Prl

Summary

Gene Symbol: Prl
Description: prolactin
Alias: AV290867, Gha1, Prl1a1, prolactin, growth hormone a1
Species: mouse
Products:     Prl

Top Publications

  1. Montgomery D. Prolactin production by immune cells. Lupus. 2001;10:665-75 pubmed
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is a pituitary hormone and a cytokine that plays an important role in rodent and human immune responses, including autoimmune diseases...
  2. Morales P, Carretero M, Geronimo H, Copin S, Gaspar M, Marcos M, et al. Influence of prolactin on the differentiation of mouse B-lymphoid precursors. Cell Growth Differ. 1999;10:583-90 pubmed
    ..as illustrated by the roles of corticosteroids in thymus, pregnancy-related estrogens in B-cell development, or prolactin (PRL) on T-cell generation and function...
  3. McMurray R. Prolactin in murine systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus. 2001;10:742-7 pubmed
    ..In multiple studies, elevated serum prolactin concentrations (hyperprolactinemia) stimulated appearance or progression of murine lupus...
  4. Cruz Soto M, Scheiber M, Gregerson K, Boivin G, Horseman N. Pituitary tumorigenesis in prolactin gene-disrupted mice. Endocrinology. 2002;143:4429-36 pubmed
    Targeted disruption [knockout (KO)] of the mouse prolactin (PRL) gene created an animal model of primary isolated PRL deficiency in which there is no detectable PRL bioactivity...
  5. Goffin V, Hoang D, Bogorad R, Nevalainen M. Prolactin regulation of the prostate gland: a female player in a male game. Nat Rev Urol. 2011;8:597-607 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin is best known for its actions on the mammary gland. However, circulating prolactin is also detected in males and its receptor (PRLR) is expressed in the prostate, suggesting that the prostate is a target of prolactin...
  6. Saha S, Gonzalez J, Rosenfeld G, Keiser H, Peeva E. Prolactin alters the mechanisms of B cell tolerance induction. Arthritis Rheum. 2009;60:1743-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that persistent mild-to-moderate elevations in serum prolactin levels induce a break in self tolerance in mice with a BALB/c genetic background...
  7. Walker T, Vukovic J, Koudijs M, Blackmore D, Mackay E, Sykes A, et al. Prolactin stimulates precursor cells in the adult mouse hippocampus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44371 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that the hormonal factor prolactin (PRL) can activate a pool of latent precursor cells in the adult mouse hippocampus...
  8. Larsen C, Grattan D. Prolactin-induced mitogenesis in the subventricular zone of the maternal brain during early pregnancy is essential for normal postpartum behavioral responses in the mother. Endocrinology. 2010;151:3805-14 pubmed publisher
    High prolactin during pregnancy, which is essential for normal postpartum maternal behavior, increases neurogenesis in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle (SVZ) of the maternal brain...
  9. Larsen C, Kokay I, Grattan D. Male pheromones initiate prolactin-induced neurogenesis and advance maternal behavior in female mice. Horm Behav. 2008;53:509-17 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin is required for rapid onset of maternal behavior after parturition, inducing adaptive changes in the maternal brain including enhanced neurogenesis in the subventricular zone during pregnancy...

More Information

Publications94

  1. Kelly M, Rubinstein M, Asa S, Zhang G, Saez C, Bunzow J, et al. Pituitary lactotroph hyperplasia and chronic hyperprolactinemia in dopamine D2 receptor-deficient mice. Neuron. 1997;19:103-13 pubmed
    ..Aged female D2 receptor -/- mice developed uterine adenomyosis in response to prolonged prolactin exposure...
  2. Saiardi A, Bozzi Y, Baik J, Borrelli E. Antiproliferative role of dopamine: loss of D2 receptors causes hormonal dysfunction and pituitary hyperplasia. Neuron. 1997;19:115-26 pubmed
    ..In contrast, prolactin levels are six times higher in females than in males...
  3. Ferraris J, Boutillon F, Bernadet M, Seilicovich A, Goffin V, Pisera D. Prolactin receptor antagonism in mouse anterior pituitary: effects on cell turnover and prolactin receptor expression. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;302:E356-64 pubmed publisher
    Since anterior pituitary expresses prolactin receptors, prolactin secreted by lactotropes could exert autocrine or paracrine actions on anterior pituitary cells...
