Gene Symbol: Prkcz
Description: protein kinase C, zeta
Alias: AI098070, C80388, Pkcz, R74924, aPKCzeta, nPKC-zeta, zetaPKC, protein kinase C zeta type, atypical protein kinase C, protein kinase C zeta subspecies
Species: mouse
Products:     Prkcz

Top Publications

  1. Leitges M, Sanz L, Martin P, Duran A, Braun U, Garcia J, et al. Targeted disruption of the zetaPKC gene results in the impairment of the NF-kappaB pathway. Mol Cell. 2001;8:771-80 pubmed
    Here we have addressed the role that zetaPKC plays in NF-kappaB activation using mice in which this kinase was inactivated by homologous recombination...
  2. Koike C, Nishida A, Akimoto K, Nakaya M, Noda T, Ohno S, et al. Function of atypical protein kinase C lambda in differentiating photoreceptors is required for proper lamination of mouse retina. J Neurosci. 2005;25:10290-8 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that properly polarized photoreceptors anchor progenitors at the apical edge of the neural retina, which may be essential for building correct laminar organization of the retina. ..
  3. Sajan M, Rivas J, Li P, Standaert M, Farese R. Repletion of atypical protein kinase C following RNA interference-mediated depletion restores insulin-stimulated glucose transport. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:17466-73 pubmed
    The role of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) in insulin-stimulated glucose transport in myocytes and adipocytes is controversial...
  4. Kovac J, Oster H, Leitges M. Expression of the atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms iota/lambda and zeta during mouse embryogenesis. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:187-96 pubmed
    ..Both, PKC iota/lambda and zeta show highly specific temporal and spatial patterns of expression which may help in distinguishing physiological functions of these isoforms. ..
  5. Madroñal N, Gruart A, Sacktor T, Delgado Garcia J. PKMzeta inhibition reverses learning-induced increases in hippocampal synaptic strength and memory during trace eyeblink conditioning. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10400 pubmed publisher
    ..induced by HFS and by experience the same? Protein kinase Mzeta (PKMzeta), an autonomously active atypical protein kinase C isoform, plays a key role in the maintenance of LTP induced by tetanic stimulation and the storage of ..
  6. Lin D, Edwards A, Fawcett J, Mbamalu G, Scott J, Pawson T. A mammalian PAR-3-PAR-6 complex implicated in Cdc42/Rac1 and aPKC signalling and cell polarity. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:540-7 pubmed
    ..mPAR-6 binds to Cdc42/Rac1 GTPases, and mPAR-3 and mPAR-6 bind independently to atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isoforms. In vitro, mPAR-3 acts as a substrate and an inhibitor of aPKC...
  7. Li X, Ko H, Chen T, Descalzi G, Koga K, Wang H, et al. Alleviating neuropathic pain hypersensitivity by inhibiting PKMzeta in the anterior cingulate cortex. Science. 2010;330:1400-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Microinjection of ZIP into the ACC blocked behavioral sensitization. These results suggest that PKM? in the ACC acts to maintain neuropathic pain. PKM? could thus be a new therapeutic target for treating chronic pain. ..
  8. Volk L, Bachman J, Johnson R, Yu Y, Huganir R. PKM-? is not required for hippocampal synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Nature. 2013;493:420-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, ZIP still reverses LTP in PKC-?/PKM-? knockout mice, indicating that the effects of ZIP are independent of PKM-?. ..
  9. Lee A, Kanter B, Wang D, Lim J, Zou M, Qiu C, et al. Prkcz null mice show normal learning and memory. Nature. 2013;493:416-9 pubmed publisher
    Protein kinase M-? (PKM-?) is a constitutively active form of atypical protein kinase C that is exclusively expressed in the brain and implicated in the maintenance of long-term memory...

More Information


  1. Yates L, Schnatwinkel C, Murdoch J, Bogani D, Formstone C, Townsend S, et al. The PCP genes Celsr1 and Vangl2 are required for normal lung branching morphogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:2251-67 pubmed publisher
  2. Ezan J, Lasvaux L, Gezer A, Novakovic A, May Simera H, Belotti E, et al. Primary cilium migration depends on G-protein signalling control of subapical cytoskeleton. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:1107-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus G-protein-dependent signalling controls the migration of the cilium cell autonomously, whereas core PCP signalling controls long-range tissue PCP. ..
