Gene Symbol: Ppy
Description: pancreatic polypeptide
Alias: AV061413, IGSPP, pancreatic prohormone
Species: mouse
Products:     Ppy

Top Publications

  1. Krapp A, Knöfler M, Ledermann B, Burki K, Berney C, Zoerkler N, et al. The bHLH protein PTF1-p48 is essential for the formation of the exocrine and the correct spatial organization of the endocrine pancreas. Genes Dev. 1998;12:3752-63 pubmed
  2. Anderson K, Torres C, Solomon K, Becker T, Newgard C, Wright C, et al. Cooperative transcriptional regulation of the essential pancreatic islet gene NeuroD1 (beta2) by Nkx2.2 and neurogenin 3. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:31236-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings further define the conserved regulatory networks involved in islet beta cell formation and function. ..
  3. Mastracci T, Wilcox C, Arnés L, Panea C, Golden J, MAY C, et al. Nkx2.2 and Arx genetically interact to regulate pancreatic endocrine cell development and endocrine hormone expression. Dev Biol. 2011;359:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these experiments identify novel genetic interactions between Nkx2.2 and Arx within the endocrine progenitor cells that ensure the correct specification and regulation of endocrine hormone-producing cells. ..
  4. Artner I, Le Lay J, Hang Y, Elghazi L, Schisler J, Henderson E, et al. MafB: an activator of the glucagon gene expressed in developing islet alpha- and beta-cells. Diabetes. 2006;55:297-304 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that MafB is not only important to islet alpha-cell function but may also be involved in regulating genes required in both endocrine alpha- and beta-cell differentiation. ..
  5. Fujitani Y, Fujitani S, Boyer D, Gannon M, Kawaguchi Y, Ray M, et al. Targeted deletion of a cis-regulatory region reveals differential gene dosage requirements for Pdx1 in foregut organ differentiation and pancreas formation. Genes Dev. 2006;20:253-66 pubmed
  6. Soyer J, Flasse L, Raffelsberger W, Beucher A, Orvain C, Peers B, et al. Rfx6 is an Ngn3-dependent winged helix transcription factor required for pancreatic islet cell development. Development. 2010;137:203-12 pubmed publisher
    ..By contrast, beta cells, whose number is only slightly reduced, were no longer clustered in a compact islet. These data unveil Rfx6 as a novel regulator of islet cell development. ..
  7. Smith S, Qu H, Taleb N, Kishimoto N, Scheel D, Lu Y, et al. Rfx6 directs islet formation and insulin production in mice and humans. Nature. 2010;463:775-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate a unique position for Rfx6 in the hierarchy of factors that coordinate pancreatic islet development in both mice and humans. Rfx6 could prove useful in efforts to generate beta-cells for patients with diabetes. ..
  8. Herrera P, Huarte J, Sanvito F, Meda P, Orci L, Vassalli J. Embryogenesis of the murine endocrine pancreas; early expression of pancreatic polypeptide gene. Development. 1991;113:1257-65 pubmed
    ..These results suggest an intriguing ontogenic relationship between A- and PP-cells, and also indicate that PP-containing cells may occupy a hitherto unexpected place in the lineage of endocrine islet cells. ..
  9. Seymour P, Freude K, Tran M, Mayes E, Jensen J, Kist R, et al. SOX9 is required for maintenance of the pancreatic progenitor cell pool. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:1865-70 pubmed
    ..These findings will be of major significance for the development of in vitro protocols for cell replacement therapies. ..

More Information


  1. Henseleit K, Nelson S, Kuhlbrodt K, Hennings J, Ericson J, Sander M. NKX6 transcription factor activity is required for alpha- and beta-cell development in the pancreas. Development. 2005;132:3139-49 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that expression of Myt1 depends on overall Nkx6 gene dose, and therefore identify Myt1 as a possible downstream target of Nkx6 genes in the endocrine differentiation pathway. ..
