Prkg2

Summary

Gene Symbol: Prkg2
Description: protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type II
Alias: AW212535, CGKII, Prkgr2, cGK-II, cGMP-dependent protein kinase 2, cGK 2, cGK2, cGMP-dependent protein kinase II
Species: mouse
Products:     Prkg2

Top Publications

  1. Pfeifer A, Aszodi A, Seidler U, Ruth P, Hofmann F, Fassler R. Intestinal secretory defects and dwarfism in mice lacking cGMP-dependent protein kinase II. Science. 1996;274:2082-6 pubmed
    ..The cGKII-deficient mice also developed dwarfism that was caused by a severe defect in endochondral ossification at the ..
  2. Werner C, Raivich G, Cowen M, Strekalova T, Sillaber I, Buters J, et al. Importance of NO/cGMP signalling via cGMP-dependent protein kinase II for controlling emotionality and neurobehavioural effects of alcohol. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:3498-506 pubmed
    ..Here, we explored the localization of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII) in the mouse brain...
  3. Uhler M. Cloning and expression of a novel cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase from mouse brain. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:13586-91 pubmed
    ..The second class (CGKII) of amplification products contained approximately 1...
  4. Serulle Y, Zhang S, Ninan I, Puzzo D, McCarthy M, Khatri L, et al. A GluR1-cGKII interaction regulates AMPA receptor trafficking. Neuron. 2007;56:670-88 pubmed
    ..We have found that the GluR1 CTD binds to cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII) adjacent to the kinase catalytic site. Binding of GluR1 is increased when cGKII is activated by cGMP...
  5. Miyazawa T, Ogawa Y, Chusho H, Yasoda A, Tamura N, Komatsu Y, et al. Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3604-10 pubmed
    ..The type II cGK (cGKII)-deficient mice (Prkg2(-/-) mice) develop dwarfism as a result of impaired endochondral ossification, suggesting ..
  6. Oster H, Werner C, Magnone M, Mayser H, Feil R, Seeliger M, et al. cGMP-dependent protein kinase II modulates mPer1 and mPer2 gene induction and influences phase shifts of the circadian clock. Curr Biol. 2003;13:725-33 pubmed
    ..We show that mice deficient in cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII, also known as PKGII), despite regular retinal function, are defective in resetting the circadian clock, as ..
  7. Chikuda H, Kugimiya F, Hoshi K, Ikeda T, Ogasawara T, Shimoaka T, et al. Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II is a molecular switch from proliferation to hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2418-29 pubmed
    ..Here we identified the mri mutation as a deletion in the rat gene encoding cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII)...
  8. Jarchau T, Hausler C, Markert T, Pöhler D, Vanderkerckhove J, de Jonge H, et al. Cloning, expression, and in situ localization of rat intestinal cGMP-dependent protein kinase II. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:9426-30 pubmed
    The cDNA for a membrane-associated cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK II) was cloned from rat intestine using reverse transcriptase PCR and oligonucleotide primers encoding two conserved motifs of known cGMP-dependent protein kinases and ..
  9. Wang R, Islam B, Bridges A, Sharman S, Hu M, Hou Y, et al. cGMP Signaling Increases Antioxidant Gene Expression by Activating Forkhead Box O3A in the Colon Epithelium. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:377-389 pubmed publisher
    ..FoxO3a levels were reduced in Prkg2-/- animals, and FoxO target genes were unaffected by 8Br-cGMP challenge in vitro...
  10. Chen T, Kocinsky H, Cha B, Murtazina R, Yang J, Tse C, et al. Cyclic GMP kinase II (cGKII) inhibits NHE3 by altering its trafficking and phosphorylating NHE3 at three required sites: identification of a multifunctional phosphorylation site. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:1952-65 pubmed publisher
    The epithelial brush-border Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE3 is acutely inhibited by cGKII/cGMP, but how cGKII inhibits NHE3 is unknown...

