Donaldson S, Williams T. Transcription factor AP-2gamma is essential in the extra-embryonic lineages for early postimplantation development. Development. 2002;129:2733-47 pubmed
    ..By contrast, the presence of AP-2gamma in the extra-embryonic membranes is required for normal development of this compartment and also for survival of the mouse embryo. ..
  36. Saunders A, McGonnigal B, Uzun A, Padbury J. The developmental expression of the CDK inhibitor p57(kip2) (Cdkn1c) in the early mouse placenta. Mol Reprod Dev. 2016;83:405-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Cdkn1c RNA was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Co-expression of Pl1 was used to identify trophoblast giant cells while Tbpba was used to identify spongiotrophoblast cells...
  37. Paikari A, D Belair C, Saw D, Blelloch R. The eutheria-specific miR-290 cluster modulates placental growth and maternal-fetal transport. Development. 2017;144:3731-3743 pubmed publisher
    ..These data uncover a crucial function for the miR-290 cluster in the regulation of a network of genes required for placental development, suggesting a central role for these microRNAs in the evolution of placental mammals. ..
  38. Tompers D, Foreman R, Wang Q, Kumanova M, Labosky P. Foxd3 is required in the trophoblast progenitor cell lineage of the mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2005;285:126-37 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this provides support for the hypothesis that there are conserved molecular mechanisms for maintaining the self-renewing properties of diverse progenitor cell types. ..
  39. Philipp M, Brede M, Hadamek K, Gessler M, Lohse M, Hein L. Placental alpha(2)-adrenoceptors control vascular development at the interface between mother and embryo. Nat Genet. 2002;31:311-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, alpha(2)-adrenoceptors are essential at the placental interface between mother and embryo to establish the circulatory system of the placenta and thus maintain pregnancy. ..
  40. Yamaguchi M, Ogren L, Kurachi H, Hirota K, Imai T, Talamantes F. Opposite effects of transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor on mouse placental lactogen I secretion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:2830-4 pubmed determine whether transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) regulates the production of mouse placental lactogen I (mPL-I) and mPL-II in a manner that is similar to that of epidermal growth factor (EGF), which was ..
  41. Wang J, Mager J, Schnedier E, Magnuson T. The mouse PcG gene eed is required for Hox gene repression and extraembryonic development. Mamm Genome. 2002;13:493-503 pubmed
    ..However, genetic crosses with a Mash2 null allele suggested that Eed was not required to maintain Mash2 imprinting, but could be required in a lineage specific fashion to suppress Mash2 expression. ..
  42. Du X, Dong Y, Shi H, Li J, Kong S, Shi D, et al. Mst1 and mst2 are essential regulators of trophoblast differentiation and placenta morphogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e90701 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our studies have defined novel roles of Mst1/2 in mouse placental development. ..
  43. Luhmann U, Meunier D, Shi W, Lüttges A, Pfarrer C, Fundele R, et al. Fetal loss in homozygous mutant Norrie disease mice: a new role of Norrin in reproduction. Genesis. 2005;42:253-62 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data provide strong evidence for Norrin playing an important role in female reproductive tissues. ..
  44. Cowden Dahl K, Fryer B, Mack F, Compernolle V, Maltepe E, Adelman D, et al. Hypoxia-inducible factors 1alpha and 2alpha regulate trophoblast differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10479-91 pubmed
    ..This novel genetic approach provides new insights into the role of O2 tension in the development of life-threatening pregnancy-related diseases such as preeclampsia. ..
  45. Moser M, Li Y, Vaupel K, Kretzschmar D, Kluge R, Glynn P, et al. Placental failure and impaired vasculogenesis result in embryonic lethality for neuropathy target esterase-deficient mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:1667-79 pubmed
    ..Additionally, impairment of vasculogenesis in the yolk sacs and embryos of null mutant conceptuses suggested that NTE is also required for normal blood vessel development. ..
  46. Schorpp Kistner M, Wang Z, Angel P, Wagner E. JunB is essential for mammalian placentation. EMBO J. 1999;18:934-48 pubmed
    ..Therefore, JunB appears to be involved in multiple signaling pathways regulating genes involved in the establishment of a proper feto-maternal circulatory system. ..
