Gene Symbol: Prkar1a
Description: protein kinase, cAMP dependent regulatory, type I, alpha
Alias: 1300018C22Rik, RIalpha, Tse-1, Tse1, cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I-alpha regulatory subunit, protein kinase, cAMP dependent regulatory, type 1, alpha
Species: mouse
Products:     Prkar1a

Top Publications

  1. Nesterova M, Cho Chung Y. Chemoprevention with protein kinase A RIalpha antisense in DMBA-mammary carcinogenesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1058:255-64 pubmed
    ..Evidence suggests that increased expression of PKA-I and its regulatory subunit (RIalpha) correlates with tumorogenesis and tumor growth...
  2. Yin Z, Williams Simons L, Parlow A, Asa S, Kirschner L. Pituitary-specific knockout of the Carney complex gene Prkar1a leads to pituitary tumorigenesis. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:380-7 pubmed
    ..To explore the role of loss of the CNC gene PRKAR1A on pituitary tumorigenesis, we produced a tissue-specific knockout (KO) of this gene in the mouse...
  3. Nadella K, Jones G, Trimboli A, Stratakis C, Leone G, Kirschner L. Targeted deletion of Prkar1a reveals a role for protein kinase A in mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. Cancer Res. 2008;68:2671-7 pubmed publisher
    Dysregulation of protein kinase A (PKA) activity, caused by loss of function mutations in PRKAR1A, is known to induce tumor formation in the inherited tumor syndrome Carney complex (CNC) and is also associated with sporadic tumors of the ..
  4. Howe D, Clarke C, Yan H, Willis B, Schneider D, McKnight G, et al. Inhibition of protein kinase A in murine enteric neurons causes lethal intestinal pseudo-obstruction. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:256-72 pubmed
  5. Jones G, Pringle D, Yin Z, Carlton M, Powell K, WEINSTEIN M, et al. Neural crest-specific loss of Prkar1a causes perinatal lethality resulting from defects in intramembranous ossification. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:1559-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective inactivation of Prkar1a, a regulatory subunit of the PKA holoenzyme, in the CNC results in perinatal lethality caused by dysmorphic ..
  6. Pasqualucci L, Kitaura Y, Gu H, Dalla Favera R. PKA-mediated phosphorylation regulates the function of activation-induced deaminase (AID) in B cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:395-400 pubmed
    ..These findings implicate PKA in the regulation of AID function and suggest that the control of T cell-dependent immune responses may be modulated, via AID, by signals that activate PKA. ..
  7. Pavel E, Nadella K, Towns W, Kirschner L. Mutation of Prkar1a causes osteoblast neoplasia driven by dysregulation of protein kinase A. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:430-40 pubmed
    Carney complex (CNC) is an autosomal dominant neoplasia syndrome caused by inactivating mutations in PRKAR1A, the gene encoding the type 1A regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA)...
  8. Amieux P, Howe D, Knickerbocker H, Lee D, Su T, Laszlo G, et al. Increased basal cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity inhibits the formation of mesoderm-derived structures in the developing mouse embryo. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:27294-304 pubmed
    A targeted disruption of the RIalpha isoform of protein kinase A (PKA) was created by using homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells...
  9. Yin Z, Jones G, Towns W, Zhang X, Abel E, Binkley P, et al. Heart-specific ablation of Prkar1a causes failure of heart development and myxomagenesis. Circulation. 2008;117:1414-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Dysregulation of the protein kinase A system, caused by mutation of the protein kinase A regulatory subunit gene PRKAR1A, causes the inherited tumor syndrome Carney complex, which includes cardiac myxomas as one of its cardinal ..

More Information


  1. Song W, Seshadri M, Ashraf U, Mdluli T, Mondal P, Keil M, et al. Snapin mediates incretin action and augments glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Cell Metab. 2011;13:308-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, snapin is a critical node in GSIS regulation and provides a potential therapeutic target to improve ? cell function in T2DM. ..
  2. Moujalled D, Weston R, Anderton H, Ninnis R, Goel P, Coley A, et al. Cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase A regulates apoptosis by stabilizing the BH3-only protein Bim. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:77-83 pubmed publisher
    ..isoform--Bim(EL)--as the bait and identified the regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase A--PRKAR1A--as an interacting partner...
