Gene Symbol: Ppp3ca
Description: protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, alpha isoform
Alias: 2900074D19Rik, Caln, Calna, CnA, serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2B catalytic subunit alpha isoform, CAM-PRP catalytic subunit, PP2B alpha 1, PP2BA alpha, calcineurin A alpha, calmodulin-dependent calcineurin A subunit alpha isoform
Species: mouse
Products:     Ppp3ca

Top Publications

  1. Bousette N, Chugh S, Fong V, Isserlin R, Kim K, Volchuk A, et al. Constitutively active calcineurin induces cardiac endoplasmic reticulum stress and protects against apoptosis that is mediated by alpha-crystallin-B. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18481-6 pubmed publisher
    Cardiac-specific overexpression of a constitutively active form of calcineurin A (CNA) leads directly to cardiac hypertrophy in the CNA mouse model...
  2. Gooch J, Guler R, Barnes J, Toro J. Loss of calcineurin Aalpha results in altered trafficking of AQP2 and in nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:2468-76 pubmed
    ..These experiments demonstrate that, CnAalpha is required for normal intracellular trafficking of AQP2 and loss of calcineurin protein or activity disrupts AQP2 function...
  3. Reddy R, Pena J, Roberts B, Williams S, Price S, Gooch J. Rescue of calcineurin A?(-/-) mice reveals a novel role for the ? isoform in the salivary gland. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:1605-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to identify the cause of postnatal death of calcineurin ? null (CnA?(-/-)) mice and to determine the mechanism of ? activity that contributes to the phenotype...
  4. Parsons S, Millay D, Wilkins B, Bueno O, Tsika G, Neilson J, et al. Genetic loss of calcineurin blocks mechanical overload-induced skeletal muscle fiber type switching but not hypertrophy. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26192-200 pubmed
    ..We conclude that calcineurin expression is important during myogenesis and fiber-type switching, but not for muscle growth in response to hypertrophic stimuli...
  5. Gooch J, Toro J, Guler R, Barnes J. Calcineurin A-alpha but not A-beta is required for normal kidney development and function. Am J Pathol. 2004;165:1755-65 pubmed
    ..The phosphatase subunit of calcineurin (CnA) has three isoforms, alpha, beta, and gamma...
  6. Sun L, Blair H, Peng Y, Zaidi N, Adebanjo O, Wu X, et al. Calcineurin regulates bone formation by the osteoblast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:17130-5 pubmed
    ..Together, the gain- and loss-of-function experiments indicate that calcineurin regulates bone formation through an effect on osteoblast differentiation. ..
  7. Winder D, Mansuy I, Osman M, Moallem T, Kandel E. Genetic and pharmacological evidence for a novel, intermediate phase of long-term potentiation suppressed by calcineurin. Cell. 1998;92:25-37 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that calcineurin acts as an inhibitory constraint on I-LTP that is relieved by PKA. This inhibitory constraint acts as a gate to regulate the synaptic induction of L-LTP. ..
  8. Stupka N, Plant D, Schertzer J, Emerson T, Bassel Duby R, Olson E, et al. Activated calcineurin ameliorates contraction-induced injury to skeletal muscles of mdx dystrophic mice. J Physiol. 2006;575:645-56 pubmed
    ..We overexpressed the constitutively active calcineurin-A alpha in skeletal muscle of mdx dystrophic mice (mdx CnA*) and examined the tibialis anterior muscle to determine whether the presence of activated calcineurin promotes ..
  9. Rusnak F, Mertz P. Calcineurin: form and function. Physiol Rev. 2000;80:1483-521 pubmed
    ..This review provides a comprehensive examination of the biological roles of calcineurin and reviews aspects related to its structure and catalytic mechanism...

More Information


  1. Frey N, Richardson J, Olson E. Calsarcins, a novel family of sarcomeric calcineurin-binding proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:14632-7 pubmed
    ..Calsarcins represent a novel family of sarcomeric proteins that link calcineurin with the contractile apparatus, thereby potentially coupling muscle activity to calcineurin activation. ..
  2. Heineke J, Ruetten H, Willenbockel C, Gross S, Naguib M, Schaefer A, et al. Attenuation of cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction by muscle LIM protein-calcineurin signaling at the sarcomeric Z-disc. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:1655-60 pubmed
    ..Our study reveals a link between the stress sensor MLP and the calcineurin-NFAT pathway at the sarcomeric Z-disk in cardiomyocytes and indicates that reduced MLP-calcineurin signaling predisposes to adverse remodeling after MI. ..