  2. Miyatsuka T, Kosaka Y, Kim H, German M. Neurogenin3 inhibits proliferation in endocrine progenitors by inducing Cdkn1a. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:185-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies reveal a crucial role for Neurog3 in regulating the cell cycle during the differentiation of islet cells and demonstrate that the subsequent down-regulation of Neurog3 allows the mature islet cell population to expand. ..
  3. Sander M, Neubüser A, Kalamaras J, Ee H, Martin G, German M. Genetic analysis reveals that PAX6 is required for normal transcription of pancreatic hormone genes and islet development. Genes Dev. 1997;11:1662-73 pubmed
    ..Biochemical studies identify wild-type PAX6 protein as the transcription factor that binds to a common element in the glucagon, insulin, and somatostatin promoters, and show that PAX6 transactivates the glucagon and insulin promoters. ..
  4. Nelson S, Schaffer A, Sander M. The transcription factors Nkx6.1 and Nkx6.2 possess equivalent activities in promoting beta-cell fate specification in Pdx1+ pancreatic progenitor cells. Development. 2007;134:2491-500 pubmed
    ..2 in endocrine differentiation are a consequence of their divergent spatiotemporal expression domains rather than their biochemical activities and implies that both Nkx6.1 and Nkx6.2 possess alpha- and beta-cell-specifying activities. ..
  5. Wang S, Zhang J, Zhao A, Hipkens S, Magnuson M, Gu G. Loss of Myt1 function partially compromises endocrine islet cell differentiation and pancreatic physiological function in the mouse. Mech Dev. 2007;124:898-910 pubmed
    ..The consequences of Myt1 inactivation in the developing pancreas could be masked by activation of its paralogs, Myt1l and Myt3. These findings suggest Myt1 is involved in proper endocrine differentiation and function. ..
  6. Chiang M, Melton D. Single-cell transcript analysis of pancreas development. Dev Cell. 2003;4:383-93 pubmed
    ..This form of single-cell transcriptional analysis can be applied to any developmental process or tissue to characterize distinct cell types. ..
  7. Prado C, Pugh Bernard A, Elghazi L, Sosa Pineda B, Sussel L. Ghrelin cells replace insulin-producing beta cells in two mouse models of pancreas development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:2924-9 pubmed
    ..2 and Pax4 are required to specify or maintain differentiation of the beta cell fate. This finding also suggests that there is a genetic component underlying the balance between insulin and ghrelin in regulating glucose metabolism. ..
  8. Harrison K, Thaler J, Pfaff S, Gu H, Kehrl J. Pancreas dorsal lobe agenesis and abnormal islets of Langerhans in Hlxb9-deficient mice. Nat Genet. 1999;23:71-5 pubmed
    ..Hlxb9-/- beta-cells express low levels of the glucose transporter Glut2 and homeodomain factor Nkx 6-1. Thus, Hlxb9 is key to normal pancreas development and function. ..
  9. Desgraz R, Herrera P. Pancreatic neurogenin 3-expressing cells are unipotent islet precursors. Development. 2009;136:3567-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model whereby Ngn3(+) cells are monotypic (i.e. unipotent) precursors, and use this paradigm to refocus ideas on how cell number and type must be regulated in building complete islets of Langerhans. ..
  10. Sander M, Sussel L, Conners J, Scheel D, Kalamaras J, Dela Cruz F, et al. Homeobox gene Nkx6.1 lies downstream of Nkx2.2 in the major pathway of beta-cell formation in the pancreas. Development. 2000;127:5533-40 pubmed
    ..Together, these experiments reveal two independently controlled pathways for beta-cell differentiation, and place Nkx6.1 downstream of Nkx2.2 in the major pathway of beta-cell differentiation. ..
  11. Kordowich S, Collombat P, Mansouri A, Serup P. Arx and Nkx2.2 compound deficiency redirects pancreatic alpha- and beta-cell differentiation to a somatostatin/ghrelin co-expressing cell lineage. BMC Dev Biol. 2011;11:52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis also suggests that one of the coupled functions of Nkx2.2 and Pax4 is to counteract Arx gene activity in early committed beta-cells. ..