  4. Horseman N, Zhao W, Montecino Rodriguez E, Tanaka M, Nakashima K, Engle S, et al. Defective mammopoiesis, but normal hematopoiesis, in mice with a targeted disruption of the prolactin gene. EMBO J. 1997;16:6926-35 pubmed
    b>Prolactin (PRL) has been implicated in numerous physiological and developmental processes. The mouse PRL gene was disrupted by homologous recombination...
  5. Rouet V, Bogorad R, Kayser C, Kessal K, Genestie C, Bardier A, et al. Local prolactin is a target to prevent expansion of basal/stem cells in prostate tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:15199-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Stat5 is the main signaling pathway triggered by prolactin (PRL), a growth factor whose local production is also increased in high-grade prostate cancers...
  6. Steger R, Chandrashekar V, Zhao W, Bartke A, Horseman N. Neuroendocrine and reproductive functions in male mice with targeted disruption of the prolactin gene. Endocrinology. 1998;139:3691-5 pubmed
    Mice with a targeted disruption (knock-out) of the PRL gene (PRL-KO) were used to study the physiological role of PRL in the control of male neuroendocrine functions related to reproduction...
  7. Marano R, Tickner J, Redmond S. Age related changes in gene expression within the cochlea of C57BL/6J mice. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2012;24:603-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Microarray revealed 116 genes to be up or down regulated between young and old animals, the most prominent being prolactin (108.2 fold increase) and growth hormone (43.94 fold increase)...
  8. Shingo T, Gregg C, Enwere E, Fujikawa H, Hassam R, Geary C, et al. Pregnancy-stimulated neurogenesis in the adult female forebrain mediated by prolactin. Science. 2003;299:117-20 pubmed
    ..forebrain subventricular zone of female mice during pregnancy and that this effect is mediated by the hormone prolactin. The progenitors then migrate to produce new olfactory interneurons, a process likely to be important for ..
  9. Wang Y, Martin J, Bai C. Direct and indirect requirements of Shh/Gli signaling in early pituitary development. Dev Biol. 2010;348:199-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results therefore suggest both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous requirements for Gli2 in regulation of pituitary progenitor specification, proliferation and differentiation. ..
  10. Qian X, Zhao F. Interactions of the ubiquitous octamer-binding transcription factor-1 with both the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 and the glucocorticoid receptor mediate prolactin and glucocorticoid-induced ?-casein gene expression in mammary ep. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013;45:724-35 pubmed publisher
    Regulation of milk protein gene expression by lactogenic hormones (prolactin and glucocorticoids) provides an attractive model for studying the mechanisms by which protein and steroid hormones synergistically regulate gene expression...
  11. Gaston Massuet C, Andoniadou C, Signore M, Sajedi E, Bird S, Turner J, et al. Genetic interaction between the homeobox transcription factors HESX1 and SIX3 is required for normal pituitary development. Dev Biol. 2008;324:322-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our research has revealed a role for Six3 in normal pituitary development, which has likely been conserved during evolution as SIX3 is also expressed in the pituitary gland of the human embryo. ..
  12. Guillou A, Romanò N, Steyn F, Abitbol K, Le Tissier P, Bonnefont X, et al. Assessment of lactotroph axis functionality in mice: longitudinal monitoring of PRL secretion by ultrasensitive-ELISA. Endocrinology. 2015;156:1924-30 pubmed publisher
    The pattern of prolactin (PRL) secretion depends on the physiological state. Due to insufficient detection sensitivity of existing assays, the precise description of these patterns in mice is lacking...
  13. Deb S, Roby K, Faria T, Szpirer C, Levan G, Kwok S, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of prolactin-like protein C complementary deoxyribonucleic acid. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:23027-32 pubmed
    In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of a full length cDNA clone for rat prolactin-like protein C (PLP-C) and describe the expression of PLP-C mRNA in the developing rat placenta...
  14. Matsutani T, Samy T, Rue L, Bland K, Chaudry I. Transgenic prolactin-/- mice: effect of trauma-hemorrhage on splenocyte functions. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2005;288:C1109-16 pubmed
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is involved in the regulation of immune functions under normal and pathological conditions. Trauma-hemorrhage (T-H) produces profound immunosuppression in male mice but not in proestrus female mice...
