Gene Symbol: Prkce
Description: protein kinase C, epsilon
Alias: 5830406C15Rik, PKC[e], PKCepsilon, Pkce, R75156, protein kinase C epsilon type, nPKC-epsilon
Species: mouse
Products:     Prkce

Top Publications

  1. Carracedo S, Braun U, Leitges M. Expression pattern of protein kinase C ? during mouse embryogenesis. BMC Dev Biol. 2013;13:16 pubmed publisher
    ..However, functional redundancy with other PKCs during midgestation within these domains and others reported here possibly exists since PKC? deficient mice do not display obvious embryonic developmental defects. ..
  2. McGettrick A, Brint E, Palsson McDermott E, Rowe D, Golenbock D, Gay N, et al. Trif-related adapter molecule is phosphorylated by PKC{epsilon} during Toll-like receptor 4 signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9196-201 pubmed
    b>PKCepsilon has been shown to play a key role in the effect of the Gram-negative bacterial product LPS; however, the target for PKCepsilon in LPS signaling is unknown...
  3. Batarseh A, Giatzakis C, Papadopoulos V. Phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate acting through protein kinase Cepsilon induces translocator protein (18-kDa) TSPO gene expression. Biochemistry. 2008;47:12886-99 pubmed publisher
    ..blocked PMA induction of Tspo promoter activity with an inhibition profile suggestive of involvement of PKCepsilon. PKCepsilon expression correlated with TSPO content in the three cell lines...
  4. Gruber T, Thuille N, Hermann Kleiter N, Leitges M, Baier G. Protein kinase Cepsilon is dispensable for TCR/CD3-signaling. Mol Immunol. 2005;42:305-10 pubmed
    b>PKCepsilon has been strongly linked to cell activation and proliferation in many cell types, including leukemic T-cell lines...
  5. Aksoy E, Goldman M, Willems F. Protein kinase C epsilon: a new target to control inflammation and immune-mediated disorders. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;36:183-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, controlling the kinase activity of PKC epsilon might represent an efficient strategy to prevent or treat certain inflammatory disorders of microbial origin. ..
  6. Raddatz K, Turner N, Frangioudakis G, Liao B, Pedersen D, Cantley J, et al. Time-dependent effects of Prkce deletion on glucose homeostasis and hepatic lipid metabolism on dietary lipid oversupply in mice. Diabetologia. 2011;54:1447-56 pubmed publisher
    We examined the time-dependent effects of deletion of the gene encoding protein kinase C epsilon (Prkce) on glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion and hepatic lipid metabolism in fat-fed mice...
  7. Koyanagi T, Noguchi K, Ootani A, Inagaki K, Robbins R, Mochly Rosen D. Pharmacological inhibition of epsilon PKC suppresses chronic inflammation in murine cardiac transplantation model. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2007;43:517-22 pubmed
  8. Khasar S, Lin Y, Martin A, Dadgar J, McMahon T, Wang D, et al. A novel nociceptor signaling pathway revealed in protein kinase C epsilon mutant mice. Neuron. 1999;24:253-60 pubmed
    ..mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia and acetic acid-associated hyperalgesia are markedly attenuated in PKCepsilon mutant mice, but baseline nociceptive thresholds are normal...
  9. Klein G, Schaefer A, Hilfiker Kleiner D, Oppermann D, Shukla P, Quint A, et al. Increased collagen deposition and diastolic dysfunction but preserved myocardial hypertrophy after pressure overload in mice lacking PKCepsilon. Circ Res. 2005;96:748-55 pubmed
    Overexpression and activation of protein kinase C-epsilon (PKCepsilon) results in myocardial hypertrophy. However, these observations do not establish that PKCepsilon is required for the development of myocardial hypertrophy...

More Information


  1. Grossoni V, Todaro L, Kazanietz M, de Kier Joffé E, Urtreger A. Opposite effects of protein kinase C beta1 (PKCbeta1) and PKCepsilon in the metastatic potential of a breast cancer murine model. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;118:469-80 pubmed publisher
    In this paper we investigated whether protein kinase C (PKC) beta1 and PKCepsilon, members of the classical and novel PKC family, respectively, induce phenotypic alterations that could be associated with tumor progression and metastatic ..