  3. Amieux P, Cummings D, Motamed K, Brandon E, Wailes L, Le K, et al. Compensatory regulation of RIalpha protein levels in protein kinase A mutant mice. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:3993-8 pubmed
    ..the RIbeta and RIIbeta regulatory subunit genes in mice, and find that both result in an increase in the level of RIalpha protein in tissues that normally express the beta isoforms...
  4. Zhang M, Manchanda P, Wu D, Wang Q, Kirschner L. Knockdown of PRKAR1A, the gene responsible for Carney complex, interferes with differentiation in osteoblastic cells. Mol Endocrinol. 2014;28:295-307 pubmed publisher
    b>PRKAR1A is the gene encoding the type 1A regulatory subunit of protein kinase A, and it is the cause of the inherited human tumor syndrome Carney complex...
  5. Burton K, McDermott D, Wilkes D, Poulsen M, Nolan M, Goldstein M, et al. Haploinsufficiency at the protein kinase A RI alpha gene locus leads to fertility defects in male mice and men. Mol Endocrinol. 2006;20:2504-13 pubmed
    ..We report here that male mice heterozygous for the Prkar1a gene have severely reduced fertility...
  6. Mavrakis M, Lippincott Schwartz J, Stratakis C, Bossis I. Depletion of type IA regulatory subunit (RIalpha) of protein kinase A (PKA) in mammalian cells and tissues activates mTOR and causes autophagic deficiency. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2962-71 pubmed
    The human PRKAR1A gene encodes the regulatory subunit 1-alpha (RIalpha) of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) holoenzyme. Regulation of the catalytic activity of PKA is the only well-studied function of RIalpha...
  7. Jones G, Tep C, Towns W, Mihai G, Tonks I, Kay G, et al. Tissue-specific ablation of Prkar1a causes schwannomas by suppressing neurofibromatosis protein production. Neoplasia. 2008;10:1213-21 pubmed patients with the endocrine neoplasia syndrome Carney complex, which results from inactivating mutations in PRKAR1A. Loss of PRKAR1A causes enhanced protein kinase A activity, although the pathways leading to tumorigenesis are ..
  8. Kirschner L, Kusewitt D, Matyakhina L, Towns W, Carney J, Westphal H, et al. A mouse model for the Carney complex tumor syndrome develops neoplasia in cyclic AMP-responsive tissues. Cancer Res. 2005;65:4506-14 pubmed
    ..This condition may be caused by inactivating mutations in PRKAR1A, the gene encoding the type 1A regulatory subunit of protein kinase A...
  9. Griffin K, Kirschner L, Matyakhina L, Stergiopoulos S, Robinson White A, Lenherr S, et al. A transgenic mouse bearing an antisense construct of regulatory subunit type 1A of protein kinase A develops endocrine and other tumours: comparison with Carney complex and other PRKAR1A induced lesions. J Med Genet. 2004;41:923-31 pubmed
    Inactivation of the human type Ialpha regulatory subunit (RIalpha) of cyclic AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) (PRKAR1A) leads to altered kinase activity, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), and sporadic adrenal ..
  10. Vuong B, Lee M, Kabir S, Irimia C, Macchiarulo S, McKnight G, et al. Specific recruitment of protein kinase A to the immunoglobulin locus regulates class-switch recombination. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:420-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that PKA nucleates the formation of active AID complexes specifically on S regions to generate the high density of DNA lesions required for CSR. ..
  11. Molyneux S, Di Grappa M, Beristain A, McKee T, Wai D, Paderova J, et al. Prkar1a is an osteosarcoma tumor suppressor that defines a molecular subclass in mice. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3310-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Integrative oncogenomics pinpointed cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I, alpha regulatory subunit (Prkar1a) gene deletions at 11qE1 as a recurrent genetic trait for a molecularly distinct subclass of mouse OSA featuring ..
  12. Veugelers M, Wilkes D, Burton K, McDermott D, Song Y, Goldstein M, et al. Comparative PRKAR1A genotype-phenotype analyses in humans with Carney complex and prkar1a haploinsufficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:14222-7 pubmed
    ..We previously identified PRKAR1A (regulatory subunit 1alpha of protein kinase A) mutations in CNC...
  13. Knostman K, Jhiang S, Capen C. Genetic alterations in thyroid cancer: the role of mouse models. Vet Pathol. 2007;44:1-14 pubmed
    ..Limitations of each model are presented, and the need for additional models to better recapitulate certain aspects of the human disease is discussed. ..