Detail Information

Publications39

  1. Pfeifer A, Aszodi A, Seidler U, Ruth P, Hofmann F, Fassler R. Intestinal secretory defects and dwarfism in mice lacking cGMP-dependent protein kinase II. Science. 1996;274:2082-6 pubmed
    ..The cGKII-deficient mice also developed dwarfism that was caused by a severe defect in endochondral ossification at the ..
  2. Werner C, Raivich G, Cowen M, Strekalova T, Sillaber I, Buters J, et al. Importance of NO/cGMP signalling via cGMP-dependent protein kinase II for controlling emotionality and neurobehavioural effects of alcohol. Eur J Neurosci. 2004;20:3498-506 pubmed
    ..Here, we explored the localization of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII) in the mouse brain...
  3. Uhler M. Cloning and expression of a novel cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase from mouse brain. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:13586-91 pubmed
    ..The second class (CGKII) of amplification products contained approximately 1...
  4. Serulle Y, Zhang S, Ninan I, Puzzo D, McCarthy M, Khatri L, et al. A GluR1-cGKII interaction regulates AMPA receptor trafficking. Neuron. 2007;56:670-88 pubmed
    ..We have found that the GluR1 CTD binds to cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII) adjacent to the kinase catalytic site. Binding of GluR1 is increased when cGKII is activated by cGMP...
  5. Miyazawa T, Ogawa Y, Chusho H, Yasoda A, Tamura N, Komatsu Y, et al. Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II plays a critical role in C-type natriuretic peptide-mediated endochondral ossification. Endocrinology. 2002;143:3604-10 pubmed
    ..The type II cGK (cGKII)-deficient mice (Prkg2(-/-) mice) develop dwarfism as a result of impaired endochondral ossification, suggesting ..
  6. Oster H, Werner C, Magnone M, Mayser H, Feil R, Seeliger M, et al. cGMP-dependent protein kinase II modulates mPer1 and mPer2 gene induction and influences phase shifts of the circadian clock. Curr Biol. 2003;13:725-33 pubmed
    ..We show that mice deficient in cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII, also known as PKGII), despite regular retinal function, are defective in resetting the circadian clock, as ..
  7. Chikuda H, Kugimiya F, Hoshi K, Ikeda T, Ogasawara T, Shimoaka T, et al. Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II is a molecular switch from proliferation to hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2418-29 pubmed
    ..Here we identified the mri mutation as a deletion in the rat gene encoding cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII)...
  8. Jarchau T, Hausler C, Markert T, Pöhler D, Vanderkerckhove J, de Jonge H, et al. Cloning, expression, and in situ localization of rat intestinal cGMP-dependent protein kinase II. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:9426-30 pubmed
    The cDNA for a membrane-associated cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGK II) was cloned from rat intestine using reverse transcriptase PCR and oligonucleotide primers encoding two conserved motifs of known cGMP-dependent protein kinases and ..
  9. Wang R, Islam B, Bridges A, Sharman S, Hu M, Hou Y, et al. cGMP Signaling Increases Antioxidant Gene Expression by Activating Forkhead Box O3A in the Colon Epithelium. Am J Pathol. 2017;187:377-389 pubmed publisher
    ..FoxO3a levels were reduced in Prkg2-/- animals, and FoxO target genes were unaffected by 8Br-cGMP challenge in vitro...
  10. Chen T, Kocinsky H, Cha B, Murtazina R, Yang J, Tse C, et al. Cyclic GMP kinase II (cGKII) inhibits NHE3 by altering its trafficking and phosphorylating NHE3 at three required sites: identification of a multifunctional phosphorylation site. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:1952-65 pubmed publisher
    The epithelial brush-border Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE3 is acutely inhibited by cGKII/cGMP, but how cGKII inhibits NHE3 is unknown...
  11. Wang R, Kwon I, Thangaraju M, Singh N, Liu K, Jay P, et al. Type 2 cGMP-dependent protein kinase regulates proliferation and differentiation in the colonic mucosa. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2012;303:G209-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Tissue homeostasis was examined in the proximal colon of Prkg2(-/-) mice using histological markers of proliferation and differentiation...
  12. Yuasa K, Yamagami S, Nagahama M, Tsuji A. Trafficking of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II via interaction with Rab11. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;374:522-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that Rab11b is necessary for the trafficking of cGK-II and that the cGMP/cGK-II signaling pathway is closely related to Rab11b recycling pathway. ..
  13. Sriraman V, Rudd M, Lohmann S, Mulders S, Richards J. Cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase II is induced by luteinizing hormone and progesterone receptor-dependent mechanisms in granulosa cells and cumulus oocyte complexes of ovulating follicles. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:348-61 pubmed
    Cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase II (Prkg2, cGK II) was identified as a potential target of the progesterone receptor (Nr3c3) in the mouse ovary based on microarray analyses...
