Prkg1

Summary

Gene Symbol: Prkg1
Description: protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type I
Alias: AW125416, CGKI, Gm19690, Prkg1b, Prkgr1b, cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1, cGK 1, cGK1, cGMP-dependent protein kinase I
Species: mouse
Products:     Prkg1

Top Publications

  1. Valtcheva N, Nestorov P, Beck A, Russwurm M, Hillenbrand M, Weinmeister P, et al. The commonly used cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS can activate cGKI in vitro and in intact cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:556-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) is presumably a major mediator of cGMP effects, and the cGMP analogue Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS (Rp-PET) (chemical name: ..
  2. Yuasa K, Omori K, Yanaka N. Binding and phosphorylation of a novel male germ cell-specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein by cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:4897-905 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that GKAP42 functions as an anchoring protein for cGK-Ialpha and that cGK-Ialpha may participate in germ cell development through phosphorylation of Golgi-associated proteins such as GKAP42. ..
  3. Geiselhöringer A, Gaisa M, Hofmann F, Schlossmann J. Distribution of IRAG and cGKI-isoforms in murine tissues. FEBS Lett. 2004;575:19-22 pubmed
    cGMP kinase I (cGKI) signaling modulates multiple physiological processes including smooth muscle relaxation...
  4. Wegener J, Nawrath H, Wolfsgruber W, Kühbandner S, Werner C, Hofmann F, et al. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I mediates the negative inotropic effect of cGMP in the murine myocardium. Circ Res. 2002;90:18-20 pubmed
    To study the role of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) for cardiac contractility, force of contraction (F(c)) was studied in electrically driven heart muscle from wild-type (WT) mice and from conventional and conditional cGKI ..
  5. Haas B, Mayer P, Jennissen K, Scholz D, Berriel Diaz M, Bloch W, et al. Protein kinase G controls brown fat cell differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra78 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PKGI links NO and cGMP signaling with the RhoA-ROCK and the insulin pathways, thereby controlling induction of adipogenic and thermogenic programs during brown fat cell differentiation. ..
  6. Pfeifer A, Klatt P, Massberg S, Ny L, Sausbier M, Hirneiss C, et al. Defective smooth muscle regulation in cGMP kinase I-deficient mice. EMBO J. 1998;17:3045-51 pubmed
    ..cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) has been suggested as a major mediator of the relaxant effects of both nucleotides...
  7. Leiss V, Friebe A, Welling A, Hofmann F, Lukowski R. Cyclic GMP kinase I modulates glucagon release from pancreatic ?-cells. Diabetes. 2011;60:148-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) is directly involved in the secretion of islet hormones and glucose homeostasis...
  8. Klaiber M, Kruse M, Völker K, Schröter J, Feil R, Freichel M, et al. Novel insights into the mechanisms mediating the local antihypertrophic effects of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide: role of cGMP-dependent protein kinase and RGS2. Basic Res Cardiol. 2010;105:583-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they strengthen published observations in neonatal cardiomyocytes showing that TRPC3/TRPC6 channels are essential for Ang II, but not for beta-adrenergic Ca(2+) (i)-stimulation in adult myocytes. ..
  9. Weber S, Bernhard D, Lukowski R, Weinmeister P, Wörner R, Wegener J, et al. Rescue of cGMP kinase I knockout mice by smooth muscle specific expression of either isozyme. Circ Res. 2007;101:1096-103 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of the murine cGKI gene prkg1 leads to multiple phenotypes and premature death at approximately 6 weeks...
  10. Feil S, Zimmermann P, Knorn A, Brummer S, Schlossmann J, Hofmann F, et al. Distribution of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I and its isoforms in the mouse brain and retina. Neuroscience. 2005;135:863-8 pubmed
    ..messenger cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) and activation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI)...

Detail Information

Publications87

  1. Valtcheva N, Nestorov P, Beck A, Russwurm M, Hillenbrand M, Weinmeister P, et al. The commonly used cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) inhibitor Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS can activate cGKI in vitro and in intact cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:556-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) is presumably a major mediator of cGMP effects, and the cGMP analogue Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS (Rp-PET) (chemical name: ..