  14. Song W, Mondal P, Wolfe A, Alonso L, Stamateris R, Ong B, et al. Glucagon regulates hepatic kisspeptin to impair insulin secretion. Cell Metab. 2014;19:667-81 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate a hormonal circuit between the liver and the endocrine pancreas in glycemia regulation and suggest in T2DM a sequential link between hyperglucagonemia via hepatic kisspeptin1 to impaired insulin secretion. ..
  15. Suzuki Y, Shen T, Poyard M, Best Belpomme M, Hanoune J, Defer N. Expression of adenylyl cyclase mRNAs in the denervated and in the developing mouse skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol. 1998;274:C1674-85 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that changes in AC activity and AC mRNAs play an important role in the various physiopathological states of skeletal muscle, especially during muscle atrophy. ..
  16. Chen Y, Di Grappa M, Molyneux S, McKee T, Waterhouse P, Penninger J, et al. RANKL blockade prevents and treats aggressive osteosarcomas. Sci Transl Med. 2015;7:317ra197 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies provide a strong rationale to consider RANKL blockade for the treatment and prevention of aggressive RANKL-overexpressing OS in humans. ..
  17. Pringle D, Yin Z, Lee A, Manchanda P, Yu L, Parlow A, et al. Thyroid-specific ablation of the Carney complex gene, PRKAR1A, results in hyperthyroidism and follicular thyroid cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2012;19:435-46 pubmed publisher
    ..FTC, has been observed in patients with the inherited tumor predisposition Carney complex, caused by mutations in PRKAR1A. In order to investigate the role of loss of PRKAR1A in thyroid cancer, we generated a tissue-specific knockout ..
  18. Chaturvedi D, Cohen M, Taunton J, Patel T. The PKARIalpha subunit of protein kinase A modulates the activation of p90RSK1 and its function. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:23670-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in unstimulated cells, the increased phosphorylation and activation of RSK1 after silencing of PKARIalpha or depletion of D-AKAP1 are due to decreased association of PP2Ac in the RSK1 complex. ..
  19. Willis B, Niswender C, Su T, Amieux P, McKnight G. Cell-type specific expression of a dominant negative PKA mutation in mice. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18772 pubmed publisher
    ..The mouse line carries a mutant Prkar1a allele encoding a glycine to aspartate substitution at position 324 in the carboxy-terminal cAMP-binding domain (..
  20. Zhang M, Mahoney E, Zuo T, Manchanda P, Davuluri R, Kirschner L. Protein kinase A activation enhances β-catenin transcriptional activity through nuclear localization to PML bodies. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e109523 pubmed publisher
    ..we analyzed bone tumors arising from mice with activated PKA caused by mutation of the PKA regulatory subunit Prkar1a. In primary cells from these tumors, we observed relocalization of β-catenin to intranuclear punctuate ..
  21. Imaizumi Scherrer T, Faust D, Benichou J, Hellio R, Weiss M. Accumulation in fetal muscle and localization to the neuromuscular junction of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A regulatory and catalytic subunits RI alpha and C alpha. J Cell Biol. 1996;134:1241-54 pubmed
    ..In the adult, the C alpha hybridization signal of muscle is weak and homogeneous...
  22. Greene R, Lloyd M, Uberti M, Nugent P, Pisano M. Patterns of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase gene expression during ontogeny of the murine palate. J Cell Physiol. 1995;163:431-40 pubmed
    ..In addition, we have demonstrated adaptational changes of this kinase in MEPM cells in response to conditions of increased intracellular levels of cAMP. ..
  23. Patel H, Hamuro L, Chun B, Kawaraguchi Y, Quick A, Rebolledo B, et al. Disruption of protein kinase A localization using a trans-activator of transcription (TAT)-conjugated A-kinase-anchoring peptide reduces cardiac function. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:27632-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of PKA localization with TAT-AKAD thus had negative effects on chronotropy, inotropy, and lusitropy, thereby indicating a key role for AKAP-targeted PKA in control of heart rate and contractile function. ..
  24. Banday A, Azim S, Tabish M. Alternative promoter usage and differential expression of multiple transcripts of mouse Prkar1a gene. Mol Cell Biochem. 2011;357:263-74 pubmed publisher
    b>Prkar1a gene encodes regulatory type 1 alpha subunit (RI?) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in mouse...
