Gene Symbol: Prkcb
Description: protein kinase C, beta
Alias: PKC-B, PKC-Beta, Pkcb, Prkcb1, Prkcb2, protein kinase C beta type, protein kinase C beta-II, protein kinase C, beta 1
Species: mouse
Products:     Prkcb

Top Publications

  1. Mason Garcia M, Harlan R, Mallia C, Jeter J, Steinberg H, Fermin C, et al. Interleukin-3 or erythropoietin induced nuclear localization of protein kinase C beta isoforms in hematopoietic target cells. Cell Prolif. 1995;28:145-55 pubmed
  2. Roman B, Geenen D, Leitges M, Buttrick P. PKC-beta is not necessary for cardiac hypertrophy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;280:H2264-70 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that PKC-beta expression is not necessary for the development of cardiac hypertrophy nor does its absence attenuate the hypertrophic response...
  3. Yao L, Leitges M, Vallon V. Mice lacking protein kinase C beta present modest increases in systolic blood pressure and NH4Cl-induced metabolic acidosis. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2006;29:36-42 pubmed
  4. Zhou Y, Wang D, Li F, Shi J, Song J. Different roles of protein kinase C-betaI and -delta in the regulation of adipocyte differentiation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;38:2151-63 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that PKC-betaI is important in the induction of adipogenesis, while the PKC-delta has an inhibitory role for adipogenesis. ..
  5. Meier M, Park J, Overheu D, Kirsch T, Lindschau C, Gueler F, et al. Deletion of protein kinase C-beta isoform in vivo reduces renal hypertrophy but not albuminuria in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model. Diabetes. 2007;56:346-54 pubmed
  6. Holler C, Pinon J, Denk U, Heyder C, Hofbauer S, Greil R, et al. PKCbeta is essential for the development of chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the TCL1 transgenic mouse model: validation of PKCbeta as a therapeutic target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 2009;113:2791-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, targeting of PKCbeta with the specific inhibitor enzastaurin led to killing of human CLL samples in vitro. We thus propose that PKCbeta may be a relevant target for the treatment of CLL. ..
  7. Su T, Guo B, Kawakami Y, Sommer K, Chae K, Humphries L, et al. PKC-beta controls I kappa B kinase lipid raft recruitment and activation in response to BCR signaling. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:780-6 pubmed
    ..Together, these data define an essential role for PKC-beta in BCR survival signaling and highlight PKC-beta as a key therapeutic target for B-lineage malignancies. ..
  8. Hennige A, Heni M, Machann J, Staiger H, Sartorius T, Hoene M, et al. Enforced expression of protein kinase C in skeletal muscle causes physical inactivity, fatty liver and insulin resistance in the brain. J Cell Mol Med. 2010;14:903-13 pubmed publisher
  9. Ohshiro Y, Ma R, Yasuda Y, Hiraoka Yamamoto J, Clermont A, Isshiki K, et al. Reduction of diabetes-induced oxidative stress, fibrotic cytokine expression, and renal dysfunction in protein kinase Cbeta-null mice. Diabetes. 2006;55:3112-20 pubmed
    ..Lack of PKC-beta can protect against diabetes-induced renal dysfunction, fibrosis, and increased expressions of Nox2 and -4, ET-1, VEGF, TGF-beta, CTGF, and oxidant production. ..

More Information


  1. Fioravante D, Chu Y, Myoga M, Leitges M, Regehr W. Calcium-dependent isoforms of protein kinase C mediate posttetanic potentiation at the calyx of Held. Neuron. 2011;70:1005-19 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments establish that PKC? and PKC? are crucial for PTP and suggest that long-lasting presynaptic calcium increases produced by tetanic stimulation may activate these isoforms to produce PTP. ..
  2. Fields A, Calcagno S, Krishna M, Rak S, Leitges M, Murray N. Protein kinase Cbeta is an effective target for chemoprevention of colon cancer. Cancer Res. 2009;69:1643-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PKCbetaII is an important target for colon cancer chemoprevention and the PKCbeta-selective inhibitor enzastaurin may represent an effective chemopreventive agent in patients at high risk for colon cancer. ..