  15. Wu S, Wilson M, Busby E, Isaac E, Sherwood N. Disruption of the single copy gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in mice by gene trap: severe reduction of reproductive organs and functions in developing and adult mice. Endocrinology. 2010;151:1142-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In terms of gonadal morphology, adult gene trap-Gnrhr null mice demonstrate a complete cessation of reproduction and serve as an important model for understanding GnRH/GnRHR physiology. ..
  16. Brinkmeier M, Potok M, Cha K, Gridley T, Stifani S, Meeldijk J, et al. TCF and Groucho-related genes influence pituitary growth and development. Mol Endocrinol. 2003;17:2152-61 pubmed
    ..Thus, we demonstrate that Tcf4 and Aes influence pituitary growth and development, and place Tcf4 and Tle3 in the genetic hierarchy with Prop1. ..
  17. Labied S, Blacher S, Carmeliet P, Noel A, Frankenne F, Foidart J, et al. Transient reduction of placental angiogenesis in PAI-1-deficient mice. Physiol Genomics. 2011;43:188-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether our data provide evidence for a transient impaired placental morphology in PAI-1-deficient mice that is then normalized, leading to normal embryonic development. ..
  18. Legorreta Haquet M, Flores Fernández R, Blanco Favela F, Fuentes Panana E, Chavez Sanchez L, Hernández González R, et al. Prolactin levels correlate with abnormal B cell maturation in MRL and MRL/lpr mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease. Clin Dev Immunol. 2013;2013:287469 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin (PRL) plays an important role in modulating the immune response. In B cells, PRL enhances antibody production, including antibodies with self-specificity...
  19. Sasaki M, Sasaki T, Enami J. Prolactin-dependent growth and gamma-casein gene expression in Ba/F3 cells transfected with a long form of mouse mammary prolactin receptor. Endocr J. 1996;43:45-52 pubmed
    Complementary DNA (cDNA) encoding a long form of prolactin receptor (PRL-RL) was cloned from mouse mammary gland by PCR using primers designed from the noncoding regions of previously reported rat ovarian PRL-RL cDNA...
  20. Bachelot A, Carré N, Mialon O, Matelot M, Servel N, Monget P, et al. The permissive role of prolactin as a regulator of luteinizing hormone action in the female mouse ovary and extragonadal tumorigenesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013;305:E845-52 pubmed publisher
    ..They subsequently develop pituitary prolactinomas, high circulating prolactin (PRL) levels, and marked mammary gland lobuloalveolar development followed by adenocarcinomas...
  21. Nishii K, Matsushita N, Sawada H, Sano H, Noda Y, Mamiya T, et al. Motor and learning dysfunction during postnatal development in mice defective in dopamine neuronal transmission. J Neurosci Res. 1998;54:450-64 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that dopamine neurotransmission is essential for controlling spontaneous and voluntary movement and associative learning during postnatal development through the nigrostriatal and mesocorticolimbic pathways. ..
  22. Brisken C, Kaur S, Chavarria T, Binart N, Sutherland R, Weinberg R, et al. Prolactin controls mammary gland development via direct and indirect mechanisms. Dev Biol. 1999;210:96-106 pubmed
    The inactivation of the prolactin receptor gene by homologous recombination has made it possible to investigate the role of prolactin signaling in mammary gland development without resort to ablative surgery of the endocrine glands...
  23. Hennighausen L, Robinson G, Wagner K, Liu W. Prolactin signaling in mammary gland development. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:7567-9 pubmed
  24. Matsubara M, Harigaya T, Nogami H. Effects of diethylstilbestrol on the cytogenesis of prolactin cells in the pars distalis of the pituitary gland of the mouse. Cell Tissue Res. 2001;306:301-7 pubmed
    This study was carried out to examine the developmental stage when prolactin cells differentiate in mice and to examine the effects of diethylstilbestrol on the development of prolactin cells in the fetal and neonatal pituitary glands...
  25. Herzog W, Zeng X, Lele Z, Sonntag C, Ting J, Chang C, et al. Adenohypophysis formation in the zebrafish and its dependence on sonic hedgehog. Dev Biol. 2003;254:36-49 pubmed
    ..pituitary formation and patterning in zebrafish, we cloned four cDNAs encoding different pituitary hormones, prolactin (prl), proopiomelancortin (pomc), thyroid stimulating hormone (tsh), and growth hormone (gh), and analyzed their ..