  2. Yuasa K, Omori K, Yanaka N. Binding and phosphorylation of a novel male germ cell-specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase-anchoring protein by cGMP-dependent protein kinase Ialpha. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:4897-905 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that GKAP42 functions as an anchoring protein for cGK-Ialpha and that cGK-Ialpha may participate in germ cell development through phosphorylation of Golgi-associated proteins such as GKAP42. ..
  3. Geiselhöringer A, Gaisa M, Hofmann F, Schlossmann J. Distribution of IRAG and cGKI-isoforms in murine tissues. FEBS Lett. 2004;575:19-22 pubmed
    cGMP kinase I (cGKI) signaling modulates multiple physiological processes including smooth muscle relaxation...
  4. Wegener J, Nawrath H, Wolfsgruber W, Kühbandner S, Werner C, Hofmann F, et al. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I mediates the negative inotropic effect of cGMP in the murine myocardium. Circ Res. 2002;90:18-20 pubmed
    To study the role of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) for cardiac contractility, force of contraction (F(c)) was studied in electrically driven heart muscle from wild-type (WT) mice and from conventional and conditional cGKI ..
  5. Haas B, Mayer P, Jennissen K, Scholz D, Berriel Diaz M, Bloch W, et al. Protein kinase G controls brown fat cell differentiation and mitochondrial biogenesis. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra78 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PKGI links NO and cGMP signaling with the RhoA-ROCK and the insulin pathways, thereby controlling induction of adipogenic and thermogenic programs during brown fat cell differentiation. ..
  6. Pfeifer A, Klatt P, Massberg S, Ny L, Sausbier M, Hirneiss C, et al. Defective smooth muscle regulation in cGMP kinase I-deficient mice. EMBO J. 1998;17:3045-51 pubmed
    ..cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) has been suggested as a major mediator of the relaxant effects of both nucleotides...
  7. Leiss V, Friebe A, Welling A, Hofmann F, Lukowski R. Cyclic GMP kinase I modulates glucagon release from pancreatic ?-cells. Diabetes. 2011;60:148-56 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) is directly involved in the secretion of islet hormones and glucose homeostasis...
  8. Klaiber M, Kruse M, Völker K, Schröter J, Feil R, Freichel M, et al. Novel insights into the mechanisms mediating the local antihypertrophic effects of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide: role of cGMP-dependent protein kinase and RGS2. Basic Res Cardiol. 2010;105:583-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they strengthen published observations in neonatal cardiomyocytes showing that TRPC3/TRPC6 channels are essential for Ang II, but not for beta-adrenergic Ca(2+) (i)-stimulation in adult myocytes. ..
  9. Weber S, Bernhard D, Lukowski R, Weinmeister P, Wörner R, Wegener J, et al. Rescue of cGMP kinase I knockout mice by smooth muscle specific expression of either isozyme. Circ Res. 2007;101:1096-103 pubmed
    ..Inactivation of the murine cGKI gene prkg1 leads to multiple phenotypes and premature death at approximately 6 weeks...
  10. Feil S, Zimmermann P, Knorn A, Brummer S, Schlossmann J, Hofmann F, et al. Distribution of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I and its isoforms in the mouse brain and retina. Neuroscience. 2005;135:863-8 pubmed
    ..messenger cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) and activation of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI)...
  11. Takimoto E, Koitabashi N, Hsu S, Ketner E, Zhang M, Nagayama T, et al. Regulator of G protein signaling 2 mediates cardiac compensation to pressure overload and antihypertrophic effects of PDE5 inhibition in mice. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:408-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, RGS2 is required for early myocardial compensation to pressure overload and mediates the initial antihypertrophic and cardioprotective effects of PDE5 inhibitors. ..