  3. Guo H, Ma Y, Zhang B, Sun B, Niu R, Ying G, et al. Pivotal Advance: PKCzeta is required for migration of macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2009;85:911-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous study reported that atypical protein kinase C zeta (PKCzeta) regulates epidermal growth factor-induced chemotaxis of human breast cancer cells...
  4. Hirose T, Karasawa M, Sugitani Y, Fujisawa M, Akimoto K, Ohno S, et al. PAR3 is essential for cyst-mediated epicardial development by establishing apical cortical domains. Development. 2006;133:1389-98 pubmed
    ..These results also provide a clear example of the proper organization of epithelial tissues through the regulation of individual cell polarity. ..
  5. Wu M, Smith C, Hall J, Lee I, Luby Phelps K, Tallquist M. Epicardial spindle orientation controls cell entry into the myocardium. Dev Cell. 2010;19:114-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that directed mitotic spindle orientation contributes to epicardial EMT and implicate a junctional complex of beta-catenin and Numb in the regulation of spindle orientation. ..
  6. Stephenson R, Yamanaka Y, Rossant J. Disorganized epithelial polarity and excess trophectoderm cell fate in preimplantation embryos lacking E-cadherin. Development. 2010;137:3383-91 pubmed publisher
    ..They also show that Cdx2 expression is strongly linked to apical membrane polarization. ..
  7. Whyte J, Thornton L, McNally S, McCarthy S, Lanigan F, Gallagher W, et al. PKCzeta regulates cell polarisation and proliferation restriction during mammary acinus formation. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:3316-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Paralleling these contributions, we found that low levels of PKC? mRNA expression are associated with more 'poorly differentiated' tumours and a poor outcome in a cohort of 295 breast cancer patients. ..
  8. Diaz Meco M, Municio M, Frutos S, Sanchez P, Lozano J, Sanz L, et al. The product of par-4, a gene induced during apoptosis, interacts selectively with the atypical isoforms of protein kinase C. Cell. 1996;86:777-86 pubmed
    ..These findings support a role for the atypical PKC subspecies in the control of cell growth and survival. ..
  9. Martin P, Duran A, Minguet S, Gaspar M, Diaz Meco M, Rennert P, et al. Role of zeta PKC in B-cell signaling and function. EMBO J. 2002;21:4049-57 pubmed
    The atypical protein kinase C isoform, zeta PKC, has been implicated in the control of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B pathways...
  10. Hirate Y, Hirahara S, Inoue K, Suzuki A, Alarcon V, Akimoto K, et al. Polarity-dependent distribution of angiomotin localizes Hippo signaling in preimplantation embryos. Curr Biol. 2013;23:1181-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The cell fate is controlled by cell position-dependent Hippo signaling, although the mechanisms underlying position-dependent Hippo signaling are unknown...
  11. Yates L, Schnatwinkel C, Hazelwood L, Chessum L, Paudyal A, Hilton H, et al. Scribble is required for normal epithelial cell-cell contacts and lumen morphogenesis in the mammalian lung. Dev Biol. 2013;373:267-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus we reveal novel and important roles for Scrib in lung development operating via the PCP pathway, and in regulating junctional complexes and cell cohesion. ..
  12. Cockburn K, Biechele S, Garner J, Rossant J. The Hippo pathway member Nf2 is required for inner cell mass specification. Curr Biol. 2013;23:1195-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data establish a clear role for Nf2 upstream of Yap in the preimplantation embryo and demonstrate that Hippo signaling is essential to segregate the ICM from the TE. ..
  13. Wu X, Li S, Chrostek Grashoff A, Czuchra A, Meyer H, Yurchenco P, et al. Cdc42 is crucial for the establishment of epithelial polarity during early mammalian development. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2767-78 pubmed
    ..Finally, aggregation experiments with endodermal cell lines suggested that Cdc42 might affect formation of adherens and tight junctions by PKCzeta-dependent regulation of the protein levels of p120 catenin and E-cadherin. ..