  26. Hilfiker Kleiner D, Kaminski K, Podewski E, Bonda T, Schaefer A, Sliwa K, et al. A cathepsin D-cleaved 16 kDa form of prolactin mediates postpartum cardiomyopathy. Cell. 2007;128:589-600 pubmed
    ..associated with the generation of a cleaved antiangiogenic and proapoptotic 16 kDa form of the nursing hormone prolactin. Treatment with bromocriptine, an inhibitor of prolactin secretion, prevents the development of PPCM, whereas ..
  27. Cordoba Chacon J, Gahete M, Pozo Salas A, Martinez Fuentes A, de Lecea L, Gracia Navarro F, et al. Cortistatin is not a somatostatin analogue but stimulates prolactin release and inhibits GH and ACTH in a gender-dependent fashion: potential role of ghrelin. Endocrinology. 2011;152:4800-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, CST exerted an unexpected stimulatory role on prolactin (PRL) secretion, because both male/female cort-/- mice had reduced PRL levels, and CST treatment (in vivo and in ..
  28. Dahlhoff M, Blutke A, Wanke R, Wolf E, Schneider M. In vivo evidence for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated release of prolactin from the pituitary gland. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:39297-306 pubmed publisher
    ..suggests that EGFR signaling may also influence mammary gland activity indirectly by promoting the release of prolactin from the pituitary gland in a MAPK and estrogen receptor-? (ER?)-dependent manner...
  29. Zhang Z, Florez S, Gutierrez Hartmann A, Martin J, Amendt B. MicroRNAs regulate pituitary development, and microRNA 26b specifically targets lymphoid enhancer factor 1 (Lef-1), which modulates pituitary transcription factor 1 (Pit-1) expression. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:34718-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone ?-subunit expression were decreased in the Dicer1 mutant mouse, whereas ..
  30. Bao L, Tessier C, Prigent Tessier A, Li F, Buzzio O, Callegari E, et al. Decidual prolactin silences the expression of genes detrimental to pregnancy. Endocrinology. 2007;148:2326-34 pubmed
    Although the main role of prolactin (PRL) in pregnant rodents is to sustain progesterone production by the corpus luteum, progesterone treatment of PRL or PRL receptor (PRL-R) null mice is unable to prevent fetal loss...
  31. Donangelo I, Melmed S. Pathophysiology of pituitary adenomas. J Endocrinol Invest. 2005;28:100-5 pubmed
    ..Mechanisms underlying changes in pituitary plasticity and their relationship to tumor development may account for the diverse genetic abnormalities observed in pituitary tumors. ..
  32. Scully K, Skowronska Krawczyk D, Krawczyk M, Merkurjev D, Taylor H, Livolsi A, et al. Epithelial cell integrin β1 is required for developmental angiogenesis in the pituitary gland. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:13408-13413 pubmed
  33. Bernichtein S, Pigat N, Barry Delongchamps N, Boutillon F, Verkarre V, Camparo P, et al. Vitamin D3 Prevents Calcium-Induced Progression of Early-Stage Prostate Tumors by Counteracting TRPC6 and Calcium Sensing Receptor Upregulation. Cancer Res. 2017;77:355-365 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results demonstrate the protective effects of vitamin D supplementation in blocking the progression of early-stage prostate lesions induced by a calcium-rich diet. Cancer Res; 77(2); 355-65. ©2016 AACR. ..
  34. Harigaya T, Nakayama K, Ohkubo H, Nakanishi S, Seo H, Hoshino K. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA for mouse prolactin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1986;868:30-8 pubmed
    ..to find out whether or not sexual dimorphism in biological activities and amino acid compositions of mouse prolactin might be due to heterogeneity in mRNA for mouse prolactin Cloned cDNAs for mouse prolactin were first isolated ..
  35. Foitzik K, Krause K, Nixon A, Ford C, Ohnemus U, Pearson A, et al. Prolactin and its receptor are expressed in murine hair follicle epithelium, show hair cycle-dependent expression, and induce catagen. Am J Pathol. 2003;162:1611-21 pubmed
    Here, we provide the first study of prolactin (PRL) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) expression during the nonseasonal murine hair cycle, which is, in contrast to sheep, comparable with the human scalp and report that both PRL and PRLR are ..
  36. Wennbo H, Kindblom J, Isaksson O, Tornell J. Transgenic mice overexpressing the prolactin gene develop dramatic enlargement of the prostate gland. Endocrinology. 1997;138:4410-5 pubmed
    ..The present study addresses the question whether increased PRL expression is of importance for development of prostate hyperplasia in mice...