  3. Pena J, Losi Sasaki J, Gooch J. Loss of calcineurin Aalpha alters keratinocyte survival and differentiation. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:135-40 pubmed publisher
    ..the catalytic subunit of calcineurin, and mice have been created that lack either the alpha isoform (calcineurin A (CnA)alpha(-/-)) or the beta isoform (CnAbeta(-/-))...
  4. Antos C, McKinsey T, Frey N, Kutschke W, McAnally J, Shelton J, et al. Activated glycogen synthase-3 beta suppresses cardiac hypertrophy in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:907-12 pubmed
  5. Zhang B, Zimmer G, Chen J, Ladd D, Li E, Alt F, et al. T cell responses in calcineurin A alpha-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 1996;183:413-20 pubmed
    ..created embryonic stem (ES) cells and mice lacking the predominant isoform (alpha) of the calcineurin A subunit (CNA alpha) to study the role of this serine/threonine phosphatase in the immune system...
  6. Dougherty M, Ritt D, Zhou M, Specht S, Monson D, Veenstra T, et al. KSR2 is a calcineurin substrate that promotes ERK cascade activation in response to calcium signals. Mol Cell. 2009;34:652-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify KSR2 as a Ca2+-regulated ERK scaffold and reveal a new mechanism whereby Ca2+ impacts Ras to ERK pathway signaling. ..
  7. Tandan S, Wang Y, Wang T, Jiang N, Hall D, Hell J, et al. Physical and functional interaction between calcineurin and the cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel. Circ Res. 2009;105:51-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they demonstrate that calcineurin induces robust increases in I(Ca,L) and highlight calcineurin as a key modulator of pathological electrical remodeling in cardiac hypertrophy. ..
  8. Kelly F, Reddy R, Roberts B, Gangappa S, Williams I, Gooch J. TGF-beta upregulation drives tertiary lymphoid organ formation and kidney dysfunction in calcineurin A-alpha heterozygous mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;296:F512-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that calcineurin inhibition itself may lead to TLO formation and that TGF-beta may be a novel therapeutic target. ..
  9. Parsons S, Wilkins B, Bueno O, Molkentin J. Altered skeletal muscle phenotypes in calcineurin Aalpha and Abeta gene-targeted mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:4331-43 pubmed
    ..Our results also suggest that fiber type switching occurs through an NFAT-independent mechanism...
  10. Wilkins B, Dai Y, Bueno O, Parsons S, Xu J, Plank D, et al. Calcineurin/NFAT coupling participates in pathological, but not physiological, cardiac hypertrophy. Circ Res. 2004;94:110-8 pubmed
  11. Madsen K, Reddy R, Price S, Williams C, Gooch J. Nutritional intervention restores muscle but not kidney phenotypes in adult calcineurin A? null mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e62503 pubmed publisher
    Mice lacking the ? isoform of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (CnA?) were first reported in 1996 and have been an important model to understand the role of calcineurin in the brain, immune system, bones, muscle, and kidney...
  12. Wilkins B, De Windt L, Bueno O, Braz J, Glascock B, Kimball T, et al. Targeted disruption of NFATc3, but not NFATc4, reveals an intrinsic defect in calcineurin-mediated cardiac hypertrophic growth. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:7603-13 pubmed
    ..NFATc3-null mice also demonstrated attenuated pressure overload- and angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy. These results provide genetic evidence that calcineurin-regulated responses require NFAT effectors in vivo. ..
  13. Guerini D, Klee C. Cloning of human calcineurin A: evidence for two isozymes and identification of a polyproline structural domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:9183-7 pubmed
    ..A role in the calmodulin activation of calcineurin is proposed for this novel structural element. ..
  14. Erin N, Bronson S, Billingsley M. Calcium-dependent interaction of calcineurin with Bcl-2 in neuronal tissue. Neuroscience. 2003;117:541-55 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that during times of cellular stress and damage, Bcl-2 targets activated calcineurin to specific compartments and substrates. ..
  15. Frey N, Olson E. Calsarcin-3, a novel skeletal muscle-specific member of the calsarcin family, interacts with multiple Z-disc proteins. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:13998-4004 pubmed
    ..Calsarcins represent a novel family of sarcomeric proteins that serve as focal points for the interactions of an array of proteins involved in Z-disc structure and signal transduction in striated muscle. ..
  16. Lawrence M, Naziruddin B, Levy M, Jackson A, McGlynn K. Calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells and MAPK signaling induce TNF-{alpha} gene expression in pancreatic islet endocrine cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:1025-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, by these mechanisms, pancreatic ? cells themselves may contribute to islet inflammation and their own immunological destruction in the pathogenesis of diabetes. ..