  12. Lynn F, Skewes Cox P, Kosaka Y, McManus M, Harfe B, German M. MicroRNA expression is required for pancreatic islet cell genesis in the mouse. Diabetes. 2007;56:2938-45 pubmed
    ..The expression of a unique profile of miRNAs is required during pancreas development and is necessary for beta-cell formation. ..
  13. Collombat P, Hecksher Sørensen J, Krull J, Berger J, Riedel D, Herrera P, et al. Embryonic endocrine pancreas and mature beta cells acquire alpha and PP cell phenotypes upon Arx misexpression. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:961-70 pubmed
    ..These results provide important insights into the complex mechanisms underlying proper pancreatic endocrine cell allocation and cell identity acquisition. ..
  14. Wang S, Jensen J, Seymour P, Hsu W, Dor Y, Sander M, et al. Sustained Neurog3 expression in hormone-expressing islet cells is required for endocrine maturation and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9715-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that Neurog3 is required not only for initiating endocrine cell differentiation, but also for promoting islet cell maturation and maintaining islet function. ..
  15. Sussel L, Kalamaras J, Hartigan O Connor D, Meneses J, Pedersen R, Rubenstein J, et al. Mice lacking the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2.2 have diabetes due to arrested differentiation of pancreatic beta cells. Development. 1998;125:2213-21 pubmed
    ..1. We propose that Nkx2.2 is required for the final differentiation of pancreatic beta cells, and in its absence, beta cells are trapped in an incompletely differentiated state. ..
  16. Yang Y, Thorel F, Boyer D, Herrera P, Wright C. Context-specific ?- to-?-cell reprogramming by forced Pdx1 expression. Genes Dev. 2011;25:1680-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that Pdx1 can work single-handedly as a potent context-dependent autonomous reprogramming agent, and suggest a postnatal differentiation evaluation stage involved in normal endocrine maturation. ..
  17. Johansson J, Voss U, Kesavan G, Kostetskii I, Wierup N, Radice G, et al. N-cadherin is dispensable for pancreas development but required for beta-cell granule turnover. Genesis. 2010;48:374-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of insulin secretory granules is significantly reduced in N-cadherin-deficient beta-cells, and as a consequence insulin secretion is decreased. ..
  18. Heller R, Stoffers D, Liu A, Schedl A, Crenshaw E, Madsen O, et al. The role of Brn4/Pou3f4 and Pax6 in forming the pancreatic glucagon cell identity. Dev Biol. 2004;268:123-34 pubmed
    ..2 cells. The pancreatic phenotype of the pax6 mutants can be rescued with a YAC clone containing the human Pax6 gene. ..
  19. Gannon M, Ray M, Van Zee K, Rausa F, Costa R, Wright C. Persistent expression of HNF6 in islet endocrine cells causes disrupted islet architecture and loss of beta cell function. Development. 2000;127:2883-95 pubmed
  20. Collombat P, Mansouri A, Hecksher Sorensen J, Serup P, Krull J, Gradwohl G, et al. Opposing actions of Arx and Pax4 in endocrine pancreas development. Genes Dev. 2003;17:2591-603 pubmed
    ..We propose that the antagonistic functions of Arx and Pax4 for proper islet cell specification are related to the pancreatic levels of the respective transcripts. ..
  21. Seymour P, Freude K, Dubois C, Shih H, Patel N, Sander M. A dosage-dependent requirement for Sox9 in pancreatic endocrine cell formation. Dev Biol. 2008;323:19-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings therefore suggest that defective endocrine specification might underlie the pancreatic phenotype of individuals with CD. ..
  22. CHAO C, Loomis Z, Lee J, Sussel L. Genetic identification of a novel NeuroD1 function in the early differentiation of islet alpha, PP and epsilon cells. Dev Biol. 2007;312:523-32 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, this study reveals a previously unappreciated early function of NeuroD1 in regulating the specification of alpha, PP and epsilon cells. ..