  3. Naruse K, Rask Madsen C, Takahara N, Ha S, Suzuma K, Way K, et al. Activation of vascular protein kinase C-beta inhibits Akt-dependent endothelial nitric oxide synthase function in obesity-associated insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2006;55:691-8 pubmed
  4. Saijo K, Mecklenbrauker I, Santana A, Leitger M, Schmedt C, Tarakhovsky A. Protein kinase C beta controls nuclear factor kappaB activation in B cells through selective regulation of the IkappaB kinase alpha. J Exp Med. 2002;195:1647-52 pubmed
  5. Chan V, Mecklenbrauker I, Su I, Texido G, Leitges M, Carsetti R, et al. The molecular mechanism of B cell activation by toll-like receptor protein RP-105. J Exp Med. 1998;188:93-101 pubmed
    ..We also find that negative regulation of RP-105-mediated activation of MAP kinases by membrane immunoglobulin may account for the phenomenon of antigen receptor-mediated arrest of RP-105-mediated B cell proliferation. ..
  6. Suzuma K, Takahara N, Suzuma I, Isshiki K, Ueki K, Leitges M, et al. Characterization of protein kinase C beta isoform's action on retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation, vascular endothelial growth factor-induced endothelial cell proliferation, and retinal neovascularization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:721-6 pubmed
    ..dramatic increase in the angiogenic response to oxygen-induced retinal ischemia in transgenic mice overexpressing PKC beta 2 isoform and a significant decrease in retinal neovascularization in PKC beta isoform null mice...
  7. Nechushtan H, Leitges M, Cohen C, Kay G, Razin E. Inhibition of degranulation and interleukin-6 production in mast cells derived from mice deficient in protein kinase Cbeta. Blood. 2000;95:1752-7 pubmed
    ..However, no significant changes were observed in the proliferative response of the mast cells to interleukin 3 (IL-3) or in their apoptotic rate after IL-3 depletion. (Blood. 2000;95:1752-1757) ..
  8. Huang W, Bansode R, Bal N, Mehta M, Mehta K. Protein kinase C? deficiency attenuates obesity syndrome of ob/ob mice by promoting white adipose tissue remodeling. J Lipid Res. 2012;53:368-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that PKC? deficiency may prevent genetic obesity, in part, by remodeling the catabolic function of adipose tissues through ?-ARs dependent and independent mechanisms. ..
  9. Fioravante D, Myoga M, Leitges M, Regehr W. Adaptive regulation maintains posttetanic potentiation at cerebellar granule cell synapses in the absence of calcium-dependent PKC. J Neurosci. 2012;32:13004-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a feedback mechanism allows granule cells to maintain the normal properties of short-term synaptic plasticity even when the mechanism that mediates PTP in wild-type mice is eliminated. ..
  10. Thuille N, Gruber T, Böck G, Leitges M, Baier G. Protein kinase C beta is dispensable for TCR-signaling. Mol Immunol. 2004;41:385-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, PKCbeta-deficient T cells had similar physiological thresholds for activation in vitro. These findings suggest that PKCbeta plays a redundant role in TCR-induced regulation of IL-2 cytokine production and T cell proliferation. ..
  11. Leitges M, Schmedt C, Guinamard R, Davoust J, Schaal S, Stabel S, et al. Immunodeficiency in protein kinase cbeta-deficient mice. Science. 1996;273:788-91 pubmed
    ..Thus PKC-betaI and PKC-betaII play an important role in B cell activation and may be functionally linked to Bruton's tyrosine kinase in antigen receptor-mediated signal transduction. ..
  12. Kawakami Y, Nishimoto H, Kitaura J, Maeda Yamamoto M, Kato R, Littman D, et al. Protein kinase C betaII regulates Akt phosphorylation on Ser-473 in a cell type- and stimulus-specific fashion. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:47720-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, PKCbetaII appears to work as a cell type- and stimulus-specific PDK2. ..
  13. Huang W, Bansode R, Mehta M, Mehta K. Loss of protein kinase Cbeta function protects mice against diet-induced obesity and development of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Hepatology. 2009;49:1525-36 pubmed publisher
  14. Lee S, Kwak H, Chung W, Cheong H, Kim H, Lee Z. Participation of protein kinase C beta in osteoclast differentiation and function. Bone. 2003;32:217-27 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that PKC-beta has a role in regulation of osteoclast formation and function potentially by participating in the ERK signaling pathway of M-CSF and RANKL. ..
  15. Chu Y, Fioravante D, Leitges M, Regehr W. Calcium-dependent PKC isoforms have specialized roles in short-term synaptic plasticity. Neuron. 2014;82:859-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In hearing animals, virally expressed PKC? overrides PKC? to produce PTP by increasing p. Thus, two similar PKC isoforms mediate PTP in distinctly different ways...