  17. Murase S. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) degradation by proteasome controls a developmental switch in neurotrophin dependence. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:20151-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these results show that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway controls the critical developmental switch of neurotrophin dependence in the newborn hippocampus. ..
  18. Muili K, Jin S, Orabi A, Eisses J, Javed T, Le T, et al. Pancreatic acinar cell nuclear factor ?B activation because of bile acid exposure is dependent on calcineurin. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:21065-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, bile-induced NF-?B activation and acinar cell injury are mediated by calcineurin, and a mechanism for this important early inflammatory response appears to be upstream at the level of PKC translocation. ..
  19. Zhang S, Yin Y, Wei Q. Immunopotentiation on murine spleen lymphocytes induced by polysaccharide fraction of Panax ginseng via upregulating calcineurin activity. APMIS. 2010;118:288-96 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this effect could be totally inhibited by verapamil treatment. Taking our results together, we suggest that PGP-SL exhibits immunopotentiation effects on murine spleen lymphocytes by the Ca2+-CN-NFAT-IL-2 signaling pathway. ..
  20. Cottrell J, Levenson J, Kim S, Gibson H, Richardson K, Sivula M, et al. Working memory impairment in calcineurin knock-out mice is associated with alterations in synaptic vesicle cycling and disruption of high-frequency synaptic and network activity in prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci. 2013;33:10938-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide support for a model in which impaired synaptic vesicle cycling represents a critical node for disease pathologies underlying the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. ..
  21. Finsen A, Lunde I, Sjaastad I, Østli E, Lyngra M, Jarstadmarken H, et al. Syndecan-4 is essential for development of concentric myocardial hypertrophy via stretch-induced activation of the calcineurin-NFAT pathway. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e28302 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data suggest that manipulation of syndecan-4 may provide an option for therapeutic modulation of calcineurin-NFAT signaling. ..
  22. Ding F, Li X, Li B, Guo J, Zhang Y, Ding J. Calpain-Mediated Cleavage of Calcineurin in Puromycin Aminonucleoside-Induced Podocyte Injury. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0155504 pubmed publisher
  23. Ma Y, Jiang G, Wang Q, Sun Y, Zhao Y, Tong L, et al. Enzymatic and thermodynamic analysis of calcineurin inhibition by RCAN1. Int J Biol Macromol. 2015;72:254-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data should contribute to our understanding of the regulation of CN activity by endogenous inhibitors. ..
  24. Wakamatsu A, Fukusumi Y, Hasegawa E, Tomita M, Watanabe T, Narita I, et al. Role of calcineurin (CN) in kidney glomerular podocyte: CN inhibitor ameliorated proteinuria by inhibiting the redistribution of CN at the slit diaphragm. Physiol Rep. 2016;4: pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggested that the redistribution and the activation ofCNmay participate in the development of theSDinjury. ..
  25. Kubo M, Kincaid R, Webb D, Ransom J. The Ca2+/calmodulin-activated, phosphoprotein phosphatase calcineurin is sufficient for positive transcriptional regulation of the mouse IL-4 gene. Int Immunol. 1994;6:179-88 pubmed
    ..Ca2+ mobilization is sufficient to activate the IL-4 promoter, whereas IL-2 gene transcription requires both Ca2+ mobilization and protein kinase C activation. ..
  26. Frey N, Barrientos T, Shelton J, Frank D, Rütten H, Gehring D, et al. Mice lacking calsarcin-1 are sensitized to calcineurin signaling and show accelerated cardiomyopathy in response to pathological biomechanical stress. Nat Med. 2004;10:1336-43 pubmed
    ..These findings show important roles for calsarcins as modulators of calcineurin signaling and the transmission of a specific subset of stress signals leading to cardiac remodeling in vivo. ..
  27. Shin D, Pan Z, Bandyopadhyay A, Bhat M, Kim D, Ma J. Ca(2+)-dependent interaction between FKBP12 and calcineurin regulates activity of the Ca(2+) release channel in skeletal muscle. Biophys J. 2002;83:2539-49 pubmed
  28. Kincaid R, Giri P, Higuchi S, Tamura J, Dixon S, Marietta C, et al. Cloning and characterization of molecular isoforms of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin using nonisotopic methods. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:11312-9 pubmed
    ..The conservation of many regions found in lambda phage phosphatase (Cohen, P.T.W., and Cohen, P. (1989) Biochem. J. 260, 931-934) indicates a common origin for the catalytic domain of this enzyme. ..
  29. Becker W, Kentrup H, Klumpp S, Schultz J, Joost H. Molecular cloning of a protein serine/threonine phosphatase containing a putative regulatory tetratricopeptide repeat domain. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:22586-92 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the TPR domain of PPT may be involved in the regulation of the function of this novel protein phosphatase. ..