  47. Wessells J, Wessner D, Parsells R, White K, Finkenzeller D, Zimmermann W, et al. Pregnancy specific glycoprotein 18 induces IL-10 expression in murine macrophages. Eur J Immunol. 2000;30:1830-40 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that PSG18 selectively up-regulates IL-10 production by macrophages, providing a possible mechanism by which this protein helps promote successful pregnancy. ..
  48. Shibata M, Blauvelt K, Liem K, GARCIA GARCIA M. TRIM28 is required by the mouse KRAB domain protein ZFP568 to control convergent extension and morphogenesis of extra-embryonic tissues. Development. 2011;138:5333-43 pubmed publisher
  49. Dokras A, Hoffmann D, Eastvold J, Kienzle M, Gruman L, Kirby P, et al. Severe feto-placental abnormalities precede the onset of hypertension and proteinuria in a mouse model of preeclampsia. Biol Reprod. 2006;75:899-907 pubmed
  50. Xu X, Weinstein M, Li C, Naski M, Cohen R, Ornitz D, et al. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2)-mediated reciprocal regulation loop between FGF8 and FGF10 is essential for limb induction. Development. 1998;125:753-65 pubmed
  51. Teesalu T, Masson R, Basset P, Blasi F, Talarico D. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases during murine chorioallantoic placenta maturation. Dev Dyn. 1999;214:248-58 pubmed
    ..Our findings document the participation of MMPs and their inhibitors in the process of late murine placenta maturation, and warrant the characterization of other members of the MMP family, like membrane type-MMPs, in this process. ..
  52. Lagger G, O Carroll D, Rembold M, Khier H, Tischler J, Weitzer G, et al. Essential function of histone deacetylase 1 in proliferation control and CDK inhibitor repression. EMBO J. 2002;21:2672-81 pubmed
    ..Our study provides the first evidence that a histone deacetylase is essential for unrestricted cell proliferation by repressing the expression of selective cell cycle inhibitors. ..
  53. Nadra K, Anghel S, Joye E, Tan N, Basu Modak S, Trono D, et al. Differentiation of trophoblast giant cells and their metabolic functions are dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:3266-81 pubmed
    ..Altogether, this important role of PPARbeta/delta in placenta development and giant cell differentiation should be considered when contemplating the potency of PPARbeta/delta agonist as therapeutic agents of broad application. ..
  54. Emes R, Goodstadt L, Winter E, Ponting C. Comparison of the genomes of human and mouse lays the foundation of genome zoology. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:701-9 pubmed
    ..We predict that the availability of numerous animal genomes will give rise to a new field of genome zoology in which differences in animal physiology and ethology are illuminated by the study of genomic sequence variations. ..
  55. Hu X, Li J, Zhang Q, Zheng L, Wang G, Zhang X, et al. Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase (PI3K) Subunit p110? Is Essential for Trophoblast Cell Differentiation and Placental Development in Mouse. Sci Rep. 2016;6:28201 pubmed publisher
    ..These data, taken together, provide the first in vivo evidence that p110? may play an important role in placental vascularization through manipulating trophoblast giant cell. ..
  56. Takimoto Ohnishi E, Saito T, Ishida J, Ohnishi J, Sugiyama F, Yagami K, et al. Differential roles of renin and angiotensinogen in the feto-maternal interface in the development of complications of pregnancy. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:1361-72 pubmed
    ..This study provides in vivo evidence that the cell-specific expression of RN and ANG in the feto-maternal interface impacts their differential roles in pregnancy. ..
  57. Simmons D, Natale D, Begay V, Hughes M, Leutz A, Cross J. Early patterning of the chorion leads to the trilaminar trophoblast cell structure in the placental labyrinth. Development. 2008;135:2083-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that the three differentiated trophoblast cell types in the labyrinth arise from distinct and autonomous precursors in the chorion that are patterned before morphogenesis begins...
  58. Nakayama H, Liu Y, Stifani S, Cross J. Developmental restriction of Mash-2 expression in trophoblast correlates with potential activation of the notch-2 pathway. Dev Genet. 1997;21:21-30 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Notch signaling through activation of HES transcriptional repressors may play a role in murine placental development. ..