  14. Vasavada R, Wang L, Fujinaka Y, Takane K, Rosa T, Mellado Gil J, et al. Protein kinase C-zeta activation markedly enhances beta-cell proliferation: an essential role in growth factor mediated beta-cell mitogenesis. Diabetes. 2007;56:2732-43 pubmed
    ..Examination of these signaling pathways in INS-1 cells revealed atypical protein kinase C (PKC) as a novel intracellular target activated by both HGF and PTHrP in beta-cells...
  15. Galvez A, Duran A, Linares J, Pathrose P, Castilla E, Abu Baker S, et al. Protein kinase Czeta represses the interleukin-6 promoter and impairs tumorigenesis in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:104-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform, PKCzeta, has been shown to interact with the signaling adapter p62, which is important ..
  16. Joberty G, Petersen C, Gao L, Macara I. The cell-polarity protein Par6 links Par3 and atypical protein kinase C to Cdc42. Nat Cell Biol. 2000;2:531-9 pubmed
    ..with Cdc42-GTP, with a human homologue of the multi-PDZ protein PAR-3 and with the regulatory domains of atypical protein kinase C (PKC) proteins...
  17. Duran A, Diaz Meco M, Moscat J. Essential role of RelA Ser311 phosphorylation by zetaPKC in NF-kappaB transcriptional activation. EMBO J. 2003;22:3910-8 pubmed
    ..In vitro assays showed that zetaPKC directly phosphorylates RelA...
  18. Tao H, Inoue K, Kiyonari H, Bassuk A, Axelrod J, Sasaki H, et al. Nuclear localization of Prickle2 is required to establish cell polarity during early mouse embryogenesis. Dev Biol. 2012;364:138-48 pubmed publisher
    ..The cell polarity phenotype was efficiently rescued by nuclear but not cytoplasmic Pk2, demonstrating the nuclear localization of Pk2 is critical for its function. ..
  19. Oster H, Leitges M. Protein kinase C alpha but not PKCzeta suppresses intestinal tumor formation in ApcMin/+ mice. Cancer Res. 2006;66:6955-63 pubmed
  20. Mei F, Nagappan G, Ke Y, Sacktor T, Lu B. BDNF facilitates L-LTP maintenance in the absence of protein synthesis through PKM?. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21568 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that BDNF sustains L-LTP through PKM? in a protein synthesis-independent manner, revealing an unexpected link between BDNF and PKM?. ..
  21. Ramsbottom S, Sharma V, Rhee H, Eley L, Phillips H, Rigby H, et al. Vangl2-regulated polarisation of second heart field-derived cells is required for outflow tract lengthening during cardiac development. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004871 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Vangl2-regulated polarisation and subsequent acquisition of an epithelial phenotype is essential to lengthen the tubular outflow vessel, a process that is essential for on-going cardiac morphogenesis. ..
  22. Fritzius T, Burkard G, Haas E, Heinrich J, Schweneker M, Bosse M, et al. A WD-FYVE protein binds to the kinases Akt and PKCzeta/lambda. Biochem J. 2006;399:9-20 pubmed
    ..In summary, we describe a new binding partner for kinases, located on vesicular structures in specialized cells, which may play a role for the spatial organization of signalling cascades. ..
  23. Blackshear P, Lai W, Tuttle J, Stumpo D, Kennington E, Nairn A, et al. Developmental expression of MARCKS and protein kinase C in mice in relation to the exencephaly resulting from MARCKS deficiency. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1996;96:62-75 pubmed
  24. Song C, Rahim R, Davey P, Bednar F, Bardi G, Zhang L, et al. Protein kinase Czeta mediates micro-opioid receptor-induced cross-desensitization of chemokine receptor CCR5. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:20354-65 pubmed publisher
  25. Zappelli F, Willems D, Osada S, Ohno S, Wetsel W, Molinaro M, et al. The inhibition of differentiation caused by TGFbeta in fetal myoblasts is dependent upon selective expression of PKCtheta: a possible molecular basis for myoblast diversification during limb histogenesis. Dev Biol. 1996;180:156-64 pubmed
    ..They also suggest a specific role for protein kinase C theta in determining the fate of different myoblasts during muscle histogenesis. ..