  2. Castrillo A, Pennington D, Otto F, Parker P, Owen M, Bosca L. Protein kinase Cepsilon is required for macrophage activation and defense against bacterial infection. J Exp Med. 2001;194:1231-42 pubmed
    ..kinase C (PKC)epsilon in the immune system, we generated mice that carried a homozygous disruption of the PKCepsilon locus...
  3. Cazzolli R, Craig D, Biden T, Schmitz Peiffer C. Inhibition of glycogen synthesis by fatty acid in C(2)C(12) muscle cells is independent of PKC-alpha, -epsilon, and -theta. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2002;282:E1204-13 pubmed
    ..We conclude that neither mitochondrial lipid metabolism nor activation of PKC-alpha, -epsilon, or -theta plays a role in the direct inhibition of glycogen synthesis by unsaturated fatty acids. ..
  4. Nasser M, Marjoram R, Brown S, Richardson R. Cross-desensitization among CXCR1, CXCR2, and CCR5: role of protein kinase C-epsilon. J Immunol. 2005;174:6927-33 pubmed
    ..induced time-dependent association of PKCalpha, -beta1, and -beta2 to the membrane, but only CXCR1 activated PKCepsilon. CXCL8 also failed to activate PKCepsilon in RBL-2H3 cells stably expressing CXCR2...
  5. Zhang J, Baines C, Zong C, Cardwell E, Wang G, Vondriska T, et al. Functional proteomic analysis of a three-tier PKCepsilon-Akt-eNOS signaling module in cardiac protection. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;288:H954-61 pubmed
    Cardiac protective signaling networks have been shown to involve PKCepsilon. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PKCepsilon interacts with other members of these networks to form task-specific modules remain unknown...
  6. Xu T, Rumsby M. Phorbol ester-induced translocation of PKC epsilon to the nucleus in fibroblasts: identification of nuclear PKC epsilon-associating proteins. FEBS Lett. 2004;570:20-4 pubmed
    ..We have confirmed that these proteins associate with PKC by gel overlay and/or dot blotting assays. The role of these PKC-associating proteins in the nucleus and their interaction with PKC are considered. ..
  7. Qi Z, Song M, Wallace M, Wang D, Newton P, McMahon T, et al. Protein kinase C epsilon regulates gamma-aminobutyrate type A receptor sensitivity to ethanol and benzodiazepines through phosphorylation of gamma2 subunits. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:33052-63 pubmed
    ..We postulated that the epsilon isoform of protein kinase C (PKCepsilon) regulates the ethanol sensitivity of GABA(A) receptors, as mice lacking PKCepsilon show an increased behavioral ..
  8. Frangioudakis G, Burchfield J, Narasimhan S, Cooney G, Leitges M, Biden T, et al. Diverse roles for protein kinase C delta and protein kinase C epsilon in the generation of high-fat-diet-induced glucose intolerance in mice: regulation of lipogenesis by protein kinase C delta. Diabetologia. 2009;52:2616-20 pubmed publisher
    ..plays a role in the glucose intolerance caused by a high-fat diet, and whether it could compensate for loss of PKCepsilon in the generation of insulin resistance in skeletal muscle...
  9. Bynagari Settipalli Y, Lakhani P, Jin J, Bhavaraju K, Rico M, Kim S, et al. Protein kinase C isoform ? negatively regulates ADP-induced calcium mobilization and thromboxane generation in platelets. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:1211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PKC? negatively regulates ADP-induced thromboxane generation in platelets and offers protection against thrombosis. ..
  10. Brandman R, Disatnik M, Churchill E, Mochly Rosen D. Peptides derived from the C2 domain of protein kinase C epsilon (epsilon PKC) modulate epsilon PKC activity and identify potential protein-protein interaction surfaces. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:4113-23 pubmed
  11. Unsworth A, Smith H, Gissen P, Watson S, Pears C. Submaximal inhibition of protein kinase C restores ADP-induced dense granule secretion in platelets in the presence of Ca2+. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:21073-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also demonstrate isoform-specific inhibitory effects of PKC in platelets. ..
  12. Lesscher H, McMahon T, Lasek A, Chou W, Connolly J, Kharazia V, et al. Amygdala protein kinase C epsilon regulates corticotropin-releasing factor and anxiety-like behavior. Genes Brain Behav. 2008;7:323-33 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) null mutant mice, which show reduced anxiety-like behavior, have reduced levels of CRF messenger RNA and ..