  16. Schreiber K, Paquet L, Allen B, Rindt H. Protein kinase C isoform expression and activity in the mouse heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;281:H2062-71 pubmed
    ..Immunoprecipitation assays indicated that PKCdelta and PKCepsilon were responsible for the majority of the Ca2+-independent activity. These studies indicate a prominent role for Ca2+-independent PKC isoforms in the mouse heart...
  17. Abrahamsen H, O Neill A, Kannan N, Kruse N, Taylor S, Jennings P, et al. Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 controls down-regulation of conventional protein kinase C isozymes. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:13262-78 pubmed publisher
  18. Balasubramanian G, Amann J, Reddy C. Expression and activity of protein kinase C isoenzymes during normal and abnormal murine palate development. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 2000;20:26-34 pubmed
  19. Murray N, Davidson L, Chapkin R, Clay Gustafson W, Schattenberg D, Fields A. Overexpression of protein kinase C betaII induces colonic hyperproliferation and increased sensitivity to colon carcinogenesis. J Cell Biol. 1999;145:699-711 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate a direct role for PKC betaII in colonic epithelial cell proliferation and colon carcinogenesis, possibly through activation of the APC/beta-catenin signaling pathway. ..
  20. Shinohara H, Yasuda T, Aiba Y, Sanjo H, Hamadate M, Watarai H, et al. PKC beta regulates BCR-mediated IKK activation by facilitating the interaction between TAK1 and CARMA1. J Exp Med. 2005;202:1423-31 pubmed
    ..Hence, our data suggest that phosphorylation of CARMA1, mediated by PKCbeta, brings two key protein kinases, TAK1 and IKK, into close proximity, thereby allowing TAK1 to phosphorylate IKK. ..
  21. Bianchi A, Rinchik E, Conti C. Reassignment of the H-ras-1 gene to the Hbb-terminus region of mouse chromosome 7. Mamm Genome. 1993;4:220-2 pubmed
  22. Koyama N, Kashimata M, Sakashita H, Sakagami H, Gresik E. EGF-stimulated signaling by means of PI3K, PLCgamma1, and PKC isozymes regulates branching morphogenesis of the fetal mouse submandibular gland. Dev Dyn. 2003;227:216-26 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that signaling from the EGF receptor in the fetal mouse SMG varies with development and triggers stimulatory effects by means of ERK-1/2 and PI3K but inhibitory effects by means of PKC isozymes. ..
  23. Ueyama T, Lennartz M, Noda Y, Kobayashi T, Shirai Y, Rikitake K, et al. Superoxide production at phagosomal cup/phagosome through beta I protein kinase C during Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis in microglia. J Immunol. 2004;173:4582-9 pubmed
    ..This study also suggests that DGKbeta plays a prominent role in regulation of O(2)(-) production during FcgammaR-mediated phagocytosis. ..
  24. Sato S, Omori Y, Katoh K, Kondo M, Kanagawa M, Miyata K, et al. Pikachurin, a dystroglycan ligand, is essential for photoreceptor ribbon synapse formation. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:923-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This may also advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the retinal electrophysiological abnormalities observed in muscular dystrophy patients. ..
  25. Ikeda A, Matsushita S, Sakakibara Y. Inhibition of protein kinase C ? ameliorates impaired angiogenesis in type I diabetic mice complicating myocardial infarction. Circ J. 2012;76:943-9 pubmed
    ..05)]. Inhibition of PKC ? ameliorated impaired angiogenesis by hyperglycemia in STZ-induced DM mice complicated by myocardial infarction. These results suggest a new possible indication of PKC ? inhibitor for myocardial ischemia with DM. ..
  26. Brzezinski J, Uoon Park K, Reh T. Blimp1 (Prdm1) prevents re-specification of photoreceptors into retinal bipolar cells by restricting competence. Dev Biol. 2013;384:194-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Blimp1 likely forms a cross-repressive network with pro-bipolar factors such that the winner of this interaction stabilizes the photoreceptor or bipolar state, respectively. ..
  27. Hayashi T, Shibata H, Kurihara I, Yokota K, Mitsuishi Y, Ohashi K, et al. High Glucose Stimulates Mineralocorticoid Receptor Transcriptional Activity Through the Protein Kinase C ? Signaling. Int Heart J. 2017;58:794-802 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that high glucose stimulates PKC? signaling, which leads to MR stabilization and its transcriptional activities...