  12. Sawada N, Itoh H, Miyashita K, Tsujimoto H, Sone M, Yamahara K, et al. Cyclic GMP kinase and RhoA Ser188 phosphorylation integrate pro- and antifibrotic signals in blood vessels. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:6018-32 pubmed publisher
  13. Wolfsgruber W, Feil S, Brummer S, Kuppinger O, Hofmann F, Feil R. A proatherogenic role for cGMP-dependent protein kinase in vascular smooth muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:13519-24 pubmed
    ..The cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) is a potential mediator of NO signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs)...
  14. Foller M, Feil S, Ghoreschi K, Koka S, Gerling A, Thunemann M, et al. Anemia and splenomegaly in cGKI-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6771-6 pubmed publisher
    To explore the functional significance of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) in the regulation of erythrocyte survival, gene-targeted mice lacking cGKI were compared with their control littermates...
  15. Takimoto E, Belardi D, Tocchetti C, Vahebi S, Cormaci G, Ketner E, et al. Compartmentalization of cardiac beta-adrenergic inotropy modulation by phosphodiesterase type 5. Circulation. 2007;115:2159-67 pubmed
    ..Such disparities likely contribute to differential cardiac regulation by drugs that modulate cGMP synthesis and hydrolysis. ..
  16. Tegeder I, Del Turco D, Schmidtko A, Sausbier M, Feil R, Hofmann F, et al. Reduced inflammatory hyperalgesia with preservation of acute thermal nociception in mice lacking cGMP-dependent protein kinase I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:3253-7 pubmed
    ..The paucity of substance P in laminae I-III may contribute to the reduction of nociception in PKG-I(-/-) mice and suggests a role of PKG-I in substance P synthesis. ..
  17. Schmidt H, Werner M, Heppenstall P, Henning M, Moré M, Kühbandner S, et al. cGMP-mediated signaling via cGKIalpha is required for the guidance and connectivity of sensory axons. J Cell Biol. 2002;159:489-98 pubmed
    ..cGMP is a second messenger with several distinct targets including cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI)...
  18. Yamahara K, Itoh H, Chun T, Ogawa Y, Yamashita J, Sawada N, et al. Significance and therapeutic potential of the natriuretic peptides/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase pathway in vascular regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:3404-9 pubmed
  19. Massberg S, Sausbier M, Klatt P, Bauer M, Pfeifer A, Siess W, et al. Increased adhesion and aggregation of platelets lacking cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate kinase I. J Exp Med. 1999;189:1255-64 pubmed
    ..A major downstream target of NO is cyclic guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate kinase I (cGKI)...
  20. Lukowski R, Rybalkin S, Loga F, Leiss V, Beavo J, Hofmann F. Cardiac hypertrophy is not amplified by deletion of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I in cardiomyocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:5646-51 pubmed publisher
    It has been suggested that cGMP kinase I (cGKI) dampens cardiac hypertrophy...
  21. Li Z, Xi X, Gu M, Feil R, Ye R, Eigenthaler M, et al. A stimulatory role for cGMP-dependent protein kinase in platelet activation. Cell. 2003;112:77-86 pubmed
    ..The cGMP-stimulated platelet responses are biphasic, consisting of an initial transient stimulatory response that promotes platelet aggregation and a subsequent inhibitory response that limits the size of thrombi. ..
  22. Schmidt H, Stonkute A, Jüttner R, Schaffer S, Buttgereit J, Feil R, et al. The receptor guanylyl cyclase Npr2 is essential for sensory axon bifurcation within the spinal cord. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:331-40 pubmed
    ..inactive receptor guanylyl cyclase Npr2 or deficient for cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) lack the bifurcation of sensory axons at the DREZ, i.e., the ingrowing axon either turns rostrally or caudally...
  23. Pfeifer A, Aszodi A, Seidler U, Ruth P, Hofmann F, Fassler R. Intestinal secretory defects and dwarfism in mice lacking cGMP-dependent protein kinase II. Science. 1996;274:2082-6 pubmed
    ..The cGKII-deficient mice also developed dwarfism that was caused by a severe defect in endochondral ossification at the growth plates. These results indicate that cGKII plays a central role in diverse physiological processes. ..