  13. Leask A, Shi wen X, Khan K, Chen Y, Holmes A, Eastwood M, et al. Loss of protein kinase Cepsilon results in impaired cutaneous wound closure and myofibroblast function. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3459-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we show that, compared with wild-type littermates, PKCepsilon-/- mice display delayed impaired cutaneous wound closure and a reduction in myofibroblasts...
  14. Diaz Guerra M, Bodelón O, Velasco M, Whelan R, Parker P, Bosca L. Up-regulation of protein kinase C-epsilon promotes the expression of cytokine-inducible nitric oxide synthase in RAW 264.7 cells. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:32028-33 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PKC-epsilon can regulate a pathway that promotes iNOS expression in macrophages in response to phorbol ester activation. ..
  15. Lessmann E, Leitges M, Huber M. A redundant role for PKC-epsilon in mast cell signaling and effector function. Int Immunol. 2006;18:767-73 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that PKC-epsilon plays a redundant role in MCs stimulated by antigen as well as other well-known MC stimuli. ..
  16. Ivaska J, Vuoriluoto K, Huovinen T, Izawa I, Inagaki M, Parker P. PKCepsilon-mediated phosphorylation of vimentin controls integrin recycling and motility. EMBO J. 2005;24:3834-45 pubmed
    b>PKCepsilon controls the transport of endocytosed beta1-integrins to the plasma membrane regulating directional cell motility...
  17. Schmitz Peiffer C, Laybutt D, Burchfield J, Gurisik E, Narasimhan S, Mitchell C, et al. Inhibition of PKCepsilon improves glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and reduces insulin clearance. Cell Metab. 2007;6:320-8 pubmed
    ..Here we report a role for the lipid-regulated protein kinase C isoform PKCepsilon in beta cell dysfunction...
  18. Pears C, Thornber K, Auger J, Hughes C, Grygielska B, Protty M, et al. Differential roles of the PKC novel isoforms, PKCdelta and PKCepsilon, in mouse and human platelets. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3793 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we focus on the role of two novel PKC isoforms, PKCdelta and PKCepsilon, in both mouse and human platelets...
  19. Saurin A, Durgan J, Cameron A, Faisal A, Marber M, Parker P. The regulated assembly of a PKCepsilon complex controls the completion of cytokinesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:891-901 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, we have identified three phosphorylation sites within PKCepsilon that control its association with 14-3-3...
  20. Frevert E, Kahn B. Protein kinase C isoforms epsilon, eta, delta and zeta in murine adipocytes: expression, subcellular localization and tissue-specific regulation in insulin-resistant states. Biochem J. 1996;316 ( Pt 3):865-71 pubmed
  21. Tachado S, Mayhew M, Wescott G, Foreman T, Goodwin C, McJilton M, et al. Regulation of tumor invasion and metastasis in protein kinase C epsilon-transformed NIH3T3 fibroblasts. J Cell Biochem. 2002;85:785-97 pubmed
    ..Cells constitutively expressing PKCepsilon spontaneously acquire a polarized morphology and extend long cellular membrane protrusions...
  22. Jansen A, Verwiebe E, Dreckschmidt N, Wheeler D, Oberley T, Verma A. Protein kinase C-epsilon transgenic mice: a unique model for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2001;61:808-12 pubmed
    ..FVB/N transgenic mice, which overexpress (approximately 18-fold) epitope-tagged protein kinase C-epsilon (T7-PKCepsilon) protein in the epidermis provide a unique murine model system for highly malignant/metastatic SCC...
  23. Lee A, Wu D, Dadgar J, Wang D, McMahon T, Messing R. PKCε phosphorylates α4β2 nicotinic ACh receptors and promotes recovery from desensitization. Br J Pharmacol. 2015;172:4430-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypothermia induced by sazetidine-A and nicotine was measured in Prkce(-/-) and wild-type mice...
  24. Besana A, Barbuti A, Tateyama M, Symes A, Robinson R, Feinmark S. Activation of protein kinase C epsilon inhibits the two-pore domain K+ channel, TASK-1, inducing repolarization abnormalities in cardiac ventricular myocytes. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:33154-60 pubmed
    ..PKC inhibitor or activator peptides in patch clamp experiments, we now demonstrate that activation of PKCepsilon is both necessary and sufficient to regulate murine TASK-1 current in a heterologous expression system and to ..