  25. Sahut Barnola I, De Joussineau C, Val P, Lambert Langlais S, Damon C, Lefrançois Martinez A, et al. Cushing's syndrome and fetal features resurgence in adrenal cortex-specific Prkar1a knockout mice. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000980 pubmed publisher
    ..Inactivating mutations in PRKAR1A, a gene encoding the type 1 alpha-regulatory subunit (R1alpha) of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) have ..
  26. Souza S, Muliro K, Liscum L, Lien P, Yamamoto M, Schaffer J, et al. Modulation of hormone-sensitive lipase and protein kinase A-mediated lipolysis by perilipin A in an adenoviral reconstituted system. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:8267-72 pubmed
    ..Thus, perilipin expression and phosphorylation state are critical regulators of lipid storage and hydrolysis in ACS1/FATP1 cells. ..
  27. Barradeau S, Imaizumi Scherrer T, Weiss M, Faust D. Muscle-regulated expression and determinants for neuromuscular junctional localization of the mouse RIalpha regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:5037-42 pubmed
    In skeletal muscle, transcription of the gene encoding the mouse type Ialpha (RIalpha) subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase is initiated from the alternative noncoding first exons 1a and 1b...
  28. Beristain A, Molyneux S, Joshi P, Pomroy N, Di Grappa M, Chang M, et al. PKA signaling drives mammary tumorigenesis through Src. Oncogene. 2015;34:1160-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Mammary-restricted biallelic ablation of Prkar1a, which encodes for the critical type-I PKA regulatory subunit, induced spontaneous breast tumors characterized by ..
  29. Peterson T, Killary A, Fournier R. Chromosomal assignment and trans regulation of the tyrosine aminotransferase structural gene in hepatoma hybrid cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1985;5:2491-4 pubmed
    ..Thus, the TAT structural genes of both parental cell types were coordinately regulated in the intertypic hybrids, and the TAT phenotype of the cells was determined by the presence or absence of fibroblast Tse-1. ..
  30. Kurosu T, Hernandez A, Wolk J, Liu J, Schwartz J. Alpha/beta-tubulin are A kinase anchor proteins for type I PKA in neurons. Brain Res. 2009;1251:53-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that the alpha/beta-tubulin anchoring type I PKA may have an important role in the formation of long-term synaptic plasticity. ..
  31. Saloustros E, Salpea P, Starost M, Liu S, Faucz F, London E, et al. Prkar1a gene knockout in the pancreas leads to neuroendocrine tumorigenesis. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2017;24:31-40 pubmed
    ..including a predisposition to pancreatic tumors; it is caused most frequently by the inactivation of the PRKAR1A gene, a regulator of the cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent kinase (PKA)...
  32. Xu K, Qi H. Sperm-specific AKAP3 is a dual-specificity anchoring protein that interacts with both protein kinase a regulatory subunits via conserved N-terminal amphipathic peptides. Mol Reprod Dev. 2014;81:595-607 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, AKAP3 is a dual-specificity molecule that modulates PKA isotypes in a spatiotemporal manner during mouse spermatogenesis. ..
  33. Liu S, Saloustros E, Mertz E, Tsang K, Starost M, Salpea P, et al. Haploinsufficiency for either one of the type-II regulatory subunits of protein kinase A improves the bone phenotype of Prkar1a+/- mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2015;24:6080-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The most frequent cause for CNC is PRKAR1A deficiency; PRKAR1A codes for type-I regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA)...
  34. Mucignat Caretta C, Caretta A. Regional variations in the localization of insoluble kinase A regulatory isoforms during rodent brain development. J Chem Neuroanat. 2004;27:201-12 pubmed
    ..In the mammalian brain all four regulatory isoforms (RIalpha and beta, RIIalpha and beta) are present. Apparently, they are simple inhibitors of the catalytic subunits...
  35. Sousa S, Gomez R, Diniz M, Bernardes V, Soares F, Brito J, et al. Defects of the Carney complex gene (PRKAR1A) in odontogenic tumors. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2015;22:399-408 pubmed publisher
    ..The PRKAR1A gene displays a loss of protein expression as well as somatic mutations in odontogenic myxomas, an odontogenic ..