  26. Moscat J, Rennert P, Diaz Meco M. PKCzeta at the crossroad of NF-kappaB and Jak1/Stat6 signaling pathways. Cell Death Differ. 2006;13:702-11 pubmed
    The atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (aPKC) have been implicated in the regulation of a number of essential signaling events...
  27. Goodnight J, Kazanietz M, Blumberg P, Mushinski J, Mischak H. The cDNA sequence, expression pattern and protein characteristics of mouse protein kinase C-zeta. Gene. 1992;122:305-11 pubmed
    ..When the cDNA is expressed in insect cells via a baculovirus expression vector, a 75-kDa protein is synthesized which, unlike other PKC isoforms, does not bind phorbol ester, even at very high concentrations. ..
  28. Elias B, Das A, Parekh D, Mernaugh G, Adams R, Yang Z, et al. Cdc42 regulates epithelial cell polarity and cytoskeletal function during kidney tubule development. J Cell Sci. 2015;128:4293-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we conclude that the principal role of Cdc42 in ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme development is to regulate epithelial cell polarity and the actin cytoskeleton. ..
  29. Gros J, Tabin C. Vertebrate limb bud formation is initiated by localized epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Science. 2014;343:1253-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This work shows that limb buds initiate earlier than previously thought, as a result of localized EMT rather than differential proliferation rates. ..
  30. Metz P, Arsenio J, Kakaradov B, Kim S, Remedios K, Oakley K, et al. Regulation of asymmetric division and CD8+ T lymphocyte fate specification by protein kinase Cζ and protein kinase Cλ/ι. J Immunol. 2015;194:2249-59 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that the absence of the atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, PKCζ and PKCλ/ι, disrupts asymmetric CD8(+) T lymphocyte division...
  31. Joshi J, Fernandez Marcos P, Galvez A, Amanchy R, Linares J, Duran A, et al. Par-4 inhibits Akt and suppresses Ras-induced lung tumorigenesis. EMBO J. 2008;27:2181-93 pubmed publisher
  32. Barreiro Arcos M, Gorelik G, Klecha A, Genaro A, Cremaschi G. Thyroid hormones increase inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression downstream from PKC-zeta in murine tumor T lymphocytes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;291:C327-36 pubmed
    ..These results show, for the first time, that differential intracellular signals are involved in TH modulation of lymphocyte physiology and pathophysiology. ..
  33. Ivey R, Sajan M, Farese R. Requirements for pseudosubstrate arginine residues during autoinhibition and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-(PO?)?-dependent activation of atypical PKC. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:25021-30 pubmed publisher
  34. Hubmacher D, Wang L, Mecham R, Reinhardt D, Apte S. Adamtsl2 deletion results in bronchial fibrillin microfibril accumulation and bronchial epithelial dysplasia--a novel mouse model providing insights into geleophysic dysplasia. Dis Model Mech. 2015;8:487-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies suggest that the bronchial epithelial dysplasia accompanying microfibril dysregulation in Adamtsl2(-/-) mice cannot be reversed by TGFβ neutralization, and thus might be mediated by other mechanisms. ..
  35. Mayanglambam A, Bhavanasi D, Vijayan K, Kunapuli S. Differential dephosphorylation of the protein kinase C-zeta (PKC?) in an integrin ?IIb?3-dependent manner in platelets. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011;82:505-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This differential dephosphorylation of PKC? might be an important regulatory mechanism for platelet functional responses. ..
  36. Haque F, Kaku Y, Fujimura S, Ohmori T, Adelstein R, Nishinakamura R. Non-muscle myosin II deletion in the developing kidney causes ureter-bladder misconnection and apical extrusion of the nephric duct lineage epithelia. Dev Biol. 2017;427:121-130 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, myosin II is essential for maintaining the apicobasal integrity of the developing kidney epithelia independently of Ret signaling. ..