  25. Sand J, Aziz M, Dreckschmidt N, Havighurst T, Kim K, Oberley T, et al. PKCepsilon overexpression, irrespective of genetic background, sensitizes skin to UVR-induced development of squamous-cell carcinomas. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:270-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that protein Kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) transgenic mice on FVB/N background, which overexpress PKCepsilon protein approximately eightfold over ..
  26. Duong M, Yu X, Teng B, Schroder P, Haller H, Eschenburg S, et al. Protein kinase C ? stabilizes ?-catenin and regulates its subcellular localization in podocytes. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:12100-12110 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we identified a novel pathway for regulation of ?-catenin levels and define PKC? as an important ?-catenin interaction partner and signaling opponent of other PKC isoforms in podocytes. ..
  27. Schreiber K, Paquet L, Allen B, Rindt H. Protein kinase C isoform expression and activity in the mouse heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;281:H2062-71 pubmed
    ..of two Ca2+-dependent isoforms, PKCalpha and PKCbetaII, as well as two Ca2+-independent isoforms, PKCdelta and PKCepsilon, decreased during postnatal development to <15% of the levels detected at embryonic day 18...
  28. Baines C, Zhang J, Wang G, Zheng Y, Xiu J, Cardwell E, et al. Mitochondrial PKCepsilon and MAPK form signaling modules in the murine heart: enhanced mitochondrial PKCepsilon-MAPK interactions and differential MAPK activation in PKCepsilon-induced cardioprotection. Circ Res. 2002;90:390-7 pubmed
    ..MAPKs) are known to play crucial roles in the manifestation of cardioprotection, the spatial organization of PKCepsilon signaling modules in naïve and protected myocardium remains unknown...
  29. Lam J, Wang L, Lin L, Chan S. Role of protein kinase C in selective inhibition of mouse retinal neurites during contacts with chondroitin sulfates. Neurosci Lett. 2008;434:150-4 pubmed publisher
  30. Kostyak J, Liverani E, Kunapuli S. PKC-epsilon deficiency alters progenitor cell populations in favor of megakaryopoiesis. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0182867 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that PKC? is a negative regulator of megakaryopoiesis. ..
  31. Gessi S, Borea P, Bencivenni S, Fazzi D, Varani K, Merighi S. The activation of ?-opioid receptor potentiates LPS-induced NF-kB promoting an inflammatory phenotype in microglia. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:2813-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the morphine-PKC?-NF-?B pathway may provide novel targets to induce neuroprotective mechanisms, thereby reducing tolerance to opioids. ..
  32. Reddig P, Dreckschmidt N, Zou J, Bourguignon S, Oberley T, Verma A. Transgenic mice overexpressing protein kinase C epsilon in their epidermis exhibit reduced papilloma burden but enhanced carcinoma formation after tumor promotion. Cancer Res. 2000;60:595-602 pubmed
    To determine the role that protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) may play in skin growth, differentiation, and tumor promotion, transgenic mice were generated that overexpressed an epitope-tagged protein kinase C epsilon (T7-PKCepsilon) ..
  33. Malhotra A, Begley R, Kang B, Rana I, Liu J, Yang G, et al. PKC-{epsilon}-dependent survival signals in diabetic hearts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H1343-50 pubmed
  34. Oestreich E, Malik S, Goonasekera S, Blaxall B, Kelley G, Dirksen R, et al. Epac and phospholipase Cepsilon regulate Ca2+ release in the heart by activation of protein kinase Cepsilon and calcium-calmodulin kinase II. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:1514-22 pubmed publisher
    ..betaAR and Epac activation caused membrane translocation of PKCepsilon in PLCepsilon+/+ but not PLCepsilon-/- myocytes and small interfering RNA-mediated PKCepsilon knockdown ..
  35. Besson A, Wilson T, Yong V. The anchoring protein RACK1 links protein kinase Cepsilon to integrin beta chains. Requirements for adhesion and motility. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:22073-84 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that PKCepsilon positively regulates integrin-dependent adhesion, spreading, and motility of human glioma cells...