  28. Kong L, Andrassy M, Chang J, Huang C, Asai T, Szabolcs M, et al. PKCbeta modulates ischemia-reperfusion injury in the heart. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008;294:H1862-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These data implicate PKCbeta in I/R-mediated myocardial injury, at least in part via phosphorylation of JNK, and suggest that blockade of PKCbeta may represent a potent strategy to protect the vulnerable myocardium. ..
  29. Obukhanych T, Nussenzweig M. T-independent type II immune responses generate memory B cells. J Exp Med. 2006;203:305-10 pubmed
  30. Alpi E, Landi E, Barilari M, Serresi M, Salvadori P, Bachi A, et al. Channel-interacting PDZ protein, 'CIPP', interacts with proteins involved in cytoskeletal dynamics. Biochem J. 2009;419:289-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the puncta nature, using various endocytic markers, revealed that they are not related to cytoplasmic vesicles, but rather represent multi-protein assemblies, where CIPP can tether other potential interactors. ..
  31. Pinton P, Tsuboi T, Ainscow E, Pozzan T, Rizzuto R, Rutter G. Dynamics of glucose-induced membrane recruitment of protein kinase C beta II in living pancreatic islet beta-cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:37702-10 pubmed
    ..Localized changes in PKCbetaII activity may thus have a role in the spatial control of insulin exocytosis. ..
  32. Fehrenbach K, Lessmann E, Zorn C, Kuhny M, Grochowy G, Krystal G, et al. Steel factor enhances supraoptimal antigen-induced IL-6 production from mast cells via activation of protein kinase C-beta. J Immunol. 2009;182:7897-905 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PKC-beta joins PI3K and Btk as important players in this synergistic MC activation. ..
  33. Oehrlein S, Parker P, Herget T. Phosphorylation of GAP-43 (growth-associated protein of 43 kDa) by conventional, novel and atypical isotypes of the protein kinase C gene family: differences between oligopeptide and polypeptide phosphorylation. Biochem J. 1996;317 ( Pt 1):219-24 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the phosphorylation by and the site specificity of different PKC isotypes. The conventional PKC beta 1 and the novel PKCs delta and epsilon effectively phosphorylated recombinant GAP-43 in vitro; atypical PKC zeta ..
  34. Bansode R, Huang W, Roy S, Mehta M, Mehta K. Protein kinase C deficiency increases fatty acid oxidation and reduces fat storage. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:231-6 pubmed
    ..The ability of PKCbeta deficiency to promote fat burning in adipocytes may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for obesity and obesity-related disorders. ..
  35. Lutzny G, Kocher T, Schmidt Supprian M, Rudelius M, Klein Hitpass L, Finch A, et al. Protein kinase c-?-dependent activation of NF-?B in stromal cells is indispensable for the survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells in vivo. Cancer Cell. 2013;23:77-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Upregulated stromal PKC-?II in biopsies from patients with CLL, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and mantle cell lymphoma suggests that this pathway may commonly be activated in a variety of hematological malignancies...
  36. Joller N, Weber S, Müller A, Spörri R, Selchow P, Sander P, et al. Antibodies protect against intracellular bacteria by Fc receptor-mediated lysosomal targeting. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:20441-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, we propose a mechanism whereby Abs and FcR engagement subverts the strategies by which intracellular bacterial pathogens evade lysosomal degradation. ..
  37. Zhou X, Quann E, Gallicano G. Differentiation of nonbeating embryonic stem cells into beating cardiomyocytes is dependent on downregulation of PKC beta and zeta in concert with upregulation of PKC epsilon. Dev Biol. 2003;255:407-22 pubmed
    ..b>PKC beta and zeta downregulation served to promote differentiation (beating), while upregulation of PKC epsilon appeared ..
  38. Sato S, Inoue T, Terada K, Matsuo I, Aizawa S, Tano Y, et al. Dkk3-Cre BAC transgenic mouse line: a tool for highly efficient gene deletion in retinal progenitor cells. Genesis. 2007;45:502-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, the BAC-Dkk3-Cre transgenic mouse line provides a powerful tool for generating conditional knockout mouse lines for studying loss of gene functions in the developing retina. ..