  37. Hou Z, Bailey J, Vomachka A, Matsuda M, Lockefeer J, Horseman N. Glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule 1 (GlyCAM 1) is induced by prolactin and suppressed by progesterone in mammary epithelium. Endocrinology. 2000;141:4278-83 pubmed
    Glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule 1 (GlyCAM 1), a mucin-like endothelial glycoprotein, was induced by PRL and suppressed by progesterone in the mammary gland of mice, and in HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells...
  38. Cao D, Ma X, Cai J, Luan J, Liu A, Yang R, et al. ZBTB20 is required for anterior pituitary development and lactotrope specification. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11121 pubmed publisher
    ..by all the mature endocrine cell types, and to some less extent by somatolactotropes, the precursors of prolactin (PRL)-producing lactotropes...
  39. Rawn S, Huang C, Hughes M, Shaykhutdinov R, Vogel H, Cross J. Pregnancy Hyperglycemia in Prolactin Receptor Mutant, but Not Prolactin Mutant, Mice and Feeding-Responsive Regulation of Placental Lactogen Genes Implies Placental Control of Maternal Glucose Homeostasis. Biol Reprod. 2015;93:75 pubmed publisher
    ..In mice, this increase is dependent on prolactin (Prl) receptor signaling but the source of the ligand has been unclear...
  40. O Leary K, Rugowski D, Sullivan R, Schuler L. Prolactin cooperates with loss of p53 to promote claudin-low mammary carcinomas. Oncogene. 2014;33:3075-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The mammotrophic hormone, prolactin (PRL), and/or its receptor are also expressed in many breast cancers, and accumulating epidemiologic data link ..
  41. Dasen J, O Connell S, Flynn S, Treier M, Gleiberman A, Szeto D, et al. Reciprocal interactions of Pit1 and GATA2 mediate signaling gradient-induced determination of pituitary cell types. Cell. 1999;97:587-98 pubmed
  42. Obal F, Garcia Garcia F, Kacsoh B, Taishi P, Bohnet S, Horseman N, et al. Rapid eye movement sleep is reduced in prolactin-deficient mice. J Neurosci. 2005;25:10282-9 pubmed
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is implicated in the modulation of spontaneous rapid eye movement sleep (REMS)...
  43. Holcombe R, Stephenson D, Zweidler A, Stewart R, Chapman V, Seidman J. Linkage of loci associated with two pigment mutations on mouse chromosome 13. Genet Res. 1991;58:41-50 pubmed
    ..the loci for the T-cell receptor gamma-chain gene (Tcrg), the spermatocyte specific histone gene (Hist1), the prolactin gene (Prl), the Friend murine leukaemia virus integration site 1 (Fim-1), the murine Hanukuh Factor gene (Muhf/..
  44. Gaston Massuet C, McCabe M, Scagliotti V, Young R, Carreno G, Gregory L, et al. Transcription factor 7-like 1 is involved in hypothalamo-pituitary axis development in mice and humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E548-57 pubmed publisher
  45. Ferraris J, Z rate S, Jaita G, Boutillon F, Bernadet M, Auffret J, et al. Prolactin induces apoptosis of lactotropes in female rodents. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e97383 pubmed publisher
    ..In rats, the prolactin (PRL) surge that occurs at proestrus coincides with the highest apoptotic rate...
  46. Moran T, Goldberg L, Serviss S, Raetzman L. Numb deletion in POMC-expressing cells impairs pituitary intermediate lobe cell adhesion, progenitor cell localization, and neuro-intermediate lobe boundary formation. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:117-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, Notch activity appears normal in conditional knockout mice. Thus, Numb is critical for maintaining cell-cell interactions in the pituitary intermediate lobe that are essential for proper cell placement. ..
  47. Park D, Lee H, Frank P, Razani B, Nguyen A, Parlow A, et al. Caveolin-1-deficient mice show accelerated mammary gland development during pregnancy, premature lactation, and hyperactivation of the Jak-2/STAT5a signaling cascade. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:3416-30 pubmed
    It is well established that mammary gland development and lactation are tightly controlled by prolactin signaling...