  59. Tunster S, Tycko B, John R. The imprinted Phlda2 gene regulates extraembryonic energy stores. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:295-306 pubmed publisher
  60. Luo J, Sladek R, Bader J, Matthyssen A, Rossant J, Giguere V. Placental abnormalities in mouse embryos lacking the orphan nuclear receptor ERR-beta. Nature. 1997;388:778-82 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that ERR-beta has an important role in early placentation, and suggest that an inductive signal originating from or modified by the chorion is required for normal trophoblast proliferation and differentiation. ..
  61. Labosky P, Winnier G, Sasaki H, Blessing M, Hogan B. The chromosomal mapping of four genes encoding winged helix proteins expressed early in mouse development. Genomics. 1996;34:241-5 pubmed
    ..Since Mf3 is located in a region of Chromosome 9 containing many well-characterized mouse mutations such as short ear (se), ashen (ash), and dilute (d), we have analyzed deletion mutants to determine the location of Mf3 more precisely. ..
  62. Park C, DeMayo F, Lydon J, Dufort D. NODAL in the uterus is necessary for proper placental development and maintenance of pregnancy. Biol Reprod. 2012;86:194 pubmed publisher
  63. Orwig K, Ishimura R, Muller H, Liu B, Soares M. Identification and characterization of a mouse homolog for decidual/trophoblast prolactin-related protein. Endocrinology. 1997;138:5511-7 pubmed
    ..Only placental lactogen I and II have been characterized in both rat and mouse...
  64. Vrana P, Matteson P, Schmidt J, Ingram R, Joyce A, Prince K, et al. Genomic imprinting of a placental lactogen gene in Peromyscus. Dev Genes Evol. 2001;211:523-32 pubmed
  65. Oda M, Oxley D, Dean W, Reik W. Regulation of lineage specific DNA hypomethylation in mouse trophectoderm. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e68846 pubmed publisher
    ..This resistance may be based on transcription factors or on global differences in chromatin structure. ..
  66. Petit F, Jamin S, Kurihara I, Behringer R, DeMayo F, Tsai M, et al. Deletion of the orphan nuclear receptor COUP-TFII in uterus leads to placental deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:6293-8 pubmed
    ..The endometrial COUP-TFII might modulate the signaling between the uterus and the extraembryonic tissue for the proper formation of the placenta. ..
  67. Hasan M, Ikawati M, Tocharus J, Kawaichi M, Oka C. Abnormal development of placenta in HtrA1-deficient mice. Dev Biol. 2015;397:89-102 pubmed publisher
  68. Teesalu T, Grassi F, Guttinger M. Expression pattern of the epithelial v-like antigen (Eva) transcript suggests a possible role in placental morphogenesis. Dev Genet. 1998;23:317-23 pubmed
    ..The expression pattern of Eva transcripts suggests that during mouse placenta formation, its protein product may play a role in the processes of trophoblast invasion, decidual response, and trophoblast-decidual interaction. ..
  69. Kazanskaya O, Ohkawara B, Heroult M, Wu W, Maltry N, Augustin H, et al. The Wnt signaling regulator R-spondin 3 promotes angioblast and vascular development. Development. 2008;135:3655-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that vascular endothelial growth factor is an immediate early response gene and a mediator of R-spondin signaling. The results identify Rspo3 as a novel, evolutionarily conserved angiogenic factor in embryogenesis. ..
  70. Shiota C, Woo J, Lindner J, Shelton K, Magnuson M. Multiallelic disruption of the rictor gene in mice reveals that mTOR complex 2 is essential for fetal growth and viability. Dev Cell. 2006;11:583-9 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings indicate that both rictor and mTORC2 are essential for the development of both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. ..
  71. Garrick D, Sharpe J, Arkell R, Dobbie L, Smith A, Wood W, et al. Loss of Atrx affects trophoblast development and the pattern of X-inactivation in extraembryonic tissues. PLoS Genet. 2006;2:e58 pubmed
    ..Together these findings demonstrate an unexpected, specific, and essential role for Atrx in the development of the murine trophoblast and present an example of escape from imprinted X chromosome inactivation. ..