  36. Gupta P, Ho P, Huq M, Khan A, Tsai N, Wei L. PKCepsilon stimulated arginine methylation of RIP140 for its nuclear-cytoplasmic export in adipocyte differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2658 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we determined the activated PKCepsilon as the specific trigger for RIP140 arginine methylation and its subsequent export...
  37. Sun X, Budas G, Xu L, Barreto G, Mochly Rosen D, Giffard R. Selective activation of protein kinase C? in mitochondria is neuroprotective in vitro and reduces focal ischemic brain injury in mice. J Neurosci Res. 2013;91:799-807 pubmed publisher
  38. Chattopadhyay R, Dyukova E, Singh N, Ohba M, Mobley J, Rao G. Vascular endothelial tight junctions and barrier function are disrupted by 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid partly via protein kinase C ?-mediated zona occludens-1 phosphorylation at threonine 770/772. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:3148-63 pubmed publisher
  39. Stawowy P, Margeta C, Blaschke F, Lindschau C, Spencer Hänsch C, Leitges M, et al. Protein kinase C epsilon mediates angiotensin II-induced activation of beta1-integrins in cardiac fibroblasts. Cardiovasc Res. 2005;67:50-9 pubmed
    ..AII significantly induced phosphorylation of PKC epsilon (PKCepsilon), which is involved in beta1-integrin-dependent adhesion and motility, and phosphorylation of the cytoplasmatic ..
  40. Dehghani H, Reith C, Hahnel A. Subcellular localization of protein kinase C delta and epsilon affects transcriptional and post-transcriptional processes in four-cell mouse embryos. Reproduction. 2005;130:453-65 pubmed
  41. Barnett M, Lin D, Akoyev V, Willard L, Takemoto D. Protein kinase C epsilon activates lens mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV during hypoxia. Exp Eye Res. 2008;86:226-34 pubmed
    ..In retina and lens two isoforms of PKC respond to changes in oxidative stress, PKCgamma and PKCepsilon, while only PKCepsilon is found in heart. In heart the PKCepsilon acts on connexin 43 to protect from hypoxia...
  42. Ehre C, Zhu Y, Abdullah L, Olsen J, Nakayama K, Nakayama K, et al. nPKCepsilon, a P2Y2-R downstream effector in regulated mucin secretion from airway goblet cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C1445-54 pubmed
    ..The translocation of nPKCdelta observed in activated cells is likely not related to mucin secretion but to some other aspect of goblet cell biology...
  43. Fenton R, Shea L, Doddi C, Dobson J. Myocardial adenosine A(1)-receptor-mediated adenoprotection involves phospholipase C, PKC-epsilon, and p38 MAPK, but not HSP27. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;298:H1671-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Attenuation of beta-adrenergic-induced contractile function by A(1)R may involve the activation of p38 MAPK, but not HSP27. ..
  44. Xu T, He G, Dobson K, England K, Rumsby M. Phosphorylation at Ser729 specifies a Golgi localisation for protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) in 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell Signal. 2007;19:1986-95 pubmed
    We demonstrate that GFP-PKCepsilon concentrates at a perinuclear site in living fibroblasts and that cell passage induces rapid translocation of PKCepsilon to the periphery where it appears to colocalise with F-actin...
  45. Yue Y, Qu Y, Boutjdir M. Protective role of protein kinase C epsilon activation in ischemia-reperfusion arrhythmia. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;349:432-8 pubmed
    ..These findings have important implications for the development of PKC isozyme targeted therapeutics and subsequently for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases. ..
  46. Oehrlein S, Parker P, Herget T. Phosphorylation of GAP-43 (growth-associated protein of 43 kDa) by conventional, novel and atypical isotypes of the protein kinase C gene family: differences between oligopeptide and polypeptide phosphorylation. Biochem J. 1996;317 ( Pt 1):219-24 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that there are multiple sites of interaction between GAP-43 and PKC. ..
  47. Choi D, Wang D, Dadgar J, Chang W, Messing R. Conditional rescue of protein kinase C epsilon regulates ethanol preference and hypnotic sensitivity in adult mice. J Neurosci. 2002;22:9905-11 pubmed
    ..Mice lacking protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) consume less alcohol and show greater acute sensitivity to alcohol than do wild-type mice...