  23. Artner I, Hang Y, Mazur M, Yamamoto T, Guo M, Lindner J, et al. MafA and MafB regulate genes critical to beta-cells in a unique temporal manner. Diabetes. 2010;59:2530-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide insight into the sequential manner by which MafA and MafB regulate islet ?-cell formation and maturation. ..
  24. Collombat P, Hecksher Sørensen J, Broccoli V, Krull J, Ponte I, Mundiger T, et al. The simultaneous loss of Arx and Pax4 genes promotes a somatostatin-producing cell fate specification at the expense of the alpha- and beta-cell lineages in the mouse endocrine pancreas. Development. 2005;132:2969-80 pubmed
    ..Finally, our data provide evidence that both Arx and Pax4 act as transcriptional repressors that control the expression level of one another, thereby mediating proper endocrine fate allocation. ..
  25. Fujikura J, Hosoda K, Iwakura H, Tomita T, Noguchi M, Masuzaki H, et al. Notch/Rbp-j signaling prevents premature endocrine and ductal cell differentiation in the pancreas. Cell Metab. 2006;3:59-65 pubmed
    ..Thus, our analyses indicate that Notch/Rbp-j signaling prevents premature differentiation of pancreatic progenitor cells into endocrine and ductal cells during early development of the pancreas. ..
  26. Dames P, Puff R, Weise M, Parhofer K, Goke B, Gotz M, et al. Relative roles of the different Pax6 domains for pancreatic alpha cell development. BMC Dev Biol. 2010;10:39 pubmed publisher
    ..This function is differentially affected by the two homeodomain mutations analyzed in this study. ..
  27. Thorens B, Tarussio D, Maestro M, Rovira M, Heikkilä E, Ferrer J. Ins1(Cre) knock-in mice for beta cell-specific gene recombination. Diabetologia. 2015;58:558-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These two strains of deleter mice are useful new resources to investigate the molecular physiology of pancreatic beta cells. ..
  28. Ait Lounis A, Bonal C, Seguín Estévez Q, Schmid C, Bucher P, Herrera P, et al. The transcription factor Rfx3 regulates beta-cell differentiation, function, and glucokinase expression. Diabetes. 2010;59:1674-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that Rfx3 is required for the differentiation and function of mature beta-cells and regulates the beta-cell promoter of the glucokinase gene. ..
  29. Stefan M, Simmons R, Bertera S, Trucco M, Esni F, Drain P, et al. Global deficits in development, function, and gene expression in the endocrine pancreas in a deletion mouse model of Prader-Willi syndrome. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2011;300:E909-22 pubmed publisher
  30. Delacour A, Nepote V, Trumpp A, Herrera P. Nestin expression in pancreatic exocrine cell lineages. Mech Dev. 2004;121:3-14 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings show that nestin is expressed in the pancreatic exocrine cell lineage, and suggest that consistent nestin expression is not a major feature of islet endocrine progenitor cells. ..
  31. Omori H, Ogaki S, Sakano D, Sato M, Umeda K, Takeda N, et al. Changes in expression of C2cd4c in pancreatic endocrine cells during pancreatic development. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:2584-93 pubmed publisher
    ..C2cd4c KO mice showed normal embryonic pancreatic development and adult pancreatic function. Thus, our results suggest that C2cd4c is dispensable for pancreatic development. ..
  32. Sojoodi M, Stradiot L, Tanaka K, Heremans Y, Leuckx G, Besson V, et al. The zinc finger transcription factor PW1/PEG3 restrains murine beta cell cycling. Diabetologia. 2016;59:1474-1479 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that PW1 is a co-regulator of the beta cell cycle and can thus be considered a novel therapeutic target in diabetes. ..