  48. Charles M, Suh H, Hjalt T, Drouin J, Camper S, Gage P. PITX genes are required for cell survival and Lhx3 activation. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:1893-903 pubmed
    ..Thus, the combined dosage of these PITX family members is vital for pituitary development, and their persistent coexpression in the adult pituitary suggests a continued role in maintenance of pituitary function. ..
  49. Arendt L, Schuler L. Prolactin drives estrogen receptor-alpha-dependent ductal expansion and synergizes with transforming growth factor-alpha to induce mammary tumors in males. Am J Pathol. 2008;172:194-202 pubmed
    ..Although the etiology is unclear, conditions increasing circulating prolactin (PRL), as well as estrogen, increase the risk of tumorigenesis...
  50. Cogliati T, Delgado Romero P, Norwitz E, Guduric Fuchs J, Kaiser U, Wray S, et al. Pubertal impairment in Nhlh2 null mice is associated with hypothalamic and pituitary deficiencies. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:3013-27 pubmed
  51. Vesper A, Raetzman L, Camper S. Role of prophet of Pit1 (PROP1) in gonadotrope differentiation and puberty. Endocrinology. 2006;147:1654-63 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that variation in PROP1 expression could affect the growth spurt and the onset of puberty in humans...
  52. O Hara L, Curley M, Tedim Ferreira M, Cruickshanks L, Milne L, Smith L. Pituitary androgen receptor signalling regulates prolactin but not gonadotrophins in the male mouse. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0121657 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Foxg1 Cre/+; AR fl/y males have a significant increase in circulating prolactin, suggesting that, rather than controlling gonadotrophins, AR-signalling in the pituitary acts to suppress ..
  53. Brown R, Herbison A, Grattan D. Prolactin regulation of kisspeptin neurones in the mouse brain and its role in the lactation-induced suppression of kisspeptin expression. J Neuroendocrinol. 2014;26:898-908 pubmed publisher
    Hyperprolactinaemia is a major cause of infertility in both males and females, although the mechanism by which prolactin inhibits the reproductive axis is not clear...
  54. Bosse R, Fumagalli F, Jaber M, Giros B, Gainetdinov R, Wetsel W, et al. Anterior pituitary hypoplasia and dwarfism in mice lacking the dopamine transporter. Neuron. 1997;19:127-38 pubmed
    ..Despite having normal circulating levels of growth hormone and prolactin in blood, hypoplastic glands from DAT-/- mice fail to respond to secretagog stimulation...
  55. Chen C, Stairs D, Boxer R, Belka G, Horseman N, Alvarez J, et al. Autocrine prolactin induced by the Pten-Akt pathway is required for lactation initiation and provides a direct link between the Akt and Stat5 pathways. Genes Dev. 2012;26:2154-68 pubmed publisher
    Extrapituitary prolactin (Prl) is produced in humans and rodents; however, little is known about its in vivo regulation or physiological function...
  56. Stefaneanu L, Powell Braxton L, Won W, Chandrashekar V, Bartke A. Somatotroph and lactotroph changes in the adenohypophyses of mice with disrupted insulin-like growth factor I gene. Endocrinology. 1999;140:3881-9 pubmed
    ..The number of PRL cells and PRL hybridization signal were significantly decreased, however plasma PRL levels were elevated in both ..
  57. Rudolph M, Russell T, Webb P, Neville M, Anderson S. Prolactin-mediated regulation of lipid biosynthesis genes in vivo in the lactating mammary epithelial cell. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;300:E1059-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is known to play an essential role in mammary alveolar proliferation in the pregnant mouse, but its role in lactation has been more difficult to define...
  58. Sajedi E, Gaston Massuet C, Signore M, Andoniadou C, Kelberman D, Castro S, et al. Analysis of mouse models carrying the I26T and R160C substitutions in the transcriptional repressor HESX1 as models for septo-optic dysplasia and hypopituitarism. Dis Model Mech. 2008;1:241-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that the I26T mutation yields a hypomorphic allele, whereas R160C produces a null allele and, consequently, a more severe phenotype in both mice and humans...
  59. Seuntjens E, Hauspie A, Vankelecom H, Denef C. Ontogeny of plurihormonal cells in the anterior pituitary of the mouse, as studied by means of hormone mRNA detection in single cells. J Neuroendocrinol. 2002;14:611-9 pubmed
    The expression of mRNA of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and the common glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit (alphaGSU) was studied by means of single cell reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction ..