  39. Menne J, Shushakova N, Bartels J, Kiyan Y, Laudeley R, Haller H, et al. Dual inhibition of classical protein kinase C-? and protein kinase C-? isoforms protects against experimental murine diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes. 2013;62:1167-74 pubmed publisher
  40. Lam J, Wang L, Lin L, Chan S. Role of protein kinase C in selective inhibition of mouse retinal neurites during contacts with chondroitin sulfates. Neurosci Lett. 2008;434:150-4 pubmed publisher
  41. Pinton P, Rimessi A, Marchi S, Orsini F, Migliaccio E, Giorgio M, et al. Protein kinase C beta and prolyl isomerase 1 regulate mitochondrial effects of the life-span determinant p66Shc. Science. 2007;315:659-63 pubmed
    ..These data identify a signaling route that activates an apoptotic inducer shortening the life span and could be a potential target of pharmacological approaches to inhibit aging. ..
  42. Teh C, Horikawa K, Arnold C, Beutler B, Kucharska E, Vinuesa C, et al. Heterozygous mis-sense mutations in Prkcb as a critical determinant of anti-polysaccharide antibody formation. Genes Immun. 2013;14:223-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results, coupled with evidence of numerous mis-sense PRKCB mutations in the human genome, identify Prkcb as a genetically sensitive step likely to contribute substantially ..
  43. Sekiguchi S, Tomisawa Y, Ohki T, Tsuboi K, Nagata K, Kobayashi Y. Suppression of macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by soluble β-glucan due to a failure of PKC-βII translocation. Int Immunopharmacol. 2016;31:195-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such translocation was inhibited by soluble β-glucan. Overall, this study suggests that suppression of macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by soluble β-glucan is due to a failure of PKC-βII translocation. ..
  44. Clements R, Turk R, Campbell K, Wright K. Dystroglycan Maintains Inner Limiting Membrane Integrity to Coordinate Retinal Development. J Neurosci. 2017;37:8559-8574 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that disorganization of retinal circuit development is a likely contributor to visual dysfunction in patients with dystroglycanopathy. ..
  45. Farren M, Carlson L, Netherby C, Lindner I, Li P, Gabrilovich D, et al. Tumor-induced STAT3 signaling in myeloid cells impairs dendritic cell generation by decreasing PKC?II abundance. Sci Signal. 2014;7:ra16 pubmed publisher
    ..STAT3 bound to previously undescribed negative regulatory elements within the promoter of PRKCB, which encodes PKC?II...
  46. Zhang H, Clemens R, Liu F, Hu Y, Baba Y, Theodore P, et al. STIM1 calcium sensor is required for activation of the phagocyte oxidase during inflammation and host defense. Blood. 2014;123:2238-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the critical role of STIM1-mediated SOCE and define major protein targets of calcium signaling in neutrophil activation during inflammatory disease. ..
  47. Kim W, Jung J, Park E, Yang C, Kim H, Nielsen S, et al. Expression of protein kinase C isoenzymes alpha, betaI, and delta in subtypes of intercalated cells of mouse kidney. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;291:F1052-60 pubmed
    ..In summary, this study demonstrates distinct and differential expression patterns of PKC-alpha, -beta(I), and -delta in the three subtypes of intercalated cells in the mouse kidney. ..
  48. Itoh S, Ding B, Shishido T, Lerner Marmarosh N, Wang N, Maekawa N, et al. Role of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase-mediated prorenin-converting enzyme in ischemic and diabetic myocardium. Circulation. 2006;113:1787-98 pubmed
  49. Denys A, Avazeri N, Lefevre B. The PKC pathway and in particular its beta1 isoform is clearly involved in meiotic arrest maintenance but poorly in FSH-induced meiosis resumption of the mouse cumulus cell enclosed oocyte. Mol Reprod Dev. 2007;74:1575-80 pubmed
    ..The results show that whereas the PKC pathway is clearly involved in maintenance of the meiotic arrest through PKCbeta1, it is not involved in FSH-induced meiosis of CEOs. ..
  50. Buitrago L, Bhavanasi D, Dangelmaier C, Manne B, Badolia R, Borgognone A, et al. Tyrosine phosphorylation on spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) is differentially regulated in human and murine platelets by protein kinase C isoforms. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:29160-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This result indicates that PKC? is the isoform responsible for Syk negative regulation in human platelets. In conclusion, we have elucidated a novel pathway of Syk regulation by PKC? in human platelets. ..