  48. Nayeem M. Sublethal simulated ischemia promotes delayed resistance against ischemia via ATP-sensitive (K+) channels in murine myocytes: role of PKC and iNOS. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2004;6:375-83 pubmed
    ..88 +/- 1.31), and 5-HD (47.20 +/- 1.56). Simultaneously, SSI-induced up-regulation of A(1) adenosine receptor, PKC-epsilon, iNOS, and opening of both membrane and mitochondrial K(ATP) channels also was observed compared with controls. ..
  49. Proctor W, Poelchen W, Bowers B, Wehner J, Messing R, Dunwiddie T. Ethanol differentially enhances hippocampal GABA A receptor-mediated responses in protein kinase C gamma (PKC gamma) and PKC epsilon null mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;305:264-70 pubmed
    ..receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in mice lacking either PKCgamma (PKCgamma(-/-)) or PKCepsilon (PKCepsilon(-/-)) isozymes and compared the results to those from corresponding wild-type littermates (PKCgamma(+..
  50. Raddatz K, Frangioudakis G, Diakanastasis B, Liao B, Leitges M, Schmitz Peiffer C. Deletion of protein kinase C? in mice has limited effects on liver metabolite levels but alters fasting ketogenesis and gluconeogenesis. Diabetologia. 2012;55:2789-2793 pubmed publisher
    ..gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of liver extracts from chow and fat-fed wild-type (WT) and PKC?-deficient (Prkce(-/-)) mice. Fed and fasting glucose, ketone and fatty acid levels were measured in blood...
  51. Palatinus J, Rhett J, Gourdie R. Enhanced PKC? mediated phosphorylation of connexin43 at serine 368 by a carboxyl-terminal mimetic peptide is dependent on injury. Channels (Austin). 2011;5:236-40 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that peptide-enhanced phosphorylation of the Cx43 carboxyl-terminus is dependent on injury-mediated cellular responses. ..
  52. Zhou X, Quann E, Gallicano G. Differentiation of nonbeating embryonic stem cells into beating cardiomyocytes is dependent on downregulation of PKC beta and zeta in concert with upregulation of PKC epsilon. Dev Biol. 2003;255:407-22 pubmed
    ..e., ionic exchange glass beads) with recently developed methods for differentiating ES cells creates a possible novel technique for investigating differentiation of ES cells into cardiomyocytes as well as other cell types. ..
  53. Blackshear P, Lai W, Tuttle J, Stumpo D, Kennington E, Nairn A, et al. Developmental expression of MARCKS and protein kinase C in mice in relation to the exencephaly resulting from MARCKS deficiency. Brain Res Dev Brain Res. 1996;96:62-75 pubmed
  54. Wood T, Chow R, Hanes C, Zhang X, Kashiwagi K, Shirai Y, et al. PKC-? pseudosubstrate and catalytic activity are necessary for membrane delivery during IgG-mediated phagocytosis. J Leukoc Biol. 2013;94:109-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we have shown that ?PS and ?C1B are necessary and sufficient for targeting PKC-? to phagosomes, where its catalytic activity is required for membrane delivery and pseudopod extension. ..
  55. Lee A, Messing R. Protein kinase C epsilon modulates nicotine consumption and dopamine reward signals in the nucleus accumbens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:16080-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we find that Prkce(-/-) mice self-administer less nicotine and show decreased conditioned place preference for nicotine compared with ..
  56. Dubois Deruy E, Belliard A, Mulder P, Bouvet M, Smet Nocca C, Janel S, et al. Interplay between troponin T phosphorylation and O-N-acetylglucosaminylation in ischaemic heart failure. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;107:56-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Modulation of these post-translational modifications of TnT may be a new therapeutic strategy in HF. ..
  57. Mylroie H, Dumont O, Bauer A, Thornton C, Mackey J, Calay D, et al. PKCε-CREB-Nrf2 signalling induces HO-1 in the vascular endothelium and enhances resistance to inflammation and apoptosis. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;106:509-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the potent protective actions of HO-1, we propose that this mechanism is an important contributor to the emerging role of PKCε in the maintenance of endothelial homeostasis and resistance to injury. ..
  58. Huang J, Guo J, Beigi F, Hodgkinson C, Facundo H, Zhang Z, et al. HASF is a stem cell paracrine factor that activates PKC epsilon mediated cytoprotection. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2014;66:157-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the beneficial effects of HASF were lost in mice lacking PKCε. Collectively these results identify HASF as a protein of significant therapeutic potential, acting in part through PKCε. ..