  33. Zhao A, Ohara Imaizumi M, Brissova M, Benninger R, Xu Y, Hao Y, et al. G?o represses insulin secretion by reducing vesicular docking in pancreatic beta-cells. Diabetes. 2010;59:2522-9 pubmed publisher
    ..G?o is not required for endocrine islet cell differentiation, but it regulates the number of insulin vesicles docked on the ?-cell membrane. ..
  34. Ueno N, Inui A, Asakawa A, Yuzuriha H, Kasuga M, Fujimiya M. Impaired glucose tolerance in pancreatic polypeptide-overexpressing mice. Diabetologia. 2002;45:1048-9 pubmed
  35. Wortley K, Garcia K, Okamoto H, Thabet K, Anderson K, Shen V, et al. Peptide YY regulates bone turnover in rodents. Gastroenterology. 2007;133:1534-43 pubmed
    Peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PPY) are members of the neuropeptide Y peptide family...
  36. Rukstalis J, Habener J. Snail2, a mediator of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions, expressed in progenitor cells of the developing endocrine pancreas. Gene Expr Patterns. 2007;7:471-9 pubmed
    ..EMT-like events appear to be involved in the development of the mammalian pancreas in vivo. ..
  37. Jonckheere N, Mayes E, Shih H, Li B, Lioubinski O, Dai X, et al. Analysis of mPygo2 mutant mice suggests a requirement for mesenchymal Wnt signaling in pancreatic growth and differentiation. Dev Biol. 2008;318:224-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data suggest a previously unappreciated role for mesenchymal Wnt signaling in regulating pancreatic organ growth and cell differentiation. ..
  38. Nakhai H, Siveke J, Klein B, Mendoza Torres L, Mazur P, Algül H, et al. Conditional ablation of Notch signaling in pancreatic development. Development. 2008;135:2757-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our findings suggest that in late stages of pancreatic development exocrine cell differentiation and maintenance are independent of Rbpj. ..
  39. Strom A, Bonal C, Ashery Padan R, Hashimoto N, Campos M, Trumpp A, et al. Unique mechanisms of growth regulation and tumor suppression upon Apc inactivation in the pancreas. Development. 2007;134:2719-25 pubmed
    ..This provides new insights into the mechanisms of tumor pathogenesis and tumor suppression in the pancreas. ..
  40. Gelegen C, Chandarana K, Choudhury A, Al Qassab H, Evans I, Irvine E, et al. Regulation of hindbrain Pyy expression by acute food deprivation, prolonged caloric restriction, and weight loss surgery in mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2012;303:E659-68 pubmed publisher
  41. Miettinen P, Huotari M, Koivisto T, Ustinov J, Palgi J, Rasilainen S, et al. Impaired migration and delayed differentiation of pancreatic islet cells in mice lacking EGF-receptors. Development. 2000;127:2617-27 pubmed
    ..Upregulated PAI-1 production and decreased gelatinolytic activity correlated to this migration defect. An intact EGF-R pathway appears to be a prerequisite for normal pancreatic development. ..
  42. Metzger D, Gasperowicz M, Otto F, Cross J, Gradwohl G, Zaret K. The transcriptional co-repressor Grg3/Tle3 promotes pancreatic endocrine progenitor delamination and ?-cell differentiation. Development. 2012;139:1447-56 pubmed publisher
  43. Heiser P, Lau J, Taketo M, Herrera P, Hebrok M. Stabilization of beta-catenin impacts pancreas growth. Development. 2006;133:2023-32 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest a previously unappreciated temporal/spatial role for beta-catenin signaling in the regulation of pancreas organ growth. ..
  44. Wilcox C, Terry N, MAY C. Arx polyalanine expansion in mice leads to reduced pancreatic ?-cell specification and increased ?-cell death. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78741 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our analysis of an Arx polyalanine expansion mutation on pancreatic development suggests that impaired ?-cell function might also occur in ISSX patients. ..