  24. Michael S, Surks H, Wang Y, Zhu Y, Blanton R, Jamnongjit M, et al. High blood pressure arising from a defect in vascular function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:6702-7 pubmed publisher
  25. Langmesser S, Franken P, Feil S, Emmenegger Y, Albrecht U, Feil R. cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I is implicated in the regulation of the timing and quality of sleep and wakefulness. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4238 pubmed publisher
    ..and circadian rhythms, we analyzed these two processes in mice deficient for cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (PRKG1) in the brain...
  26. Zhang L, Lukowski R, Gaertner F, Lorenz M, Legate K, Domes K, et al. Thrombocytosis as a response to high interleukin-6 levels in cGMP-dependent protein kinase I mutant mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2013;33:1820-8 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of cGMP-dependent kinase I (cGKI) on platelet production...
  27. Bachiller P, Nakanishi H, Roberts J. Transforming growth factor-beta modulates the expression of nitric oxide signaling enzymes in the injured developing lung and in vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;298:L324-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, they suggest that TGF-beta-neutralizing molecules might counteract the effects of injury on NO signaling in the newborn lung. ..
  28. Zeng Y, Pan Y, Liu H, Kang K, Wu Y, Hui G, et al. MiR-20a regulates the PRKG1 gene by targeting its coding region in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:4677-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We also observed that miR-20a represses the protein kinase, cGMP-dependent, type I (PRKG1) gene and we identified two crucial miR-20a binding sites within the coding region of PRKG1...
  29. Sharma A, Birrane G, Anklin C, Rigby A, Alper S. NMR insight into myosin-binding subunit coiled-coil structure reveals binding interface with protein kinase G-I? leucine zipper in vascular function. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:7052-7065 pubmed publisher
  30. Aicher A, Heeschen C, Feil S, Hofmann F, Mendelsohn M, Feil R, et al. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I is crucial for angiogenesis and postnatal vasculogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4879 pubmed publisher
    ..cGMP-dependent pathways, we investigated the role of the cGMP downstream effector cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) on postnatal neovascularization...
  31. Geiselhöringer A, Werner M, Sigl K, Smital P, Wörner R, Acheo L, et al. IRAG is essential for relaxation of receptor-triggered smooth muscle contraction by cGMP kinase. EMBO J. 2004;23:4222-31 pubmed
    Signalling by cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) relaxes various smooth muscles modulating thereby vascular tone and gastrointestinal motility...
  32. Durnin L, Lees A, Manzoor S, Sasse K, Sanders K, Mutafova Yambolieva V. Loss of nitric oxide-mediated inhibition of purine neurotransmitter release in the colon in the absence of interstitial cells of Cajal. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017;313:G419-G433 pubmed publisher
    ..Colons from W/Wv, Nos1-/- , and Prkg1-/- mice displayed augmented neural release of purines that was likely due to altered nitrergic ..
  33. Scotcher J, Prysyazhna O, Boguslavskyi A, Kistamás K, Hadgraft N, Martin E, et al. Disulfide-activated protein kinase G I? regulates cardiac diastolic relaxation and fine-tunes the Frank-Starling response. Nat Commun. 2016;7:13187 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that oxidation of PKGI? during myocardial stretch is crucial for diastolic relaxation and fine-tunes the Frank-Starling response. ..
  34. Ruth P. Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases: understanding in vivo functions by gene targeting. Pharmacol Ther. 1999;82:355-72 pubmed
    ..Mice deficient in cGMP kinases exhibit severe defects and, therefore, may serve as animal models for several human diseases, including hypertension, thrombosis, gastrointestinal dysmotility, and dwarfism. ..
  35. Zhou L, Hosohata K, Gao S, Gu Z, Wang Z. cGMP-dependent protein kinase I? interacts with p44/WDR77 to regulate androgen receptor-driven gene expression. PLoS ONE. 2014;8:e63119 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings characterize PKG as a novel regulator of AR-mediated transcription by enhancing AR cofactor p44/WDR77's function, which provide a novel mechanism for the growth regulation of prostate cancer cells by the androgen signaling. ..