  36. Basham K, Hung H, Lerario A, Hammer G. Mouse models of adrenocortical tumors. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;421:82-97 pubmed publisher
    ..New paradigms of cancer initiation, maintenance, and progression that have emerged from this work will be discussed. ..
  37. De Joussineau C, Sahut Barnola I, Tissier F, Dumontet T, Drelon C, Batisse Lignier M, et al. mTOR pathway is activated by PKA in adrenocortical cells and participates in vivo to apoptosis resistance in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:5418-28 pubmed publisher
    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is associated with inactivating mutations of the PRKAR1A tumor suppressor gene that encodes the regulatory subunit R1? of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)...
  38. Miki K, Eddy E. Identification of tethering domains for protein kinase A type Ialpha regulatory subunits on sperm fibrous sheath protein FSC1. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:34384-90 pubmed
    ..bait to screen a mouse testis cDNA library, two clones were isolated encoding the type Ialpha regulatory subunit (RIalpha) of cAMP-dependent protein kinase...
  39. Ceccarini M, Grasso M, Veroni C, Gambara G, Artegiani B, Macchia G, et al. Association of dystrobrevin and regulatory subunit of protein kinase A: a new role for dystrobrevin as a scaffold for signaling proteins. J Mol Biol. 2007;371:1174-87 pubmed
    ..Among the positive clones characterized after the screen, one encodes the regulatory subunit RIalpha of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA)...
  40. Almeida M, Tsang K, Cheadle C, Watkins T, Grivel J, Nesterova M, et al. Protein kinase A regulates caspase-1 via Ets-1 in bone stromal cell-derived lesions: a link between cyclic AMP and pro-inflammatory pathways in osteoblast progenitors. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:165-75 pubmed publisher
  41. Lem J, Chin A, Thayer M, Leach R, Fournier R. Coordinate regulation of two genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes by the trans-dominant locus Tse-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:7302-6 pubmed
    ..hepatoma microcell hybrids retaining mouse chromosome 11 or human chromosome 17, containing murine Tse-1 and human TSE1, respectively, were screened for expression of liver-specific mRNAs...
  42. Kirschner L, Qamri Z, Kari S, Ashtekar A. Mouse models of thyroid cancer: A 2015 update. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2016;421:18-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will discuss the state of the art of mouse modeling of thyroid cancer, with the eventual goal of providing insight into tumor biology and treatment. ..
  43. Calo E, Quintero Estades J, Danielian P, Nedelcu S, Berman S, Lees J. Rb regulates fate choice and lineage commitment in vivo. Nature. 2010;466:1110-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we use mouse models to address this hypothesis in mesenchymal tissue development and tumorigenesis. Our data show that Rb status plays a key role in establishing fate choice between bone and brown adipose tissue in vivo. ..
  44. Burgoyne J, Rudyk O, Cho H, Prysyazhna O, Hathaway N, Weeks A, et al. Deficient angiogenesis in redox-dead Cys17Ser PKARIα knock-in mice. Nat Commun. 2015;6:7920 pubmed publisher
    ..Disulphide-activation of PKA represents a new therapeutic target in diseases with aberrant angiogenesis. ..
  45. Moskow J, Buchberg A. Mapping of the Prkar1a gene to mouse chromosome 11. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:464-5 pubmed
  46. Barradeau S, Imaizumi Scherrer T, Weiss M, Faust D. Alternative 5'-exons of the mouse cAMP-dependent protein kinase subunit RIalpha gene are conserved and expressed in both a ubiquitous and tissue-restricted fashion. FEBS Lett. 2000;476:272-6 pubmed
    The activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is controlled by its regulatory subunits. Mouse RIalpha regulatory subunit expression is initiated from five different non-coding 5'-regions (exons 1a, 1b, 1c, 1d and 1e)...
  47. Gangoda L, Doerflinger M, Srivastava R, Narayan N, Edgington L, Orian J, et al. Loss of Prkar1a leads to Bcl-2 family protein induction and cachexia in mice. Cell Death Differ. 2014;21:1815-24 pubmed publisher
    Loss of function mutations in the Prkar1a gene are the cause of most cases of Carney complex disorder...