  45. Koma Y, Furuno T, Hagiyama M, Hamaguchi K, Nakanishi M, Masuda M, et al. Cell adhesion molecule 1 is a novel pancreatic-islet cell adhesion molecule that mediates nerve-islet cell interactions. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:1544-54 pubmed publisher
    ..An immunohistochemical screen showed that CADM1 is expressed in pancreatic islets. Here, we determined the cell types expressing CADM1 and examined its role in nerve-islet cell interactions...
  46. Puri S, Hebrok M. Dynamics of embryonic pancreas development using real-time imaging. Dev Biol. 2007;306:82-93 pubmed
    ..Thus, pancreas growth in vitro can be documented by live imaging, allowing visualization of the developing pancreas in real-time. ..
  47. Addison M, Minnion J, Shillito J, Suzuki K, Tan T, Field B, et al. A role for metalloendopeptidases in the breakdown of the gut hormone, PYY 3-36. Endocrinology. 2011;152:4630-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that inhibiting the degradation of PYY(3-36) using specific inhibitor therapies and/or the design of analogues resistant to cleavage by meprins may be useful to antiobesity therapeutics. ..
  48. Cerdá Reverter J, Larhammar D. Neuropeptide Y family of peptides: structure, anatomical expression, function, and molecular evolution. Biochem Cell Biol. 2000;78:371-92 pubmed
    ..Studies in the sea bass and other fish show that PY, in contrast to PP, is expressed in the nervous system. We review the literature on the distribution and functional aspects of the various NPY-family peptides in vertebrates. ..
  49. Ma D, Shield J, Dean W, Leclerc I, Knauf C, Burcelin R R, et al. Impaired glucose homeostasis in transgenic mice expressing the human transient neonatal diabetes mellitus locus, TNDM. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:339-48 pubmed
    ..Expression of human ZAC and HYMAI in these transgenic mice thus recapitulates key features of TNDM and implicates impaired development of the endocrine pancreas and beta cell function in disease pathogenesis. ..
  50. Mazur M, Winkler M, Ganic E, Colberg J, Johansson J, Bennet H, et al. Microphthalmia transcription factor regulates pancreatic ?-cell function. Diabetes. 2013;62:2834-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that Mitf directly regulates Pax6 transcription and controls ?-cell function. ..
  51. Schaffer A, Taylor B, Benthuysen J, Liu J, Thorel F, Yuan W, et al. Nkx6.1 controls a gene regulatory network required for establishing and maintaining pancreatic Beta cell identity. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003274 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the lack of Nkx6.1 expression and aberrant activation of non-beta endocrine hormones in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived insulin(+) cells, our study has significant implications for developing cell replacement therapies. ..
  52. Arnés L, Leclerc K, Friel J, Hipkens S, Magnuson M, Sussel L. Generation of Nkx2.2:lacZ mice using recombination-mediated cassette exchange technology. Genesis. 2012;50:612-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In the CNS of Nkx2.2(lacZ/lacZ) embryos, LacZ-expressing cells within the ventral P3 progenitor domain display different migration properties depending on the developmental stage and their respective differentiation potential. ..
  53. Kang H, Takeda Y, Jeon K, Jetten A. The Spatiotemporal Pattern of Glis3 Expression Indicates a Regulatory Function in Bipotent and Endocrine Progenitors during Early Pancreatic Development and in Beta, PP and Ductal Cells. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0157138 pubmed publisher
    ..Glis3-deficiency greatly reduced, whereas exogenous Glis3, induced Ppy expression, as reported for insulin...
  54. Jacquemin P, Durviaux S, Jensen J, Godfraind C, Gradwohl G, Guillemot F, et al. Transcription factor hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 regulates pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation and controls expression of the proendocrine gene ngn3. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:4445-54 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that HNF-6 is a candidate gene for diabetes mellitus in humans. ..