  60. Vomachka A, Pratt S, Lockefeer J, Horseman N. Prolactin gene-disruption arrests mammary gland development and retards T-antigen-induced tumor growth. Oncogene. 2000;19:1077-84 pubmed
    b>Prolactin (PRL), interacting with other hormones from the pituitary, gonad, and placenta, activates specific signals that drive the appropriately timed morphological and functional development of the mammary gland...
  61. Hodson D, Townsend J, Tortonese D. Characterization of the effects of prolactin in gonadotroph target cells. Biol Reprod. 2010;83:1046-55 pubmed publisher
    ..However, whereas the actions of prolactin (PRL) within the brain have been investigated extensively, its specific effects at the level of pituitary ..
  62. Phelps C, Horseman N. Prolactin gene disruption does not compromise differentiation of tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons. Neuroendocrinology. 2000;72:2-10 pubmed
    In mice with spontaneous mutations in transcription factors Prop-1 or Pit-1, the pituitary fails to produce prolactin (PRL), GH and TSH, and numbers of hypothalamic PRL-regulating dopaminergic (DA) neurons (area A12) are reduced by more ..
  63. OLAH M, Milloh H, Wenger T. The role of endocannabinoids in the regulation of luteinizing hormone and prolactin release. Differences between the effects of AEA and 2AG. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2008;286:S36-40 pubmed publisher
    It has been shown that the endocannabinoids inhibit luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) secretion...
  64. Keisala T, Minasyan A, Järvelin U, Wang J, Hamalainen T, Kalueff A, et al. Aberrant nest building and prolactin secretion in vitamin D receptor mutant mice. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;104:269-73 pubmed
    ..Here we describe impaired nest building behaviour in VDR mutant mice. Since prolactin plays a key role in the regulation of nest building in both sexes, we also examine whether VDR mutant mice have ..
  65. Muraoka Cook R, Sandahl M, Hunter D, Miraglia L, Earp H. Prolactin and ErbB4/HER4 signaling interact via Janus kinase 2 to induce mammary epithelial cell gene expression differentiation. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:2307-21 pubmed publisher
    Differentiation of mammary epithelium in vivo requires signaling through prolactin and ErbB4/HER4-dependent mechanisms...
  66. Mesbah K, Camus A, Babinet C, Barra J. Mutation in the Trapalpha/Ssr1 gene, encoding translocon-associated protein alpha, results in outflow tract morphogenetic defects. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:7760-71 pubmed
  67. Kindblom J, Dillner K, Sahlin L, Robertson F, Ormandy C, Tornell J, et al. Prostate hyperplasia in a transgenic mouse with prostate-specific expression of prolactin. Endocrinology. 2003;144:2269-78 pubmed
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is one of several polypeptide factors known to exert trophic effects on the prostate...
  68. Japón M, Rubinstein M, Low M. In situ hybridization analysis of anterior pituitary hormone gene expression during fetal mouse development. J Histochem Cytochem. 1994;42:1117-25 pubmed
    ..The expression of both growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) started coincidentally on Day E15.5...
  69. Sornson M, Wu W, Dasen J, Flynn S, Norman D, O Connell S, et al. Pituitary lineage determination by the Prophet of Pit-1 homeodomain factor defective in Ames dwarfism. Nature. 1996;384:327-33 pubmed
    ..an apparent failure of initial determination of the Pit-1 lineage required for production of growth hormone, prolactin or thyroid-stimulating hormone, resulting in dysmorphogenesis and failure to activate Pit-1 gene expression...
  70. Naylor M, Lockefeer J, Horseman N, Ormandy C. Prolactin regulates mammary epithelial cell proliferation via autocrine/paracrine mechanism. Endocrine. 2003;20:111-4 pubmed
    b>Prolactin (PRL) is essential for a number of developmental events in the mammary gland...
  71. Halkein J, Tabruyn S, Ricke Hoch M, Haghikia A, Nguyen N, Scherr M, et al. MicroRNA-146a is a therapeutic target and biomarker for peripartum cardiomyopathy. J Clin Invest. 2013;123:2143-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Although PPCM is driven in part by the 16-kDa N-terminal prolactin fragment (16K PRL), the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood...
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    ..b>Prolactin levels were significantly repressed in lactating LRF(-/-) dams, with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling ..