  37. Chen T, Benjamin D, Kuo T, Lee R, Li M, Mar D, et al. The glucocorticoid-Angptl4-ceramide axis induces insulin resistance through PP2A and PKCζ. Sci Signal. 2017;10: pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our study demonstrates the key role of Angptl4 in glucocorticoid-augmented hepatic ceramide production that induces whole-body insulin resistance. ..
  38. Arribas M, Valverde A, Burks D, Klein J, Farese R, White M, et al. Essential role of protein kinase C zeta in the impairment of insulin-induced glucose transport in IRS-2-deficient brown adipocytes. FEBS Lett. 2003;536:161-6 pubmed
    ..Our results support the essential role played by PKC zeta in the insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake observed in IRS-2-deficient brown adipocytes. ..
  39. Ghosh P, Bedolla R, Mikhailova M, Kreisberg J. RhoA-dependent murine prostate cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis: role of protein kinase Czeta. Cancer Res. 2002;62:2630-6 pubmed
    ..The atypical protein kinase C (PKC) isoform PKCzeta, which is downstream of PI3K, was activated in cells expressing active RhoA...
  40. Castelli M, Boca M, Chiaravalli M, Ramalingam H, Rowe I, Distefano G, et al. Polycystin-1 binds Par3/aPKC and controls convergent extension during renal tubular morphogenesis. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2658 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data define Polycystin-1 as central to cell polarization and to epithelial tube morphogenesis and homeostasis. ..
  41. Mashukova A, Oriolo A, Wald F, Casanova M, Kröger C, Magin T, et al. Rescue of atypical protein kinase C in epithelia by the cytoskeleton and Hsp70 family chaperones. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:2491-503 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that both filamentous keratins and Hsp70 are required for the rescue rephosphorylation of mature atypical PKC, regulating the subcellular distribution and steady-state levels of active PKC iota...
  42. Kieser A, Seitz T, Adler H, Coffer P, Kremmer E, Crespo P, et al. Protein kinase C-zeta reverts v-raf transformation of NIH-3T3 cells. Genes Dev. 1996;10:1455-66 pubmed
    ..In summary, our data suggest that PKC-zeta counteracts v-raf transformation by modulating the expression of the transcription factors junB and egr-1. ..
  43. Fritzius T, Frey A, Schweneker M, Mayer D, Moelling K. WD-repeat-propeller-FYVE protein, ProF, binds VAMP2 and protein kinase Czeta. FEBS J. 2007;274:1552-66 pubmed
    ..VAMP2 is known to regulate docking and fusion of vesicles and to play a role in targeting vesicles to the plasma membrane. The complex may be involved in vesicle cycling in various secretory pathways. ..
  44. Lee S, Kim J, Nogueiras R, Linares J, Perez Tilve D, Jung D, et al. PKCzeta-regulated inflammation in the nonhematopoietic compartment is critical for obesity-induced glucose intolerance. Cell Metab. 2010;12:65-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish PKCzeta as a critical negative regulator of IL-6 in the control of obesity-induced inflammation in adipocytes. ..
  45. Varadkar P, Krishna M, Verma N. Dose-dependent differential expression of protein kinase C isozymes in mouse lymphocytes after gamma irradiation in vivo and ex vivo. Radiat Res. 2003;159:453-7 pubmed
    ..The response of Prkcz was found to be similar to that of Prkcd...
  46. Jin R, Yu S, Song Z, Zhu X, Wang C, Yan J, et al. Soluble CD40 ligand stimulates CD40-dependent activation of the ?2 integrin Mac-1 and protein kinase C zeda (PKC?) in neutrophils: implications for neutrophil-platelet interactions and neutrophil oxidative burst. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64631 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which sCD40L/CD40 pathway contributes to inflammation and vascular diseases. ..