  55. Pan F, Brissova M, Powers A, Pfaff S, Wright C. Inactivating the permanent neonatal diabetes gene Mnx1 switches insulin-producing β-cells to a δ-like fate and reveals a facultative proliferative capacity in aged β-cells. Development. 2015;142:3637-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify Mnx1 as an important factor in β-cell differentiation and proliferation, with the potential for targeting to increase the number of endogenous β-cells for diabetes therapy. ..
  56. Valtat B, Dupuis C, Zenaty D, Singh Estivalet A, Tronche F, Breant B, et al. Genetic evidence of the programming of beta cell mass and function by glucocorticoids in mice. Diabetologia. 2011;54:350-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the crucial role of excess fetal glucocorticoids and the importance of GR signalling in progenitor cells to programme beta cell mass and dysfunction. ..
  57. Kopp J, Dubois C, Schaffer A, Hao E, Shih H, Seymour P, et al. Sox9+ ductal cells are multipotent progenitors throughout development but do not produce new endocrine cells in the normal or injured adult pancreas. Development. 2011;138:653-65 pubmed publisher
  58. Plank J, Mundell N, Frist A, Legrone A, Kim T, Musser M, et al. Influence and timing of arrival of murine neural crest on pancreatic beta cell development and maturation. Dev Biol. 2011;349:321-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data demonstrate that the neural crest is a critical regulator of beta cell development on two levels: by negatively regulating beta cell proliferation and by promoting beta cell maturation. ..
  59. Kim S, Selleri L, Lee J, Zhang A, Gu X, Jacobs Y, et al. Pbx1 inactivation disrupts pancreas development and in Ipf1-deficient mice promotes diabetes mellitus. Nat Genet. 2002;30:430-5 pubmed
    ..Mutations affecting the Ipf1 protein may promote diabetes mellitus in mice and humans. This study suggests that perturbation of Pbx1 activity may also promote susceptibility to diabetes mellitus. ..
  60. Nammo T, Yamagata K, Hamaoka R, Zhu Q, Akiyama T, Gonzalez F, et al. Expression profile of MODY3/HNF-1alpha protein in the developing mouse pancreas. Diabetologia. 2002;45:1142-53 pubmed
    ..HNF-1alpha is expressed by both endocrine cells and exocrine cells of the pancreas from the foetal stage along with other transcription factors, so HNF-1alpha might play a role during development. ..
  61. Sumazaki R, Shiojiri N, Isoyama S, Masu M, Keino Masu K, Osawa M, et al. Conversion of biliary system to pancreatic tissue in Hes1-deficient mice. Nat Genet. 2004;36:83-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, biliary epithelium has the potential for pancreatic differentiation and Hes1 determines biliary organogenesis by preventing the pancreatic differentiation program, probably by directly repressing transcription of Neurog3. ..
  62. Harmon E, Apelqvist A, Smart N, Gu X, Osborne D, Kim S. GDF11 modulates NGN3+ islet progenitor cell number and promotes beta-cell differentiation in pancreas development. Development. 2004;131:6163-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, our studies reveal mechanisms by which GDF11 regulates the production and maturation of islet progenitor cells in pancreas development. ..
  63. Bonal C, Thorel F, Ait Lounis A, Reith W, Trumpp A, Herrera P. Pancreatic inactivation of c-Myc decreases acinar mass and transdifferentiates acinar cells into adipocytes in mice. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:309-319.e9 pubmed publisher
  64. Jackerott M, Oster A, Larsson L. PYY in developing murine islet cells: comparisons to development of islet hormones, NPY, and BrdU incorporation. J Histochem Cytochem. 1996;44:809-17 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PYY-positive endocrine cells may represent precursors for mature islet cells. ..
  65. Talchai C, Xuan S, Kitamura T, Depinho R, Accili D. Generation of functional insulin-producing cells in the gut by Foxo1 ablation. Nat Genet. 2012;44:406-12, S1 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicate that Neurog3(+) enteroendocrine progenitors require active Foxo1 to prevent differentiation into Ins(+) cells. Foxo1 ablation in gut epithelium may provide an approach to restore insulin production in type 1 diabetes. ..