  51. Cho Y, Klein M, Talmage D. Distinct functions of protein kinase Calpha and protein kinase Cbeta during retinoic acid-induced differentiation of F9 cells. Cell Growth Differ. 1998;9:147-54 pubmed
  52. Rigor D, Bodyak N, Bae S, Choi J, Zhang L, Ter Ovanesyan D, et al. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase Akt signaling pathway interacts with protein kinase Cbeta2 in the regulation of physiologic developmental hypertrophy and heart function. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2009;296:H566-72 pubmed publisher
  53. Shaheen S, Wan Z, Li Z, Chau A, Li X, Zhang S, et al. Substrate stiffness governs the initiation of B cell activation by the concerted signaling of PKCβ and focal adhesion kinase. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a molecular explanation of how initiation of B cell activation discriminates substrate stiffness through a PKCβ-mediated FAK activation dependent manner. ..
  54. Kleiman E, Carter G, Ghansah T, Patel N, Cooper D. Developmentally spliced PKCbetaII provides a possible link between mTORC2 and Akt kinase to regulate 3T3-L1 adipocyte insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;388:554-9 pubmed publisher
    ..PKCbetaII regulates GLUT4 translocation by regulating Akt phosphorylation and thus activity. ..
  55. Kim Y, Park S, Kim M, Lee S, Baik E, Moon C, et al. Role of PKCbetaII and PKCdelta in blood-brain barrier permeability during aglycemic hypoxia. Neurosci Lett. 2010;468:254-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PKCbetaII and PKCdelta counter-regulate BBB permeability during aglycemic hypoxia. ..
  56. Scherer D, Seyler C, Xynogalos P, Scholz E, Thomas D, Backs J, et al. Inhibition of Cardiac Kir Current (IK1) by Protein Kinase C Critically Depends on PKC? and Kir2.2. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0156181 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that inhibition of cardiac IK1 by PKC critically depends on the PKC? isoform and Kir2.2 subunits. This regulation represents a potential novel target for the antiarrhythmic therapy of focal ventricular arrhythmias. ..
  57. Patel N, Kaneko S, Apostolatos H, Bae S, Watson J, Davidowitz K, et al. Molecular and genetic studies imply Akt-mediated signaling promotes protein kinase CbetaII alternative splicing via phosphorylation of serine/arginine-rich splicing factor SRp40. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:14302-9 pubmed
    ..This model is upheld in Akt2-deficient mice with insulin resistance leading to diabetes mellitus. ..
  58. Hoyer D, Korkmaz Y, Grönke S, Addicks K, Wettschureck N, Offermanns S, et al. Differential expression of protein kinase C isoforms in coronary arteries of diabetic mice lacking the G-protein G?11. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2010;9:93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest a mechanism that may in part underlie the therapeutic benefit of RAS inhibition on cardiovascular endpoints in diabetic patients. ..
  59. Heemskerk J, Harper M, Cosemans J, Poole A. Unravelling the different functions of protein kinase C isoforms in platelets. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:1711-6 pubmed publisher
    ..For identifying the substrate proteins in a living cell, new methodology is available and discussed. ..
  60. Rao X, Zhong J, Xu X, Jordan B, Maurya S, Braunstein Z, et al. Exercise protects against diet-induced insulin resistance through downregulation of protein kinase C? in mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e81364 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that downregulation of PKC? contributes to exercise-induced improvement of insulin resistance in HFD-fed mice. ..
  61. Das F, Ghosh Choudhury N, Mariappan M, Kasinath B, Choudhury G. Hydrophobic motif site-phosphorylated protein kinase CβII between mTORC2 and Akt regulates high glucose-induced mesangial cell hypertrophy. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2016;310:C583-96 pubmed publisher
  62. Chang J, Wendt T, Qu W, Kong L, Zou Y, Schmidt A, et al. Oxygen deprivation triggers upregulation of early growth response-1 by the receptor for advanced glycation end products. Circ Res. 2008;102:905-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify RAGE as a master regulator of tissue stress elicited by hypoxia and highlight this receptor as a central therapeutic target to suppress the tissue injury-provoking effects of oxygen deprivation. ..
  63. Kuyumcu Martinez N, Wang G, Cooper T. Increased steady-state levels of CUGBP1 in myotonic dystrophy 1 are due to PKC-mediated hyperphosphorylation. Mol Cell. 2007;28:68-78 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that inappropriate activation of the PKC pathway contributes to the pathogenic effects of a noncoding RNA. ..