  48. Guo L, Lee A, Rizvi T, Ratner N, Kirschner L. The protein kinase A regulatory subunit R1A (Prkar1a) plays critical roles in peripheral nerve development. J Neurosci. 2013;33:17967-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein kinase A (PKA) is a potential downstream effector of cAMP. Here, we induced loss of Prkar1a, the gene encoding the type 1A regulatory subunit of PKA, in SC to study its role in nerve development; loss of ..
  49. Fisher H, Jacobs Palmer E, Lassance J, Hoekstra H. The genetic basis and fitness consequences of sperm midpiece size in deer mice. Nat Commun. 2016;7:13652 pubmed publisher
    ..Using forward genetics, we identify a gene associated with midpiece length: Prkar1a, which encodes the R1? regulatory subunit of PKA...
  50. Huang L, Durick K, Weiner J, Chun J, Taylor S. Identification of a novel protein kinase A anchoring protein that binds both type I and type II regulatory subunits. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:8057-64 pubmed
    ..These results raise a novel possibility that the type I regulatory subunit may be anchored via anchoring proteins. ..
  51. Tsang K, Starost M, Nesterova M, Boikos S, Watkins T, Almeida M, et al. Alternate protein kinase A activity identifies a unique population of stromal cells in adult bone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:8683-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice heterozygous for a null allele of prkar1a (Prkar1a(+/-)), the primary receptor for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and regulator of protein kinase A (..
  52. Woldeyesus M, Britsch S, Riethmacher D, Xu L, Sonnenberg Riethmacher E, Abou Rebyeh F, et al. Peripheral nervous system defects in erbB2 mutants following genetic rescue of heart development. Genes Dev. 1999;13:2538-48 pubmed
    ..Our results define the roles of Schwann cells during motoneuron and synapse development, and reveal different survival requirements for distinct motoneuron populations. ..
  53. Zhong H, Sia G, Sato T, Gray N, Mao T, Khuchua Z, et al. Subcellular dynamics of type II PKA in neurons. Neuron. 2009;62:363-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the localization and activity-dependent translocation of type II PKA are important determinants of PKA function. ..
  54. Kang B, Jo I, Eun S, Jo S. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A and CREB are involved in neuregulin-induced synapse-specific expression of acetylcholine receptor gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;304:758-65 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, neuregulin increases AChRdelta subunit gene transcription, in part, by the activation of PKA/CREB, an alternative route to the previously reported ERK signaling pathway. ..
  55. Song W, Mondal P, Li Y, Lee S, Hussain M. Pancreatic ?-cell response to increased metabolic demand and to pharmacologic secretagogues requires EPAC2A. Diabetes. 2013;62:2796-807 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings advance the rationale for developing EPAC2A-selective pharmacologic activators for ?-cell-targeted pharmacotherapy in type 2 diabetes. ..
  56. Rogers K, Boring L, McKnight G, Clegg C. Promoter for the regulatory type I beta subunit of the 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase directs transgene expression in the central nervous system. Mol Endocrinol. 1992;6:1756-65 pubmed
    ..This promoter can also be used to target the expression of wild type and mutant cAPK subunit genes in order to investigate synaptic plasticity in animals. ..
  57. Briassoulis G, Keil M, Naved B, Liu S, Starost M, Nesterova M, et al. Studies of mice with cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) defects reveal the critical role of PKA's catalytic subunits in anxiety. Behav Brain Res. 2016;307:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..were used to assess anxiety-like behavior and the hotplate test to assess nociception in wild type (WT) mouse, a Prkar1a heterozygote (Prkar1a(+/-)) mouse with haploinsufficiency for the regulatory subunit (R1α), a Prkaca ..
  58. Vinnakota S, Qian X, Egal H, Sarthy V, Sarkar H. Molecular characterization and in situ localization of a mouse retinal taurine transporter. J Neurochem. 1997;69:2238-50 pubmed
    ..Unexpectedly, the highest expression levels of taurine transporter mRNA were found instead in the ciliary body of the mouse eye. ..
  59. Saloustros E, Salpea P, Qi C, Gugliotti L, Tsang K, Liu S, et al. Hematopoietic neoplasms in Prkar2a-deficient mice. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015;34:143 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies showed that complete inactivation of the Prkar1a subunit (coding for RIα) in the germline leads to embryonic lethality, while Prkar1a-deficient mice are viable ..
