Gene Symbol: Prkra
Description: protein kinase, interferon inducible double stranded RNA dependent activator
Alias: AV120107, PRK, Pact, RAX, lear, interferon-inducible double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase activator A, PKR-associated protein X, PKR-associating protein X, protein activator of the interferon-induced protein kinase
Species: mouse
Products:     Prkra

Top Publications

  1. Yoshida K, Okamura H, Amorim B, Hinode D, Yoshida H, Haneji T. PKR-mediated degradation of STAT1 regulates osteoblast differentiation. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:2105-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present results suggest that the aberrant accumulation of STAT1 protein induced by loss of PKR regulate osteoblast differentiation through both SLIM/STAT1-dependent and -independent pathways. ..
  2. Bennett R, Blalock W, Choi E, Lee Y, Zhang Y, Zhou L, et al. RAX is required for fly neuronal development and mouse embryogenesis. Mech Dev. 2008;125:777-85 pubmed publisher
    b>RAX was originally discovered as the unique cellular activator for the dsRNA-dependent, interferon-inducible protein kinase PKR...
  3. Singh M, Fowlkes V, Handy I, Patel C, Patel R. Essential role of PACT-mediated PKR activation in tunicamycin-induced apoptosis. J Mol Biol. 2009;385:457-68 pubmed publisher
    ..we examined the involvement of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) and its protein activator PACT in tunicamycin-induced apoptosis...
  4. Dickerman B, White C, Chevalier C, Nalesso V, Charles C, Fouchécourt S, et al. Missense mutation in the second RNA binding domain reveals a role for Prkra (PACT/RAX) during skull development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28537 pubmed publisher
    ..Sequencing of this region established co-segregation of the phenotype (rep) with a mutation in the Prkra gene, which encodes the protein PACT/RAX...
  5. Ito T, Yang M, May W. RAX, a cellular activator for double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase during stress signaling. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:15427-32 pubmed
    ..RAX has a high sequence homology to human PACT, which activates PKR in the absence of dsRNA...
  6. Bennett R, Blalock W, May W. Serine 18 phosphorylation of RAX, the PKR activator, is required for PKR activation and consequent translation inhibition. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:42687-93 pubmed
    ..Recently, the murine dsRNA-binding protein RAX and its human ortholog PACT were identified as cellular activators of PKR...
  7. Peters G, Seachrist D, Keri R, Sen G. The double-stranded RNA-binding protein, PACT, is required for postnatal anterior pituitary proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:10696-701 pubmed publisher
    b>PACT is a double-stranded RNA-binding protein that also binds and activates the latent protein kinase, PKR, which plays a major role in cellular antiviral defense in mammals...
  8. Rowe T, Rizzi M, Hirose K, Peters G, Sen G. A role of the double-stranded RNA-binding protein PACT in mouse ear development and hearing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:5823-8 pubmed
    To determine the physiological functions of the mammalian double-stranded RNA-binding protein PACT, the single-copy mouse Pact gene was disrupted and expression of the protein was completely ablated...
  9. Kok K, Ng M, Ching Y, Jin D. Human TRBP and PACT directly interact with each other and associate with dicer to facilitate the production of small interfering RNA. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:17649-57 pubmed
    Mammalian Dicer interacts with double-stranded RNA-binding protein TRBP or PACT to mediate RNA interference and micro-RNA processing. TRBP and PACT are structurally related but exert opposite regulatory activities on PKR...