  64. Guo B, Blair D, Chiles T, Lowell C, Rothstein T. Cutting Edge: B cell receptor (BCR) cross-talk: the IL-4-induced alternate pathway for BCR signaling operates in parallel with the classical pathway, is sensitive to Rottlerin, and depends on Lyn. J Immunol. 2007;178:4726-30 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the rottlerin-sensitive, Lyn-dependent alternate pathway, and the classical pathway, for BCR signaling operate in parallel when BCR engagement follows IL-4 exposure. ..
  65. Arnold C, Pirie E, Dosenovic P, McInerney G, Xia Y, Wang N, et al. A forward genetic screen reveals roles for Nfkbid, Zeb1, and Ruvbl2 in humoral immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:12286-93 pubmed publisher
    ..All of the mutations identified to date directly affect lymphocyte development or function; none have an exclusive effect on cells of the innate immune system. ..
  66. Pauken C, Capco D. The expression and stage-specific localization of protein kinase C isotypes during mouse preimplantation development. Dev Biol. 2000;223:411-21 pubmed
    ..Two isotypes have a stage-dependent nuclear localization. In addition, within each blastomere PKC isotypes occupy different subcellular locations in a stage-dependent fashion. ..
  67. Li Q, Park K, Li C, Rask Madsen C, Mima A, Qi W, et al. Induction of vascular insulin resistance and endothelin-1 expression and acceleration of atherosclerosis by the overexpression of protein kinase C-? isoform in the endothelium. Circ Res. 2013;113:418-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These mice were cross-bred with apoE-/- mice [Tg (Prkcb)apoE-/-]...
  68. Dehghani H, Hahnel A. Expression profile of protein kinase C isozymes in preimplantation mouse development. Reproduction. 2005;130:441-51 pubmed
  69. Tang Y, Ashendel C. Isolation of cloned mouse protein kinase C beta-II cDNA and its sequence. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990;18:5310 pubmed
  70. Blair D, Dufort F, Chiles T. Protein kinase C? is critical for the metabolic switch to glycolysis following B-cell antigen receptor engagement. Biochem J. 2012;448:165-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, blocking glycolysis results in decreased survival of B-cells despite BCR engagement. The results establish a definitive role for PKC? in the metabolic switch to glycolysis following BCR engagement of naïve B-cells. ..
  71. Alden K, Goldspink P, Ruch S, Buttrick P, Garcia J. Enhancement of L-type Ca(2+) current from neonatal mouse ventricular myocytes by constitutively active PKC-betaII. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2002;282:C768-74 pubmed
    ..Thus these data demonstrate that PKC-beta is a potent modulator of cardiac L-type calcium channels and that this specific isoform increases I(Ca) in neonatal ventricular myocytes. ..
  72. Campo G, Avenoso A, Micali A, Nastasi G, Squadrito F, Altavilla D, et al. High-molecular weight hyaluronan reduced renal PKC activation in genetically diabetic mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1802:1118-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the CD44 and PKC play an important role in diabetes and interaction of high-molecular weight HA with these proteins may reduce inflammation and secondary pathologies due to this disease. ..
  73. Durpès M, Morin C, Paquin Veillet J, Beland R, Paré M, Guimond M, et al. PKC-β activation inhibits IL-18-binding protein causing endothelial dysfunction and diabetic atherosclerosis. Cardiovasc Res. 2015;106:303-13 pubmed publisher
  74. Naik E, Dixit V. Usp9X Is Required for Lymphocyte Activation and Homeostasis through Its Control of ZAP70 Ubiquitination and PKCβ Kinase Activity. J Immunol. 2016;196:3438-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The pleiotropic effect of Usp9X during Ag-receptor signaling highlights its importance for the development of an effective and durable adaptive immune response. ..
  75. Shin J, Jang H, Lin J, Lee S. PKCβ positively regulates RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by inactivating GSK-3β. Mol Cells. 2014;37:747-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also provide a further rationale for PKCβ's therapeutic targeting to treat inflammation-related bone diseases. ..
  76. Kimura T, Merritt A, Lock F, Eckert J, Fleming T, Garrod D. Desmosomal adhesiveness is developmentally regulated in the mouse embryo and modulated during trophectoderm migration. Dev Biol. 2012;369:286-97 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that modulation of desmosomal adhesion by PKC can regulate migration of trophectoderm. It appears that tissue stabilisation is one of several roles played by desmosomes in animal development. ..
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