  47. DIEHL S, McElvany B, Noubade R, Seeberger N, Harding B, Spach K, et al. G proteins G?i1/3 are critical targets for Bordetella pertussis toxin-induced vasoactive amine sensitization. Infect Immun. 2014;82:773-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, by using mice deficient in individual G?i/o G-protein subunits, we demonstrate that G?i1 and G?i3 are the critical in vivo targets of ADP-ribosylation underlying VAAS elicited by PTX exposure. ..
  48. Manna P, Jain S. PIP3 but not PIP2 increases GLUT4 surface expression and glucose metabolism mediated by AKT/PKC?/? phosphorylation in 3T3L1 adipocytes. Mol Cell Biochem. 2013;381:291-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether PIP3 levels in blood can be used as a biomarker of insulin resistance in diabetes needs further investigation. ..
  49. Bareggi R, Grill V, Zweyer M, Narducci P, Martelli A. Distribution of the extended family of protein kinase C isoenzymes in fetal organs of mice: an immunohistochemical study. Cell Tissue Res. 1995;280:617-25 pubmed
    ..One set of antisera was employed to investigate the distribution of the isoforms in selected organs from an earlier developmental age (15 days) and from adult animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  50. Sajan M, Standaert M, Rivas J, Miura A, Kanoh Y, Soto J, et al. Role of atypical protein kinase C in activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) in liver of rodents used as a model of diabetes, and relationships to hyperlipidaemia and insulin resistance. Diabetologia. 2009;52:1197-207 pubmed publisher
    Previous findings in rodents used as a model of diabetes suggest that insulin activation of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is impaired in muscle, but, unexpectedly, conserved in liver, despite impaired hepatic protein kinase B (PKB/Akt)..
  51. Korotkevich E, Niwayama R, Courtois A, Friese S, Berger N, Buchholz F, et al. The Apical Domain Is Required and Sufficient for the First Lineage Segregation in the Mouse Embryo. Dev Cell. 2017;40:235-247.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we provide mechanistic understanding that reconciles previous models for symmetry breaking in mouse development. ..
  52. Martin P, Villares R, Rodriguez Mascarenhas S, Zaballos A, Leitges M, Kovac J, et al. Control of T helper 2 cell function and allergic airway inflammation by PKCzeta. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:9866-71 pubmed
    ..Moreover, PKCzeta-/- mice display dramatic inhibition of ovalbumin-induced allergic airway disease, strongly suggesting that PKCzeta can be a therapeutic target in asthma. ..
  53. Levy D, Kuo A, Chang Y, Schaefer U, Kitson C, Cheung P, et al. Lysine methylation of the NF-?B subunit RelA by SETD6 couples activity of the histone methyltransferase GLP at chromatin to tonic repression of NF-?B signaling. Nat Immunol. 2011;12:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which chromatin signaling regulates inflammation programs. ..
  54. Lee A, Jimenez A, Cui G, Haeseleer F. Phosphorylation of the Ca2+-binding protein CaBP4 by protein kinase C zeta in photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 2007;27:12743-54 pubmed
    ..3 modulation. These findings demonstrate how light-stimulated changes in CaBP4 phosphorylation and Ca2+ binding may regulate presynaptic Ca2+ signals in photoreceptors. ..
  55. Ralston A, Rossant J. Cdx2 acts downstream of cell polarization to cell-autonomously promote trophectoderm fate in the early mouse embryo. Dev Biol. 2008;313:614-29 pubmed
    ..Cdx2 therefore appears to act downstream of the first lineage decision, suggesting that processes influencing lineage allocation or morphogenesis may regulate Cdx2 expression along the inside/outside axis of the embryo. ..
  56. Moreno L, Frazziano G, Cogolludo A, Cobeño L, Tamargo J, Perez Vizcaino F. Role of protein kinase Czeta and its adaptor protein p62 in voltage-gated potassium channel modulation in pulmonary arteries. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;72:1301-9 pubmed
    ..These observations identify PKCzeta and/or p62 as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension. ..
  57. Feng Y, Zhao H, Luderer H, Epple H, Faccio R, Ross F, et al. The LIM protein, Limd1, regulates AP-1 activation through an interaction with Traf6 to influence osteoclast development. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:39-48 pubmed
    ..These results implicate Limd1 as a potentially important regulator of osteoclast development under conditions of stress. ..