  36. Seo K, Rainer P, Lee D, Hao S, Bedja D, Birnbaumer L, et al. Hyperactive adverse mechanical stress responses in dystrophic heart are coupled to transient receptor potential canonical 6 and blocked by cGMP-protein kinase G modulation. Circ Res. 2014;114:823-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In dystrophic hearts, excess SSC and arrhythmia are coupled to TRPC6 and are ameliorated by its targeted suppression or PKG activation. These results highlight novel therapeutic targets for this disease. ..
  37. Tedeschi A, Nguyen T, Steele S, Feil S, Naumann U, Feil R, et al. The tumor suppressor p53 transcriptionally regulates cGKI expression during neuronal maturation and is required for cGMP-dependent growth cone collapse. J Neurosci. 2009;29:15155-60 pubmed publisher
    The cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) has multiple functions including a role in axonal growth and pathfinding of sensory neurons, and counteracts Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A)-induced growth cone collapse...
  38. Li Z, Zhang G, Marjanovic J, Ruan C, Du X. A platelet secretion pathway mediated by cGMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:42469-75 pubmed
    ..These data unveil a novel PKG-dependent platelet secretion pathway and a mechanism by which PKG promotes platelet activation. ..
  39. Uhler M. Cloning and expression of a novel cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase from mouse brain. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:13586-91 pubmed
    ..The first class (CGKI) of amplification products contained approximately 1...
  40. Chalimoniuk M, Stolecka A, Zieminska E, Stepien A, Langfort J, Strosznajder J. Involvement of multiple protein kinases in cPLA2 phosphorylation, arachidonic acid release, and cell death in in vivo and in vitro models of 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced parkinsonism--the possible key role of PKG. J Neurochem. 2009;110:307-17 pubmed publisher
  41. Martin P, Mora I, Cortés M, Calleros L, García Jerez A, Ortiz A, et al. Relevant role of PKG in the progression of fibrosis induced by TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014;307:F75-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects were blunted in H-Ras knockout mice. Together, these data demonstrate, for the first time, the key role of PKG-I in TGF-?1 induction by TWEAK in kidney cells. ..
  42. Patrucco E, Domes K, Sbroggi M, Blaich A, Schlossmann J, Desch M, et al. Roles of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) and PDE5 in the regulation of Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:12925-9 pubmed publisher
    Conflicting results have been reported for the roles of cGMP and cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) in various pathological conditions leading to cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis...
  43. Hedlund P, Aszodi A, Pfeifer A, Alm P, Hofmann F, Ahmad M, et al. Erectile dysfunction in cyclic GMP-dependent kinase I-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:2349-54 pubmed
    ..Herein, we report that mice lacking cGMP-dependent kinase I (cGKI) have a very low ability to reproduce and that their corpora cavernosa fail to relax on activation of the NO/cGMP ..
  44. Feil R, Hartmann J, Luo C, Wolfsgruber W, Schilling K, Feil S, et al. Impairment of LTD and cerebellar learning by Purkinje cell-specific ablation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I. J Cell Biol. 2003;163:295-302 pubmed
    ..Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) contain a high concentration of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI)...
  45. Li P, Wang D, Lucas J, Oparil S, Xing D, Cao X, et al. Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits transforming growth factor beta-induced Smad signaling and myofibroblast transformation in mouse cardiac fibroblasts. Circ Res. 2008;102:185-92 pubmed
    ..We postulate that this process contributes to the antifibrogenic effects of the natriuretic peptide in heart. ..
  46. Jaumann M, Dettling J, Gubelt M, Zimmermann U, Gerling A, Paquet Durand F, et al. cGMP-Prkg1 signaling and Pde5 inhibition shelter cochlear hair cells and hearing function. Nat Med. 2012;18:252-9 pubmed publisher
    ..therefore analyzed NIHL in mice with a genetic deletion of the gene encoding cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (Prkg1) and found a greater vulnerability to and markedly less recovery from NIHL in these mice as compared to mice ..