  14. Fujii M, Ogata T, Takahashi E, Yamada K, Nakabayashi K, Oishi M, et al. Expression of the human cGMP-dependent protein kinase II gene is lost upon introduction of SV40 T antigen or immortalization in human cells. FEBS Lett. 1995;375:263-7 pubmed
    ..Also in various immortalized cell lines tested, the gene was not expressed. In normal diploid fibroblasts, the gene was constitutively expressed during cell-cycle and population doubling levels (PDLs). ..
  15. Vaandrager A, Hogema B, Edixhoven M, van den Burg C, Bot A, Klatt P, et al. Autophosphorylation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:28651-8 pubmed
    ..cGMP-dependent phosphorylation of cGK II was also demonstrated in intact COS-1 cells and intestinal epithelium...
  16. Navarro N, Maga A. Does 3D Phenotyping Yield Substantial Insights in the Genetics of the Mouse Mandible Shape?. G3 (Bethesda). 2016;6:1153-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the main variation is, nonetheless, preferentially embedded in the natural 2D plane of the hemi-mandible, reinforcing the results of earlier influential investigations. ..
  17. Wincott C, Abera S, Vunck S, Tirko N, Choi Y, Titcombe R, et al. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II knockout mice exhibit working memory impairments, decreased repetitive behavior, and increased anxiety-like traits. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2014;114:32-9 pubmed publisher
    ..cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII) is ultimately activated via this mechanism and AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 is phosphorylated at serine 845...
  18. Wang R, Kwon I, Singh N, Islam B, Liu K, Sridhar S, et al. Type 2 cGMP-dependent protein kinase regulates homeostasis by blocking c-Jun N-terminal kinase in the colon epithelium. Cell Death Differ. 2014;21:427-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We increased cGMP in the gut of Prkg2(+/+) and Prkg2(-/-) mice by treating with the PDE5 inhibitor Vardenafil (IP)...
  19. Rangaswami H, Schwappacher R, Marathe N, Zhuang S, Casteel D, Haas B, et al. Cyclic GMP and protein kinase G control a Src-containing mechanosome in osteoblasts. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra91 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the use of PKG-activating drugs to mimic the anabolic effects of mechanical stimulation of bone in the treatment of osteoporosis. ..
  20. Kass D, Takimoto E. Regulation and role of myocyte cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:E98; author reply E99 pubmed publisher
  21. Spiessberger B, Bernhard D, Herrmann S, Feil S, Werner C, Luppa P, et al. cGMP-dependent protein kinase II and aldosterone secretion. FEBS J. 2009;276:1007-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently it was reported that activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII) stimulated aldosterone secretion in rat zona glomerulosa cells...
  22. Schmidt H, Stonkute A, Jüttner R, Schaffer S, Buttgereit J, Feil R, et al. The receptor guanylyl cyclase Npr2 is essential for sensory axon bifurcation within the spinal cord. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:331-40 pubmed
    ..Hence, our data demonstrate that Npr2 and cGKI are essential constituents of the signaling pathway underlying axonal bifurcation at the DREZ and neuronal connectivity in the dorsal spinal cord. ..
  23. Kim S, Pick J, Abera S, Khatri L, Ferreira D, Sathler M, et al. Brain region-specific effects of cGMP-dependent kinase II knockout on AMPA receptor trafficking and animal behavior. Learn Mem. 2016;23:435-41 pubmed publisher
    ..cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII) mediates this phosphorylation, and cGKII knockout (KO) affects GluA1 phosphorylation and alters animal behavior...
  24. Incontro S, Ciruela F, ZIFF E, Hofmann F, Sánchez Prieto J, Torres M. The type II cGMP dependent protein kinase regulates GluA1 levels at the plasma membrane of developing cerebellar granule cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1833:1820-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We have found that the type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKII) phosphorylates GluA1 (formerly GluR1) at S845, augmenting the surface expression of AMPARs at both synaptic and ..
  25. Schramm A, Schinner E, Huettner J, Kees F, Tauber P, Hofmann F, et al. Function of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II in volume load-induced diuresis. Pflugers Arch. 2014;466:2009-18 pubmed publisher
    ..To elucidate a probable function of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII), we investigated renal parameters in different conditions (basal, salt diets, starving, water load) using a ..
  26. Wagner C, Pfeifer A, Ruth P, Hofmann F, Kurtz A. Role of cGMP-kinase II in the control of renin secretion and renin expression. J Clin Invest. 1998;102:1576-82 pubmed
    ..protein kinases (cGKs) in the control of the renin system, we studied the regulation of renin in cGKI- or cGKII-deficient mice in vivo and in vitro...
  27. Ruth P. Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases: understanding in vivo functions by gene targeting. Pharmacol Ther. 1999;82:355-72 pubmed