  58. Tsokas P, Hsieh C, Yao Y, Lesburguères E, Wallace E, Tcherepanov A, et al. Compensation for PKM? in long-term potentiation and spatial long-term memory in mutant mice. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, whereas PKM? is essential for wild-type LTP and long-term memory, persistent PKC?/? activation compensates for PKM? loss in PKM?-null mice. ..
  59. Ma L, Tao Y, Duran A, Llado V, Galvez A, Barger J, et al. Control of nutrient stress-induced metabolic reprogramming by PKC? in tumorigenesis. Cell. 2013;152:599-611 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, PKC? and caspase-3 activities are correlated with PHGDH levels in human intestinal tumors. Taken together, this demonstrates that PKC? is a critical metabolic tumor suppressor in mouse and human cancer. ..
  60. Brady S, Allan L, Clarke P. Regulation of caspase 9 through phosphorylation by protein kinase C zeta in response to hyperosmotic stress. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10543-55 pubmed
    ..and interactions with caspase 9 indicate that the predominant kinase that targets Ser144 is the atypical protein kinase C isoform zeta (PKCzeta)...
  61. García Hoz C, Sánchez Fernández G, García Escudero R, Fernandez Velasco M, Palacios García J, Ruiz Meana M, et al. Protein kinase C (PKC)ζ-mediated Gαq stimulation of ERK5 protein pathway in cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:7792-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results show that PKCζ is essential for Gq-dependent ERK5 activation in cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts and indicate a key cardiac physiological role for the Gα(q)/PKCζ/ERK5 signaling axis. ..
  62. Parkinson S, Le Good J, Whelan R, Whitehead P, Parker P. Identification of PKCzetaII: an endogenous inhibitor of cell polarity. EMBO J. 2004;23:77-88 pubmed
    A new member of the atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) family, designated PKCzetaII, is identified in this study. The gene contains no introns and is 98% homologous with the cDNA encoding PKCzeta...
  63. Llado V, Nakanishi Y, Duran A, Reina Campos M, Shelton P, Linares J, et al. Repression of Intestinal Stem Cell Function and Tumorigenesis through Direct Phosphorylation of β-Catenin and Yap by PKCζ. Cell Rep. 2015;: pubmed publisher
    ..This demonstrates that PKCζ is central to the control of stem cells in intestinal cancer and homeostasis. ..
  64. Matsuki T, Hori G, Furuichi T. Gene expression profiling during the embryonic development of mouse brain using an oligonucleotide-based microarray system. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;136:231-54 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we identified a novel gene that encodes a putative protein kinase, Ebr kinase, which is differentially expressed in the developing brain. ..
  65. Jayaraman D, Kodani A, Gonzalez D, Mancias J, Mochida G, Vagnoni C, et al. Microcephaly Proteins Wdr62 and Aspm Define a Mother Centriole Complex Regulating Centriole Biogenesis, Apical Complex, and Cell Fate. Neuron. 2016;92:813-828 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our results reveal links among centrioles, apical proteins, and cell fate, and illuminate how alterations in these interactions can dynamically regulate brain size. ..
  66. Dahan I, Petrov D, Cohen Kfir E, Ravid S. The tumor suppressor Lgl1 forms discrete complexes with NMII-A and Par6?-aPKC? that are affected by Lgl1 phosphorylation. J Cell Sci. 2014;127:295-304 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide new insights into the mechanism regulating the interaction between Lgl1, NMII-A, Par6? and aPKC? in polarized migrating cells. ..
  67. Passalacqua M, Patrone M, Sparatore B, Melloni E, Pontremoli S. Protein kinase C-theta is specifically localized on centrosomes and kinetochores in mitotic cells. Biochem J. 1999;337 ( Pt 1):113-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that, unlike other members of the PKC family, PKC-straight theta may play a role in cell proliferation. ..