  47. Kalyanaraman H, Zhuang S, Pilz R, Casteel D. The activity of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I? is not directly regulated by oxidation-induced disulfide formation at cysteine 43. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:8262-8268 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight that mutant enzymes should be carefully biochemically characterized before making in vivo inferences. ..
  48. Nikolic D, Li Y, Liu S, Wang S. Overexpression of constitutively active PKG-I protects female, but not male mice from diet-induced obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2011;19:784-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate sex differences in effects of PKG-I activation on the regulation of adipose tissue function and its contribution to diet induced obesity. ..
  49. Collins S, Uhler M. Cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases differ in their regulation of cyclic AMP response element-dependent gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:8391-404 pubmed
  50. Ma L, Wang H. Suppression of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase is essential to the Wnt/cGMP/Ca2+ pathway. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:30990-1001 pubmed
    ..Protein kinase G is shown to be a critical downstream effector of the noncanonical Wnt-Frizzled-2/cGMP/Ca2+ pathway. ..
  51. Mitschke M, Hoffmann L, Gnad T, Scholz D, Kruithoff K, Mayer P, et al. Increased cGMP promotes healthy expansion and browning of white adipose tissue. FASEB J. 2013;27:1621-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, PKGI is a key regulator of cell size, adipokine secretion and browning of white fat depots and thus could be a valuable target in developing novel treatments for obesity. ..
  52. Ma H, Butler M, Thapa A, Belcher J, Yang F, Baehr W, et al. cGMP/Protein Kinase G Signaling Suppresses Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptor Phosphorylation and Promotes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Photoreceptors of Cyclic Nucleotide-gated Channel-deficient Mice. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:20880-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate a role of cGMP/PKG signaling in ER stress and ER Ca(2+) channel regulation and provide insights into the mechanism of cone degeneration in CNG channel deficiency. ..
  53. Cui W, Maimaitiyiming H, Qi X, Norman H, Zhou Q, Wang X, et al. Increasing cGMP-dependent protein kinase activity attenuates unilateral ureteral obstruction-induced renal fibrosis. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2014;306:F996-1007 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that increasing PKG activity ameliorates renal fibrosis in part through regulation of macrophage and tubular cell function, leading to reduced TGF-?-induced fibrosis...
  54. Lutz S, Hennige A, Feil S, Peter A, Gerling A, Machann J, et al. Genetic ablation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I causes liver inflammation and fasting hyperglycemia. Diabetes. 2011;60:1566-76 pubmed publisher
    The nitric oxide/cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI) signaling pathway regulates cell functions that play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes...
  55. Ertl C, Lukowski R, Sigl K, Schlossmann J, Hofmann F, Wegener J. Kinetics of relaxation by cGMP/cGKI signaling in fundus smooth muscle. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011;670:266-71 pubmed publisher
    cGMP-dependent kinase I (cGKI) is a major mediator of smooth muscle relaxation and exists in two isoforms, ? and ?. Both isoforms are supposed to mediate their effects via different intracellular signaling pathways...
  56. Leiss V, Illison J, Domes K, Hofmann F, Lukowski R. Expression of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I in mature white adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;452:151-6 pubmed publisher
    The presence of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) in murine adipocytes has been questioned, although cGKI was implicated in the thermogenic program of fat cells (FCs) and to exert anti-hypertrophic/-inflammatory effects in white ..
  57. Singh A, Spiessberger B, Zheng W, Xiao F, Lukowski R, Wegener J, et al. Neuronal cGMP kinase I is essential for stimulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion by luminal acid. FASEB J. 2012;26:1745-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I-knockout (cGKI(-/-)) mice are unable to respond to a physiological H(+) stimulus with a HCO(3)(-) secretory response and ..