  59. Wang W, Jobbagy Z, Bird T, Eiden M, Anderson W. Cell signaling through the protein kinases cAMP-dependent protein kinase, protein kinase Cepsilon, and RAF-1 regulates amphotropic murine leukemia virus envelope protein-induced syncytium formation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:16772-83 pubmed
    ..It was noted that activation of PKC, as well as overexpression of PKCepsilon, up-regulated A-MuLV envelope protein-induced cell-cell fusion, whereas exposure to PKC inhibitors and ..
  60. Cogram P, Hynes A, Dunlevy L, Greene N, Copp A. Specific isoforms of protein kinase C are essential for prevention of folate-resistant neural tube defects by inositol. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:7-14 pubmed
    ..Hindgut cell proliferation was stimulated specifically by inositol, an effect that required activation of PKCbetaI. Our findings reveal an essential role of specific PKC isoforms in mediating the prevention of mouse NTDs by inositol. ..
  61. Cantley J, Burchfield J, Pearson G, Schmitz Peiffer C, Leitges M, Biden T. Deletion of PKCepsilon selectively enhances the amplifying pathways of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion via increased lipolysis in mouse beta-cells. Diabetes. 2009;58:1826-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Functional ablation of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCepsilon) has been shown to improve glucose homeostasis in models of type 2 diabetes and, in particular, to enhance ..
  62. Alfa Cissé M, Louis K, Braun U, Mari B, Leitges M, Slack B, et al. Isoform-specific contribution of protein kinase C to prion processing. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008;39:400-10 pubmed publisher
    ..HEK293 and human-derived rhabdhomyosarcoma cells over-expressing constitutively active PKCalpha, PKCdelta or PKCepsilon, but not PKCzeta, produce increased amounts of N1 and harbor enhanced ability to hydrolyze the fluorimetric ..
  63. Nowak G, Takacsova Bakajsova D, Megyesi J. Deletion of protein kinase C-? attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and ameliorates ischemic renal injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;312:F109-F120 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PKC-? activation mediates 1) dysfunction of complexes I and III of the respiratory chain, 2) oxidant production, 3) morphological damage to the kidney, and 4) decreases in renal functions after ischemia. ..
  64. Wang G, Guo Y, Vondriska T, Zhang J, Zhang S, Tsai L, et al. Acrolein consumption exacerbates myocardial ischemic injury and blocks nitric oxide-induced PKCepsilon signaling and cardioprotection. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008;44:1016-22 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine potential intracellular targets of aldehydes, we investigated the impact of acrolein on mitochondrial PKCepsilon signaling in the heart...
  65. Kao Y, Fong J. Endothelin-1 induction of Glut1 transcription in 3T3-L1 adipocytes involves distinct PKCepsilon- and p42/p44 MAPK-dependent pathways. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1780:154-9 pubmed
    ..pLuc-GT1/E1/E2) and various constitutively active and dominant negative mutants of PKC isoforms, we identified PKCepsilon as the PKC isoform involved...
  66. Kaiser J, Guo L, Beier J, Zhang J, Bhatnagar A, Arteel G. PKC? contributes to chronic ethanol-induced steatosis in mice but not inflammation and necrosis. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014;38:801-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study identifies a novel potential mechanism where EtOH, independent of steatosis, can contribute to liver damage. These results also suggest that PAI-1 and fibrin accumulation may be at the center of this PKC?-independent pathway. ..
  67. Hanes C, D Amico A, Ueyama T, Wong A, Zhang X, Hynes W, et al. Golgi-Associated Protein Kinase C-? Is Delivered to Phagocytic Cups: Role of Phosphatidylinositol 4-Phosphate. J Immunol. 2017;199:271-277 pubmed publisher
  68. Mendez C, Leibiger I, Leibiger B, Høy M, Gromada J, Berggren P, et al. Rapid association of protein kinase C-epsilon with insulin granules is essential for insulin exocytosis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:44753-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that association of PKC-epsilon with insulin granule membranes represents an important component of the secretory network because it is essential for insulin exocytosis in response to glucose. ..