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Daher A, Laraki G, Singh M, Melendez Peña C, Bannwarth S, Peters A, et al. TRBP control of PACT-induced phosphorylation of protein kinase R is reversed by stress. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:254-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein, TRBP, inhibits the activity of the interferon-induced protein kinase R (PKR), whereas the PKR activator, PACT, activates its function...
  2. Poon D, Ho Y, You R, Tse H, Chiu K, Chang R. PKR deficiency alters E. coli-induced sickness behaviors but does not exacerbate neuroimmune responses or bacterial load. J Neuroinflammation. 2015;12:212 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies can address the role of PKR in the CRH response together with its consequence on sickness. ..
  3. Palmer K, Fairfield H, Borgeia S, Curtain M, Hassan M, Dionne L, et al. Discovery and characterization of spontaneous mouse models of craniofacial dysmorphology. Dev Biol. 2016;415:216-227 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with our detailed characterization, this work provides a valuable gene discovery resource for the craniofacial community, and a rich source of mouse models for further investigation. ..
  4. He Y, Franchi L, Nunez G. The protein kinase PKR is critical for LPS-induced iNOS production but dispensable for inflammasome activation in macrophages. Eur J Immunol. 2013;43:1147-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PKR is not required for inflammasome activation in macrophages. ..
  5. Rowe T, Sen G. Organizations and promoter analyses of the human and the mouse genes for PACT, the protein-activator of the interferon-induced protein kinase, PKR. Gene. 2001;273:215-25 pubmed
    b>PACT is an activator of the protein kinase, PKR. Here we report the isolation and the characterization of the mouse Pact gene...
  6. Fairfield H, Gilbert G, Barter M, Corrigan R, Curtain M, Ding Y, et al. Mutation discovery in mice by whole exome sequencing. Genome Biol. 2011;12:R86 pubmed publisher
    ..We found strong candidate mutations for the majority of mutant exomes sequenced, including new models of orofacial clefting, urogenital dysmorphology, kyphosis and autoimmune hepatitis. ..
  7. Marques J, White C, Peters G, Williams B, Sen G. The role of PACT in mediating gene induction, PKR activation, and apoptosis in response to diverse stimuli. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2008;28:469-76 pubmed publisher
    b>PACT, the protein activator of the double-stranded (ds)RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) has been shown to strongly interact with and activate PKR in cultured cells and in vitro...
  8. Ota H, Sakurai M, Gupta R, Valente L, Wulff B, Ariyoshi K, et al. ADAR1 forms a complex with Dicer to promote microRNA processing and RNA-induced gene silencing. Cell. 2013;153:575-89 pubmed publisher
    ..As expected, the expression of miRNAs is globally inhibited in ADAR1(-/-) mouse embryos, which, in turn, alters the expression of their target genes and might contribute to their embryonic lethal phenotype. ..
  9. Gupta V, Patel R. Proapoptotic protein PACT is expressed at high levels in colonic epithelial cells in mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002;283:G801-8 pubmed
    The protein activator of RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is a proapoptotic protein called PACT. PKR is an interferon (IFN)-induced serine-threonine protein kinase that plays a central role in IFN's antiviral and antiproliferative ..
  10. Yoshida K, Okamura H, Ochiai K, Hoshino Y, Haneji T, Yoshioka M, et al. PKR plays a positive role in osteoblast differentiation by regulating GSK-3? activity through a ?-catenin-independent pathway. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;361:99-105 pubmed publisher
    ..PKR positively regulates the differentiation of osteoblasts by mediating GSK-3? activity through a ?-catenin-independent pathway. ..
  11. Ogolla P, Portillo J, White C, Patel K, Lamb B, Sen G, et al. The protein kinase double-stranded RNA-dependent (PKR) enhances protection against disease cause by a non-viral pathogen. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003557 pubmed publisher
  12. Dickerman B, White C, Kessler P, Sadler A, Williams B, Sen G. The protein activator of protein kinase R, PACT/RAX, negatively regulates protein kinase R during mouse anterior pituitary development. FEBS J. 2015;282:4766-81 pubmed publisher
    ..protein termed protein kinase R (PKR)-associated protein X (RAX) and the human homolog, protein activator of PKR (PACT), were originally characterized as activators of PKR...
  13. Yong Y, Meng Y, Ding H, Fan Z, Tang Y, Zhou C, et al. PACT/RAX regulates the migration of cerebellar granule neurons in the developing cerebellum. Sci Rep. 2015;5:7961 pubmed publisher
    b>PACT and its murine ortholog RAX were originally identified as a protein activator for the dsRNA-dependent, interferon-inducible protein kinase PKR. Recent studies indicated that RAX played a role in embryogenesis and neuronal development...
  14. Kleinman M, Yamada K, Takeda A, Chandrasekaran V, Nozaki M, Baffi J, et al. Sequence- and target-independent angiogenesis suppression by siRNA via TLR3. Nature. 2008;452:591-7 pubmed publisher
  15. Miyamoto M, Komuro A. PACT is required for MDA5-mediated immunoresponses triggered by Cardiovirus infection via interaction with LGP2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;494:227-233 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we evaluated whether the double-stranded RNA-binding protein PACT plays a role in this anti-viral response to further elucidate the mechanism...