  72. Rawn S, Huang C, Hughes M, Shaykhutdinov R, Vogel H, Cross J. Pregnancy Hyperglycemia in Prolactin Receptor Mutant, but Not Prolactin Mutant, Mice and Feeding-Responsive Regulation of Placental Lactogen Genes Implies Placental Control of Maternal Glucose Homeostasis. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:75 pubmed publisher
    ..The Prl3d1 gene is expressed by trophoblast giant cells both in the labyrinth layer, sitting on the arterial side where ..
  73. Blois S, Ilarregui J, Tometten M, Garcia M, Orsal A, Cordo Russo R, et al. A pivotal role for galectin-1 in fetomaternal tolerance. Nat Med. 2007;13:1450-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, Gal-1 is a pivotal regulator of fetomaternal tolerance that has potential therapeutic implications in threatened pregnancies. ..
  74. Hoki Y, Ikeda R, Mise N, Sakata Y, Ohhata T, Sasaki H, et al. Incomplete X-inactivation initiated by a hypomorphic Xist allele in the mouse. Development. 2011;138:2649-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Xist(IVS), which can be referred to as a partial loss-of-function mutation, would provide an opportunity to dissect the molecular mechanism of Xist RNA-mediated chromosome silencing. ..
  75. Kuang S, Liao L, Zhang H, Pereira F, Yuan Y, DeMayo F, et al. Deletion of the cancer-amplified coactivator AIB3 results in defective placentation and embryonic lethality. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:45356-60 pubmed
    ..These results also indicate that the biological function of AIB3 is not redundant with other classes of nuclear receptor coactivators such as PBP and members of the steroid receptor coactivator family. ..
  76. Fujinaka Y, Takane K, Yamashita H, Vasavada R. Lactogens promote beta cell survival through JAK2/STAT5 activation and Bcl-XL upregulation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:30707-17 pubmed
    ..We believe this is the first direct demonstration of lactogens mediating their protective effect through the JAK2/STAT5 pathway in the beta cell and through Bcl-XL in any cell type. ..
  77. Park G, Lim S, Jang S, Morasso M. Suprabasin, a novel epidermal differentiation marker and potential cornified envelope precursor. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:45195-202 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these results indicate that the suprabasin protein potentially plays a role in the process of epidermal differentiation. ..
  78. Yamada K, Kanda H, Tanaka S, Takamatsu N, Shiba T, Ito M. Sox15 enhances trophoblast giant cell differentiation induced by Hand1 in mouse placenta. Differentiation. 2006;74:212-21 pubmed
    ..These results may suggest that the increased transcriptional activity of Hand1 caused by Sox15 might promote the transcription of the target gene resulting in the trophoblast giant cell differentiation in the mouse placenta. ..
  79. Basyuk E, Cross J, Corbin J, Nakayama H, Hunter P, Nait Oumesmar B, et al. Murine Gcm1 gene is expressed in a subset of placental trophoblast cells. Dev Dyn. 1999;214:303-11 pubmed
    ..5 within a subset of labyrinthine trophoblast cells. Comparison with other transcription factors revealed that Gcm1 expression defines a unique subset of trophoblast cells. ..
  80. Muggia A, Teesalu T, Neri A, Blasi F, Talarico D. Trophoblast giant cells express NF-kappa B2 during early mouse development. Dev Genet. 1999;25:23-30 pubmed
  81. Hu D, Cross J. Ablation of Tpbpa-positive trophoblast precursors leads to defects in maternal spiral artery remodeling in the mouse placenta. Dev Biol. 2011;358:231-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work demonstrates that the Tpbpa-positive lineage is essential for placental function and particularly critical for maternal vasculature remodeling. ..
  82. Peraki I, Palis J, Mavrothalassitis G. The Ets2 Repressor Factor (Erf) Is Required for Effective Primitive and Definitive Hematopoiesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2017;37: pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that Erf is required for both primitive and erythromyeloid progenitor waves of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-independent hematopoiesis as well as for the normal function of HSCs. ..
  83. Dupressoir A, Vernochet C, Bawa O, Harper F, Pierron G, Opolon P, et al. Syncytin-A knockout mice demonstrate the critical role in placentation of a fusogenic, endogenous retrovirus-derived, envelope gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12127-32 pubmed publisher