  30. Stupka N, Schertzer J, Bassel Duby R, Olson E, Lynch G. Calcineurin-A alpha activation enhances the structure and function of regenerating muscles after myotoxic injury. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293:R686-94 pubmed
    ..active calcineurin-A alpha transgene under the control of the mitochondrial creatine kinase promoter (MCK-CnA alpha*) were injected with the myotoxic snake venom Notexin to destroy all muscle fibers...
  31. Rebola N, Sachidhanandam S, Perrais D, Cunha R, Mulle C. Short-term plasticity of kainate receptor-mediated EPSCs induced by NMDA receptors at hippocampal mossy fiber synapses. J Neurosci. 2007;27:3987-93 pubmed
    ..Hence, this study describes a form of short-term synaptic plasticity that is postsynaptic, depends on the temporal order of presynaptic and postsynaptic spiking, and likely affects the summation properties of mossy fiber EPSPs. ..
  32. Heineke J, Auger Messier M, Correll R, Xu J, Benard M, Yuan W, et al. CIB1 is a regulator of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Nat Med. 2010;16:872-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, CIB1 functions as a previously undescribed regulator of cardiac hypertrophy through its ability to regulate the association of calcineurin with the sarcolemma and its activation. ..
  33. Zhu H, Suk H, Yu R, Brancho D, Olabisi O, Yang T, et al. Evolutionarily conserved role of calcineurin in phosphodegron-dependent degradation of phosphodiesterase 4D. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:4379-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel signaling system also provides unique functional insights into the complications elicited by CsA in transplant patients. ..
  34. Kayyali U, Zhang W, Yee A, Seidman J, Potter H. Cytoskeletal changes in the brains of mice lacking calcineurin A alpha. J Neurochem. 1997;68:1668-78 pubmed
    ..paired helical filaments of Alzheimer's disease, was found to accumulate in the brains of mice in which the calcineurin A alpha gene was disrupted [calcineurin A alpha knockout (CNA alpha -/-)]...
  35. Manukyan I, Galatioto J, Mascareno E, Bhaduri S, Siddiqui M. Cross-talk between calcineurin/NFAT and Jak/STAT signalling induces cardioprotective alphaB-crystallin gene expression in response to hypertrophic stimuli. J Cell Mol Med. 2010;14:1707-16 pubmed publisher
    ..hearts of mice with pressure overload (TAC) and in heart-targeted calcineurin over-expressing mice (MHC-CnA)...
  36. Li S, Wang J, Ma L, Lu C, Wang J, Wu J, et al. Cooperative autoinhibition and multi-level activation mechanisms of calcineurin. Cell Res. 2016;26:336-49 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the structure of a large part of the CNA regulatory region remains to be determined, and there has been considerable debate concerning the regulation of CN ..
  37. Dunn S, Chin E, Michel R. Matching of calcineurin activity to upstream effectors is critical for skeletal muscle fiber growth. J Cell Biol. 2000;151:663-72 pubmed
    ..Biol. Chem. 274:21908-21912). Here we show that skeletal muscles overexpressing an activated form of calcineurin (CnA*) exhibit a phenotype indistinguishable from wild-type counterparts under normal weightbearing conditions and ..
  38. Nomura T, Kakegawa W, Matsuda S, Kohda K, Nishiyama J, Takahashi T, et al. Cerebellar long-term depression requires dephosphorylation of TARP in Purkinje cells. Eur J Neurosci. 2012;35:402-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate that hippocampal and cerebellar LTD share a common pathway, namely dephosphorylation of stargazin by calcineurin. ..
  39. Wagner N, Jehl Pietri C, Lopez P, Murdaca J, Giordano C, Schwartz C, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta stimulation induces rapid cardiac growth and angiogenesis via direct activation of calcineurin. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;83:61-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects are mediated via calcineurin A (CnA) activation as: (i) CnA was upregulated, (ii) GW0742 administration or co-transfection of PPARbeta significantly ..
  40. Williams C, Wynne B, Walker M, Hoover R, Gooch J. Compensatory renal hypertrophy following uninephrectomy is calcineurin-independent. J Cell Mol Med. 2014;18:2361-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Likewise, hypertrophy was comparable to WT in mice lacking either isoform of the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (CnAα-/- or CnAβ-/-)...
  41. Chakkalakal J, Stocksley M, Harrison M, Angus L, Deschenes Furry J, St Pierre S, et al. Expression of utrophin A mRNA correlates with the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle fiber types and is regulated by calcineurin/NFAT signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:7791-6 pubmed
    ..Together, these results indicate that expression of utrophin A is related to the oxidative capacity of muscle fibers, and implicate calcineurin and its effector NFAT in this mechanism. ..