  73. Bartke A. Role of growth hormone and prolactin in the control of reproduction: what are we learning from transgenic and knock-out animals?. Steroids. 1999;64:598-604 pubmed
    Growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), and prolactin (PRL) can influence various aspects of reproductive functions in both females and males...
  74. Wiemers D, Shao L, Ain R, Dai G, Soares M. The mouse prolactin gene family locus. Endocrinology. 2003;144:313-25 pubmed
    In the mouse, there is a large family of paralogous genes closely related to PRL. The objective of this report was to investigate the organization of the mouse PRL gene family locus...
  75. Lin J, Poole J, Linzer D. Three new members of the mouse prolactin/growth hormone family are homologous to proteins expressed in the rat. Endocrinology. 1997;138:5541-9 pubmed
    A search of a mouse expressed sequence tag database for novel messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in the PRL/GH family has identified three clones that are homologous to the rat PRL-like protein A (PLP-A), PRL-like protein B (PLP-B), and decidual/..
  76. Farooq F, Molina F, Hadwen J, MacKenzie D, Witherspoon L, Osmond M, et al. Prolactin increases SMN expression and survival in a mouse model of severe spinal muscular atrophy via the STAT5 pathway. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:3042-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have shown that prolactin (PRL) increases SMN levels via activation of the STAT5 pathway...
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  78. Raetzman L, Wheeler B, Ross S, Thomas P, Camper S. Persistent expression of Notch2 delays gonadotrope differentiation. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:2898-908 pubmed
    ..This demonstrates that activated Notch2 is sufficient to delay gonadotrope differentiation, and it supports the hypothesis that Notch2 regulates progenitor cell differentiation in the pituitary gland. ..
  79. Brown R, Wyatt A, Herbison R, Knowles P, Ladyman S, Binart N, et al. Prolactin transport into mouse brain is independent of prolactin receptor. FASEB J. 2016;30:1002-10 pubmed publisher
    The anterior pituitary hormone prolactin exerts important physiologic actions in the brain. However, the mechanism by which prolactin crosses the blood-brain barrier and enters the brain is not completely understood...
  80. Rose Hellekant T, Arendt L, Schroeder M, Gilchrist K, Sandgren E, Schuler L. Prolactin induces ERalpha-positive and ERalpha-negative mammary cancer in transgenic mice. Oncogene. 2003;22:4664-74 pubmed
    The role of prolactin in human breast cancer has been controversial...
  81. Shibusawa N, Yamada M, Hirato J, Monden T, Satoh T, Mori M. Requirement of thyrotropin-releasing hormone for the postnatal functions of pituitary thyrotrophs: ontogeny study of congenital tertiary hypothyroidism in mice. Mol Endocrinol. 2000;14:137-46 pubmed
    ..Moreover, reflecting its name, TRH has more critical effects on the pituitary thyrotrophs than on other pituitary hormone-producing cells. ..
  82. Hudson J, Chen L, Fode C, Binkert C, Dennis J. Sak kinase gene structure and transcriptional regulation. Gene. 2000;241:65-73 pubmed
    ..Using various Sak promoter/luciferase constructs, the core promoter region required for expression was located within 400bp of the message Cap site, and sequence further 5' strongly suppressed transcription. ..
  83. Yamauchi T, Kaburagi Y, Ueki K, Tsuji Y, Stark G, Kerr I, et al. Growth hormone and prolactin stimulate tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, -2, and -3, their association with p85 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase), and concomitantly PI3-kinase activation via JAK2 kinase. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:15719-26 pubmed
    Growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) binding to their receptors, which belong to the cytokine receptor superfamily, activate Janus kinase (JAK) 2 tyrosine kinase, thereby leading to their biological actions...
  84. Chamberlain C, Scheel D, McGlynn K, Kim H, Miyatsuka T, Wang J, et al. Menin determines K-RAS proliferative outputs in endocrine cells. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:4093-101 pubmed publisher
    ..These insights suggest potential strategies both for regenerating pancreatic ? cells for people with diabetes and for targeting menin-sensitive endocrine tumors. ..
  85. Jackson Grusby L, Pravtcheva D, Ruddle F, Linzer D. Chromosomal mapping of the prolactin/growth hormone gene family in the mouse. Endocrinology. 1988;122:2462-6 pubmed
    The chromosomal assignments of genes in the PRL/GH family in the mouse have been determine in mouse-hamster hybrid cell lines...