  58. Angermeier E, Domes K, Lukowski R, Schlossmann J, Rathkolb B, Angelis M, et al. Iron deficiency anemia in cyclic GMP kinase knockout mice. Haematologica. 2016;101:e48-51 pubmed publisher
  59. Gomes B, Savignac M, Cabral M, Paulet P, Moreau M, Leclerc C, et al. The cGMP/protein kinase G pathway contributes to dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium response and cytokine production in TH2 lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:12421-7 pubmed
    ..Altogether, our data indicate that, in Th2 cells, cGMP is produced upon TCR engagement and activates PKG, which controls DHP-sensitive calcium inflow and Th2 cytokine production. ..
  60. Ny L, Pfeifer A, Aszodi A, Ahmad M, Alm P, Hedlund P, et al. Impaired relaxation of stomach smooth muscle in mice lacking cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I. Br J Pharmacol. 2000;129:395-401 pubmed
    1. Guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP)-dependent kinase I (cGKI) is a major receptor for cyclic GMP in a variety of cells. Mice lacking cGKI exhibit multiple phenotypes, including severe defects in smooth muscle function...
  61. Zhao Z, Wang Z, Gu Y, Feil R, Hofmann F, Ma L. Regulate axon branching by the cyclic GMP pathway via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 in dorsal root ganglion sensory neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:1350-60 pubmed publisher
    ..At the molecular level, the cGMP-dependent protein kinase 1 (PrkG1) mediates this activity, as DRG neurons isolated from the kinase-deficient mouse fail to respond to cGMP ..
  62. Schwappacher R, Weiske J, Heining E, Ezerski V, Marom B, Henis Y, et al. Novel crosstalk to BMP signalling: cGMP-dependent kinase I modulates BMP receptor and Smad activity. EMBO J. 2009;28:1537-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent kinase I (cGKI) modulates BMP receptors and Smads, providing a novel mechanism enhancing BMP signalling...
  63. Das A, Xi L, Kukreja R. Protein kinase G-dependent cardioprotective mechanism of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibition involves phosphorylation of ERK and GSK3beta. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:29572-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our results demonstrate that sildenafil activates a PKG-dependent novel signaling cascade that involves activation of ERK and inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta leading to cytoprotection. ..
  64. Klaiber M, Dankworth B, Kruse M, Hartmann M, Nikolaev V, Yang R, et al. A cardiac pathway of cyclic GMP-independent signaling of guanylyl cyclase A, the receptor for atrial natriuretic peptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:18500-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The concomitant rise in [Ca(2+)](i) might increase the propensity to cardiac hypertrophy and arrhythmias. ..
  65. Zhang T, Zhuang S, Casteel D, Looney D, Boss G, Pilz R. A cysteine-rich LIM-only protein mediates regulation of smooth muscle-specific gene expression by cGMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:33367-80 pubmed
    ..Thus, CRP4 mediates cGMP/PKG stimulation of SM-specific gene expression, and PKG plays an important role in regulating the phenotype of VSMCs. ..
  66. Duchemin A, Neff N, Hadjiconstantinou M. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase phosphorylation and activation by PKGIalpha in vitro. J Neurochem. 2010;114:542-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Neuronal AAAD is best known for its role in the biosynthesis of catecholamines, indoleamines and trace amines in the nervous system, and the biological importance of PKGIalpha phosphorylation in these processes remains to be determined. ..
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    ..Immunoblotting of LASP-1 in various mouse and human tissues detected a similar prominent expression in non-muscle tissue. Altogether, our data suggest so far no functional differences between human and mouse LASP-1. ..
  69. Ramchandran R, Raghavan A, Geenen D, Sun M, Bach L, Yang Q, et al. PKG-1? leucine zipper domain defect increases pulmonary vascular tone: implications in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;307:L537-44 pubmed publisher
  70. Toyoda H, Saito M, Okazawa M, Hirao K, Sato H, Abe H, et al. Protein kinase G dynamically modulates TASK1-mediated leak K+ currents in cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5677-89 pubmed publisher
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    ..NO)-mediated smooth muscle relaxation is mediated by cGMP through activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI)...