  69. Feng S, Li D, Li Y, Yang X, Han S, Li J. Insight into hypoxic preconditioning and ischemic injury through determination of nPKC?-interacting proteins in mouse brain. Neurochem Int. 2013;63:69-79 pubmed publisher
  70. Liu H, Qiu Y, Xiao L, Dong F. Involvement of protein kinase Cepsilon in the negative regulation of Akt activation stimulated by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. J Immunol. 2006;176:2407-13 pubmed
    ..Ro31-8820, a PKCepsilon inhibitor, also abrogated PMA-mediated inhibition of Akt activation, whereas rottlerin and Go6976, inhibitors of ..
  71. McCarthy J, McLeod C, Minners J, Essop M, Ping P, Sack M. PKCepsilon activation augments cardiac mitochondrial respiratory post-anoxic reserve--a putative mechanism in PKCepsilon cardioprotection. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005;38:697-700 pubmed
    Modest cardiac-overexpression of constitutively active PKCepsilon (aPKCepsilon) in transgenic mice evokes cardioprotection against ischemia...
  72. Liao B, Raddatz K, Zhong L, Parker B, Raftery M, Schmitz Peiffer C. Proteomic analysis of livers from fat-fed mice deficient in either PKCδ or PKCε identifies Htatip2 as a regulator of lipid metabolism. Proteomics. 2014;14:2578-87 pubmed publisher
    ..All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000971 ( ..
  73. Caino M, Lopez Haber C, Kissil J, Kazanietz M. Non-small cell lung carcinoma cell motility, rac activation and metastatic dissemination are mediated by protein kinase C epsilon. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31714 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results implicate PKC? as a key mediator of Rac signaling and motility of lung cancer cells, highlighting its potential as a therapeutic target. ..
  74. Durgan J, Parker P. Regulation of the tumour suppressor Fbw7? by PKC-dependent phosphorylation and cancer-associated mutations. Biochem J. 2010;432:77-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results provide evidence for both physical and functional interactions between the PKC and Fbw7 families, and yield insights into the isoform-specific regulation of Fbw7?. ..
  75. Coutinho I, Pereira G, Simões M, Corte Real M, Goncalves J, Saraiva L. Selective activation of protein kinase C-delta and -epsilon by 6,11,12,14-tetrahydroxy-abieta-5,8,11,13-tetraene-7-one (coleon U). Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;78:449-59 pubmed publisher
  76. Kaiser J, Beier J, Zhang J, David Hoetker J, von Montfort C, Guo L, et al. PKCepsilon plays a causal role in acute ethanol-induced steatosis. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2009;482:104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PKCepsilon has been shown to contribute to hepatic steatosis in experimental non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); ..
  77. El Khoury N, Mathieu S, Fiset C. Interleukin-1? reduces L-type Ca2+ current through protein kinase C? activation in mouse heart. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:21896-908 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects implicated ROS signaling and PKC? activation. These findings could contribute to explain the role of IL-1? in the development of arrhythmia and heart failure. ..
  78. Zappelli F, Willems D, Osada S, Ohno S, Wetsel W, Molinaro M, et al. The inhibition of differentiation caused by TGFbeta in fetal myoblasts is dependent upon selective expression of PKCtheta: a possible molecular basis for myoblast diversification during limb histogenesis. Dev Biol. 1996;180:156-64 pubmed
    ..They also suggest a specific role for protein kinase C theta in determining the fate of different myoblasts during muscle histogenesis. ..
  79. Balasubramanian G, Amann J, Reddy C. Expression and activity of protein kinase C isoenzymes during normal and abnormal murine palate development. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 2000;20:26-34 pubmed
  80. Wada H, Ohno S, Kubo K, Taya C, Tsuji S, Yonehara S, et al. Cell type-specific expression of the genes for the protein kinase C family: down regulation of mRNAs for PKC alpha and nPKC epsilon upon in vitro differentiation of a mouse neuroblastoma cell line neuro 2a. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989;165:533-8 pubmed
    ..Human lymphoid cell lines express large amounts of PKC beta mRNAs in addition to PKC alpha. Further, nPKC epsilon mRNA is expressed in some of these cell lines...
  81. Chen S, Anderson P, Li L, Sjogren H, Wang P, Li S. Functional association of cytokine-induced SH2 protein and protein kinase C in activated T cells. Int Immunol. 2003;15:403-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that CIS regulates PKC activation, and that this may be important for the activation of both the AP-1 and NF-kappaB pathways in TCR signaling. ..