  60. Hauet T, Liu J, Li H, Gazouli M, Culty M, Papadopoulos V. PBR, StAR, and PKA: partners in cholesterol transport in steroidogenic cells. Endocr Res. 2002;28:395-401 pubmed
    ..proteins regulating PBR we identified a protein, PAP7, which interacts with PBR and the PKA regulatory subunit RIalpha, is present in adrenal and gonadal cells and is found in mitochondria...
  61. Nesterova M, Cho Chung Y. Antisense protein kinase A RIalpha inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induction of mammary cancer: blockade at the initial phase of carcinogenesis. Clin Cancer Res. 2004;10:4568-77 pubmed
    ..Evidence suggests that increased expression of PKA-I and its regulatory subunit (RIalpha) correlates with tumorigenesis and tumor growth...
  62. Choi K, Berrera M, Reischl M, Strack S, Albrizio M, Röder I, et al. Rapsyn mediates subsynaptic anchoring of PKA type I and stabilisation of acetylcholine receptor in vivo. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:714-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This shows that rapsyn anchors PKA type I in close proximity to the postsynaptic membrane and suggests that this function is essential for synapse maintenance. ..
  63. Liu J, Rone M, Papadopoulos V. Protein-protein interactions mediate mitochondrial cholesterol transport and steroid biosynthesis. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:38879-93 pubmed
    ..receptor; the TSPO-associated protein PAP7, which binds and brings to mitochondria the regulatory subunit RIalpha of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKARIalpha); and the hormone-induced PKA substrate, steroidogenic acute ..
  64. de Sousa S, Kawasaki K, Kawasaki M, Volponi A, Gomez R, Gomes C, et al. PKA regulatory subunit expression in tooth development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2014;15:46-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutation in PKA regulatory subunit, PRKAR1A has previously been identified in odontogenic myxomas, but it is unclear whether PKA is involved in tooth ..
  65. Vincent J, Skaug J, Scherer S. The human homologue of flamingo, EGFL2, encodes a brain-expressed large cadherin-like protein with epidermal growth factor-like domains, and maps to chromosome 1p13.3-p21.1. DNA Res. 2000;7:233-5 pubmed
  66. Röder I, Choi K, Reischl M, Petersen Y, Diefenbacher M, Zaccolo M, et al. Myosin Va cooperates with PKA RIalpha to mediate maintenance of the endplate in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2031-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To this end, myosin Va mediates correct positioning of PKA in a postsynaptic microdomain, presumably by tethering PKA to the actin cytoskeleton. ..
  67. Pringle D, Vasko V, Yu L, Manchanda P, Lee A, Zhang X, et al. Follicular thyroid cancers demonstrate dual activation of PKA and mTOR as modeled by thyroid-specific deletion of Prkar1a and Pten in mice. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;99:E804-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed and characterized mice carrying thyroid-specific double knockout of the Prkar1a and Pten tumor suppressor genes and compared signaling alterations observed in the mouse FTC to the corresponding ..
  68. Gao X, Lin B, Sadayappan S, Patel T. Interactions between the regulatory subunit of type I protein kinase A and p90 ribosomal S6 kinase1 regulate cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Mol Pharmacol. 2014;85:357-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our findings demonstrate that H/R-mediated decrease in PKARI? protein levels leads to activation of RSK1, which via phosphorylation of NHE1 induces cardiomyocyte apoptosis. ..
  69. Drelon C, Berthon A, Sahut Barnola I, Mathieu M, Dumontet T, Rodriguez S, et al. PKA inhibits WNT signalling in adrenal cortex zonation and prevents malignant tumour development. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12751 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that PKA acts as a tumour suppressor in the adrenal cortex, through repression of WNT signalling. ..
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    ..These data also identify the likely inherent differences between epithelial and mesenchymal cell responsiveness to RANK activation. ..
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    ..Our findings suggest that RIIβ-PKA modulates the duration of leptin receptor signalling and therefore the magnitude of the catabolic response to leptin. ..
  73. Röder I, Lissandron V, Martin J, Petersen Y, Di Benedetto G, Zaccolo M, et al. PKA microdomain organisation and cAMP handling in healthy and dystrophic muscle in vivo. Cell Signal. 2009;21:819-26 pubmed
    ..In summary, our data indicate that an efficient organisation in microdomains of the cAMP/PKA pathway exists in the healthy skeletal muscle and that such organisation is subverted in dystrophic skeletal muscle. ..