  66. Horn S, Kobberup S, Jørgensen M, Kalisz M, Klein T, Kageyama R, et al. Mind bomb 1 is required for pancreatic ?-cell formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7356-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal iterative use of Notch in pancreatic development to ensure correct P-D patterning and adequate ?-cell formation. ..
  67. Lee C, Sund N, Behr R, Herrera P, Kaestner K. Foxa2 is required for the differentiation of pancreatic alpha-cells. Dev Biol. 2005;278:484-95 pubmed
    ..By marker gene analysis, we show that the expression of the alpha-cell transcription factors Arx, Pax6, and Brn4 does not require Foxa2 in the transcriptional hierarchy governing alpha-cell differentiation. ..
  68. Bonnavion R, Teinturier R, Jaafar R, Ripoche D, Leteurtre E, Chen Y, et al. Islet Cells Serve as Cells of Origin of Pancreatic Gastrin-Positive Endocrine Tumors. Mol Cell Biol. 2015;35:3274-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our work provides insight into the histogenesis of pancreatic gastrin-expressing tumors. ..
  69. Yulyaningsih E, Loh K, Lin S, Lau J, Zhang L, Shi Y, et al. Pancreatic polypeptide controls energy homeostasis via Npy6r signaling in the suprachiasmatic nucleus in mice. Cell Metab. 2014;19:58-72 pubmed publisher
    ..c.v.) Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VPAC) receptors antagonism. Thus, PP-initiated signaling through Npy6r in VIP neurons regulates the growth hormone axis and body composition. ..
  70. Chiang M, Flanagan J. PTP-NP, a new member of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase family, implicated in development of nervous system and pancreatic endocrine cells. Development. 1996;122:2239-50 pubmed
    ..The results show PTP-NP is an especially early marker for pancreatic development and suggest it may be a receptor that could control the development of pancreatic endocrine cells. ..
  71. Piccand J, Meunier A, Merle C, Jia Z, Barnier J, Gradwohl G. Pak3 promotes cell cycle exit and differentiation of ?-cells in the embryonic pancreas and is necessary to maintain glucose homeostasis in adult mice. Diabetes. 2014;63:203-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In the adult, Pak3 is required for the proper control of glucose homeostasis under challenging HFD. ..
  72. Suissa Y, Magenheim J, Stolovich Rain M, Hija A, Collombat P, Mansouri A, et al. Gastrin: a distinct fate of neurogenin3 positive progenitor cells in the embryonic pancreas. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70397 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, gastrin(+) cells are a distinct endocrine cell type in the pancreas and an alternative fate of Ngn3+ cells. ..
  73. Boyer D, Fujitani Y, Gannon M, Powers A, Stein R, Wright C. Complementation rescue of Pdx1 null phenotype demonstrates distinct roles of proximal and distal cis-regulatory sequences in pancreatic and duodenal expression. Dev Biol. 2006;298:616-31 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a role for distal cis-regulatory elements in achieving the correct level of extra-pancreatic Pdx1 expression, which is necessary for the production of duodenal GIP cells and stomach gastrin cells. ..
  74. Katsuura G, Asakawa A, Inui A. Roles of pancreatic polypeptide in regulation of food intake. Peptides. 2002;23:323-9 pubmed
    ..PP transgenic mice exhibit decreases in both food intake and gastric emptying rate that were clearly reversed by anti-PP antiserum. PP is an anorexigenic signal in the periphery and an orexigenic signal in the central nervous system. ..
  75. Nammo T, Yamagata K, Tanaka T, Kodama T, Sladek F, Fukui K, et al. Expression of HNF-4alpha (MODY1), HNF-1beta (MODY5), and HNF-1alpha (MODY3) proteins in the developing mouse pancreas. Gene Expr Patterns. 2008;8:96-106 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the expression of MODY proteins in each of the pancreatic cell types is strictly regulated in accordance with the status of differentiation during pancreatic organogenesis. ..