  42. Miyakawa T, Leiter L, Gerber D, Gainetdinov R, Sotnikova T, Zeng H, et al. Conditional calcineurin knockout mice exhibit multiple abnormal behaviors related to schizophrenia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:8987-92 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the abnormalities of CN mutant mice are strikingly similar to those described for schizophrenia. We propose that alterations affecting CN signaling could comprise a contributing factor in schizophrenia pathogenesis. ..
  43. Sun T, Wu X, Xu J, McNeil B, Pang Z, Yang W, et al. The role of calcium/calmodulin-activated calcineurin in rapid and slow endocytosis at central synapses. J Neurosci. 2010;30:11838-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The calcium/calmodulin/calcineurin signaling pathway may underlie regulation of endocytosis by nerve activity and calcium as reported at many synapses over the last several decades. ..
  44. Wang Y, Li G, Goode J, Paz J, Ouyang K, Screaton R, et al. Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis in fasting and diabetes. Nature. 2012;485:128-32 pubmed publisher
  45. Ding B, Wang W, Selvakumar T, Xi H, Zhu H, Chow C, et al. Temporal regulation of nuclear factor one occupancy by calcineurin/NFAT governs a voltage-sensitive developmental switch in late maturing neurons. J Neurosci. 2013;33:2860-72 pubmed publisher
    ..As maturing CGNs become more hyperpolarized, NFATc4 binding declines leading to onset of NFI temporal binding and the NFI switch program. ..
  46. Alcalay N, Brantley J, Sharma M, Gooch J, Vanden Heuvel G. Ectopic expression of the homeobox gene Cux-1 rescues calcineurin inhibition in mouse embryonic kidney cultures. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:184-91 pubmed
    ..Calcineurin A (CnA) alpha (-/-) mice display renal hypoplasia associated with the ectopic expression of p27...
  47. Alfieri C, Evans Anderson H, Yutzey K. Developmental regulation of the mouse IGF-I exon 1 promoter region by calcineurin activation of NFAT in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;292:C1887-94 pubmed
    ..The identification of a calcineurin/NFAT-responsive element in the IGF-I gene represents a potential mechanism of intersection of these signaling pathways in the control of muscle development and homeostasis. ..
  48. Martin L, Chen H, Liao X, Allayee H, Shih D, Lee G, et al. FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, prevents cadmium-induced testicular toxicity in mice. Toxicol Sci. 2007;100:474-85 pubmed
    ..A serine-threonine phosphatase, calcineurin (CN), subunit A, alpha isoform (Ppp3ca), was one of the seven candidates in the cdm region that was narrowed from 5.6 to 2.0 Mb on mouse chromosome 3...
  49. Yamaguchi N, Chakraborty A, Pasek D, Molkentin J, Meissner G. Dysfunctional ryanodine receptor and cardiac hypertrophy: role of signaling molecules. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2011;300:H2187-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Calcineurin A-? (CNA-?) and nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) signaling were monitored in mice carrying either luciferase ..
  50. Mansuy I, Mayford M, Jacob B, Kandel E, Bach M. Restricted and regulated overexpression reveals calcineurin as a key component in the transition from short-term to long-term memory. Cell. 1998;92:39-49 pubmed
    ..Our behavioral results suggest that calcineurin has a role in the transition from short- to long-term memory, which correlates with a novel intermediate phase of LTP. ..
  51. Heineke J, Wollert K, Osinska H, Sargent M, York A, Robbins J, et al. Calcineurin protects the heart in a murine model of dilated cardiomyopathy. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010;48:1080-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results reveal an important and previously unrecognized protective function of endogenous myocardial calcineurin in a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy. ..
  52. Pyarajan S, Matejovic G, Pratt J, Baksh S, Burakoff S. Interleukin-3 (IL-3)-induced c-fos activation is modulated by Gab2-calcineurin interaction. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:23505-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore Cn dephosphorylates Gab2, resulting in c-fos activation and cell proliferation. We also report that there is a direct interaction between Cn and Gab2 upon IL-3 stimulation, and Akt can regulate this interaction. ..
  53. Scott N, Ellmers L, Lainchbury J, Maeda N, Smithies O, Richards A, et al. Influence of natriuretic peptide receptor-1 on survival and cardiac hypertrophy during development. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1792:1175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The decreased viability of Npr1(-/-)embryos may result from a combination of cardiomegaly and dysregulated Cx43 protein affecting cardiac contractility. ..