    ..Mice deficient in cGMP kinases exhibit severe defects and, therefore, may serve as animal models for several human diseases, including hypertension, thrombosis, gastrointestinal dysmotility, and dwarfism. ..
  28. Yuasa K, Uehara S, Nagahama M, Tsuji A. Transcriptional regulation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGK-II) in chondrocytes. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:44-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the homeobox gene Nkx family is critical for the transcriptional regulation of cGK-II during chondrogenesis. ..
  29. Ny L, Pfeifer A, Aszodi A, Ahmad M, Alm P, Hedlund P, et al. Impaired relaxation of stomach smooth muscle in mice lacking cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I. Br J Pharmacol. 2000;129:395-401 pubmed
    ..Relaxant agents acting via the cyclic AMP-pathway can exert their effects independently of cGKI. ..
  30. Kleppisch T, Pfeifer A, Klatt P, Ruth P, Montkowski A, Fassler R, et al. Long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region of mice lacking cGMP-dependent kinases is normal and susceptible to inhibition of nitric oxide synthase. J Neurosci. 1999;19:48-55 pubmed
    ..Two genes code for the isozymes cGKI and cGKII in vertebrates...
  31. Wincott C, Kim S, Titcombe R, Tukey D, Girma H, Pick J, et al. Spatial memory deficits and motor coordination facilitation in cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II-deficient mice. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 2013;99:32-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In turn, cGMP activates the cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II (cGKII), which phosphorylates the AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 at serine 845, a critical step facilitating synaptic ..
  32. Wolfertstetter S, Reinders J, Schwede F, Ruth P, Schinner E, Schlossmann J. Interaction of cCMP with the cGK, cAK and MAPK Kinases in Murine Tissues. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0126057 pubmed publisher
    ..nucleotide-dependent protein kinases and lung and jejunum tissues of wild type (WT), cGKI-knockout (cGKI KO) and cGKII-knockout (cGKII KO) mice. The catalytic activity of protein kinases was measured by a (γ-32P) ATP kinase assay...
  33. Kim S, Titcombe R, Zhang H, Khatri L, Girma H, Hofmann F, et al. Network compensation of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase II knockout in the hippocampus by Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:3122-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We have studied mice lacking cGMP-dependent kinase II (cGKII), which phosphorylates GluA1, a subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), and promotes hippocampal long-term ..
  34. Madison B, Braunstein K, Kuizon E, Portman K, Qiao X, Gumucio D. Epithelial hedgehog signals pattern the intestinal crypt-villus axis. Development. 2005;132:279-89 pubmed
    ..Thus, through a combined Hh signal to underlying ISEMFs, the epithelium patterns the crypt-villus axis, ensuring the proper size and location of the emerging precrypt compartment. ..
  35. Furst J, Schedlbauer A, Gandini R, Garavaglia M, Saino S, Gschwentner M, et al. ICln159 folds into a pleckstrin homology domain-like structure. Interaction with kinases and the splicing factor LSm4. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:31276-82 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, ICln159 interacts with LSm4, a protein involved in splicing and mRNA degradation, suggesting that the ICln159 PH domain may serve as a protein-protein interaction platform. ..
  36. Gambaryan S, Palmetshofer A, Glazova M, Smolenski A, Kristjansson G, Zimmer M, et al. Inhibition of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II by its own splice isoform. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;293:1438-44 pubmed
    cGMP- and cAMP-dependent protein kinases (cGK I, cGK II, and cAK) are important mediators of many signaling pathways that increase cyclic nucleotide concentrations and ultimately phosphorylation of substrates vital to cellular functions...
  37. Hammelmann V, Zong X, Hofmann F, Michalakis S, Biel M. The cGMP-dependent protein kinase II Is an inhibitory modulator of the hyperpolarization-activated HCN2 channel. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17078 pubmed publisher
    ..that in the HCN2 channel cGMP can also exert an inhibitory effect on gating via cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII)-mediated phosphorylation...
  38. Kawasaki Y, Kugimiya F, Chikuda H, Kamekura S, Ikeda T, Kawamura N, et al. Phosphorylation of GSK-3beta by cGMP-dependent protein kinase II promotes hypertrophic differentiation of murine chondrocytes. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:2506-15 pubmed publisher
    cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII; encoded by PRKG2) is a serine/threonine kinase that is critical for skeletal growth in mammals; in mice, cGKII deficiency results in dwarfism...
  39. Rangaswami H, Marathe N, Zhuang S, Chen Y, Yeh J, Frangos J, et al. Type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase mediates osteoblast mechanotransduction. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14796-808 pubmed publisher