  72. MacDonald B, Adamska M, Meisler M. Hypomorphic expression of Dkk1 in the doubleridge mouse: dose dependence and compensatory interactions with Lrp6. Development. 2004;131:2543-52 pubmed
    ..These compensatory interactions between Dkk1 and Lrp6 demonstrate the importance of correctly balancing positive and negative regulation of Wnt signaling during mammalian development. ..
  73. Wong J, Fiscus R. Protein kinase G activity prevents pathological-level nitric oxide-induced apoptosis and promotes DNA synthesis/cell proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2010;19:e221-31 pubmed publisher
  74. Kurowska E, Kobiałka M, Zioło E, Strzadała L, Gorczyca W. The cGMP synthesis and PKG1 expression in murine lymphoid organs. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2002;50:289-94 pubmed
    ..In spleen cells, however, cyclase GC-B appears to be the more active enzyme. Elevated cGMP concentration may in turn activate PKG1beta in thymus, lymph node, and spleen cells and also PKG1alpha in spleen cells. ..
  75. Dey N, Busch J, Francis S, Corbin J, Lincoln T. Cyclic GMP specifically suppresses Type-Ialpha cGMP-dependent protein kinase expression by ubiquitination. Cell Signal. 2009;21:859-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that chronic elevation of cGMP, as seen in inflammatory conditions, triggers ubiquitination and degradation of PKG-Ialpha in smooth muscle. ..
  76. Bonnevier J, Fassler R, Somlyo A, Somlyo A, Arner A. Modulation of Ca2+ sensitivity by cyclic nucleotides in smooth muscle from protein kinase G-deficient mice. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:5146-51 pubmed
    ..We have explored cGMP- and cAMP-dependent relaxation of smooth muscle using PKG-deficient mice (cGKI-/-)...
  77. Desch M, Schinner E, Kees F, Hofmann F, Seifert R, Schlossmann J. Cyclic cytidine 3',5'-monophosphate (cCMP) signals via cGMP kinase I. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:3979-84 pubmed publisher
    ..cCMP-induced relaxation was abolished in cGKI-knockout tissue...
  78. Blanton R, Takimoto E, Aronovitz M, Thoonen R, Kass D, Karas R, et al. Mutation of the protein kinase I alpha leucine zipper domain produces hypertension and progressive left ventricular hypertrophy: a novel mouse model of age-dependent hypertensive heart disease. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2013;68:1351-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a role of PKGI? in normally attenuating hypertensive LVH. Therefore, mutation of the PKGI? LZ domain produces a clinically relevant model for hypertensive heart disease of aging. ..
  79. Friederich Persson M, Nguyen Dinh Cat A, Persson P, Montezano A, Touyz R. Brown Adipose Tissue Regulates Small Artery Function Through NADPH Oxidase 4-Derived Hydrogen Peroxide and Redox-Sensitive Protein Kinase G-1?. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:455-465 pubmed publisher
    ..BAT may constitute an interesting therapeutic target to restore vascular function and prevent vascular complications in cardiovascular diseases. ..
  80. Schmidtko A, Gao W, Sausbier M, Rauhmeier I, Sausbier U, Niederberger E, et al. Cysteine-rich protein 2, a novel downstream effector of cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase I-mediated persistent inflammatory pain. J Neurosci. 2008;28:1320-30 pubmed publisher
    The cGMP/cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) signaling pathway plays an important role in spinal nociceptive processing. However, downstream targets of cGKI in this context have not been identified to date...
  81. Patel D, Kandhi S, Kelly M, Neo B, Wolin M. Dehydroepiandrosterone promotes pulmonary artery relaxation by NADPH oxidation-elicited subunit dimerization of protein kinase G 1?. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2014;306:L383-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus PKG-1? dimerization is a major contributing factor to the vasodilator actions of DHEA and perhaps its beneficial effects in treating pulmonary hypertension. ..