  68. Lakshmipathi J, Alvarez Perez J, Rosselot C, Casinelli G, Stamateris R, Rausell Palamos F, et al. PKCζ Is Essential for Pancreatic β-Cell Replication During Insulin Resistance by Regulating mTOR and Cyclin-D2. Diabetes. 2016;65:1283-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that alterations in PKCζ expression or activity might contribute to inadequate β-cell mass expansion and β-cell failure leading to type 2 diabetes. ..
  69. Srinivasan K, Roosa J, Olsen O, Lee S, Bredt D, McConnell S. MALS-3 regulates polarity and early neurogenesis in the developing cerebral cortex. Development. 2008;135:1781-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that MALS-3 plays a role in maintaining apicobasal polarity and is required for normal neurogenesis in the developing cortex. ..
  70. Ozcelik M, Cotter L, Jacob C, Pereira J, Relvas J, Suter U, et al. Pals1 is a major regulator of the epithelial-like polarization and the extension of the myelin sheath in peripheral nerves. J Neurosci. 2010;30:4120-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that regulation of epithelial-like polarization is a critical determinant of myelin sheath structure and function. ..
  71. Kechad A, Jolicoeur C, Tufford A, Mattar P, Chow R, Harris W, et al. Numb is required for the production of terminal asymmetric cell divisions in the developing mouse retina. J Neurosci. 2012;32:17197-17210 pubmed publisher
  72. Lozovatsky L, Abayasekara N, Piawah S, Walther Z. CASK deletion in intestinal epithelia causes mislocalization of LIN7C and the DLG1/Scrib polarity complex without affecting cell polarity. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:4489-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CASK expression and the appropriate localization of DLG1 are not essential for either epithelial polarity or intestinal homeostasis in vivo. ..
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    ..Inhibiting the activity of PKC-? significantly attenuates Kupffer cell apoptosis, NF-?B, and ERK-1/2 activation. The interaction of PKC-? and ERK-1/2 warrants further investigation. ..
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    ..Together these findings show Pk1 plays an essential role in regulating cell polarity and directional cell migration during development. ..
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    We have reported that ceramide mediates binding of atypical protein kinase C (PKC) zeta to its inhibitor protein, PAR-4 (prostate apoptosis response-4), thereby inducing apoptosis in differentiating embryonic stem cells...
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    ..These findings point to BDNF regulation of aPKC as a potential therapeutic target for the permanent reversal of a chronic pain state. ..
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    b>Prkcz has been identified as a gene whose expression is positively correlated with ethanol (EtOH) consumption in mice and is also induced by EtOH...
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    The present study is designed to investigate the role of atypical protein kinase C (PKC) in the signaling of mu-opioid receptors (MOR) for glucose uptake in myoblast C(2)C(12) cells...
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    ..We postulate that invagination of the lens placode requires careful orchestration of these opposing processes which are mediated by the planar polarization of junctional proteins. ..
  81. Godeny M, Sayeski P. ANG II-induced cell proliferation is dually mediated by c-Src/Yes/Fyn-regulated ERK1/2 activation in the cytoplasm and PKCzeta-controlled ERK1/2 activity within the nucleus. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2006;291:C1297-307 pubmed
    ..In response to ANG II, the ability of ERK1/2 to remain within the cytoplasm or translocate into the nucleus is controlled by c-Src/Yes/Fyn or heterotrimeric G protein/PKCzeta signaling, respectively. ..
  82. Jaeschke A, Davis R. Metabolic stress signaling mediated by mixed-lineage kinases. Mol Cell. 2007;27:498-508 pubmed
    ..Loss of PKC, MLK3, MKK4, or MKK7 expression prevents FFA-stimulated JNK activation. Together, these data establish a signaling pathway that mediates effects of metabolic stress on insulin resistance. ..
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    ..We present a compensatory function of PKC? at E7.5, rescuing the phenotype. Furthermore, this study indicates at least one specific, yet unknown, PKC? function that cannot be compensated by the overexpression of PKC? at E9.5. ..
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    ..Taken together, our work reveals several direct effects that the transcription factor Pax6 has on the machinery that mediates the orientation and mode of cell division. ..